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The irrigation influence under the soil, microclimate and plants in maize from Crişurilor Plain
Published October 5, 2010
180-186

The paper is based on the researches carried out in the long term trial placed on the preluvosoil from Oradea in 1976, for establishing
the soil water balance. In the irrigated variant the soil moisture was determined 10 to 10 days for maintaining the soil water reserve on
irrigation depth (0 – 50 cm for wheat and bean, 0 – 75cm for m...aize, sunflower, soybean, sugarbeet, potato and alfalfa 1st year and 0 – 100
cm for alfalfa 2nd year) between easily available water content and field capacity. Thus, an average irrigation rate of 2560 m³/ha was used
in the 9 experimental crops. The average of the annual rainfall for the 1976 – 2008 period was of 625.0 mm. The technologies used were
correlated with the needes of the crops, such as melioration crop rotation, chemical fertilizers in accordance with the chemical export on the
yield, manure (40 t/ha) was used in potato and sugarbeet. After 33 years of the irrigation use the soil structure degree (38.62%) did not
decrease when compared to the unirrigated maize – wheat crop rotation (37.01%). Bulk density, total porosity, penetration resistance and
hydraulic conductivity have worse values than the ones in the unirrigated variant. The humus content is very close to the humus content
determined in 1976, the phosphorus and the potassium content increased very much in comparison with the initial content (117 ppm vs 22.0
ppm); (180.0 ppm vs 102 ppm). The use of the adequate fertilization system and of the irrigation water with a good qaulity did not determine
a decrease of the pH value of the soil. The irrigation determined the improve of the microclimate conditions, the increase of the plant water
consumption, yield gains very significant statistically and higher protein content of the maize grains.

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Modern methods to determine vitamin E in foods and feeds
Published October 5, 2010
53-58

Highly specific and sensitive, the proposed fluorometric method for determining α-tocopherol is robust and fairly fast. It
has been tested in parallel with a conventional thin layer chromatographic method on foods and feeds. The only necessary
cleanup is the usual saponification. The unsaponificable fraction can be extracted with ethyl e...ther or, preferably, with
Extrelut columns. Reagents and their solvents are added to the isooctane solution before each successive reaction and are
then eliminated by partition with water. The α-tocopherol (α-T) derivative always remains in isooctane. The first step is
nitrosation and elimination of tocopherols and tocotrienols other than α-isomers. α-T is then oxidized to α-tocored (α-TR)
with a mixture of sulfuric acid, ferric chloride, and iodine bromide. Α-TR is then condensed to a new reagent: 4,5-dimethylo-
phenylenediamine. The phenazine formed is strongly fluorescent. Iodine and bromine add to the double bonds of α-
tocotrienol present and quench the fluorescence of its phenazine.

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The toxic effects of aflatoxin microorganisms in plants used as spices
Published October 5, 2010
59-62

As an extension of the analysis of black, white and capsicum peppers for aflatoxins , we have examined an additional 11 types of spices and
4 herbs for these mycotoxins. The investigations consisted of assessment of the applicability of available methods of analysis and modifications of
these, where necessary together, with a limited surv...ey of each spice and herb for aflatoxins. The analysis of 13 types of ground spices reported
the presence of low concentrations of aflatoxins in some samples of black pepper, celery seed, and nutmeg. We decided to include in our study 5
of the spices examined by these workers (cinnamon, celery seed, coriander, nutmeg, and turmeric) for a comparison purpose. In addition we
examined ginger, mace, cumin seed, dill seed, garlic powder, onion powder, and the herbs marjoram, rosemary, thyme, and sage.

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