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The relationship between gluten proteins and baking quality
Published July 31, 2012
117-122

Wheat, one of the most important cereals, is grown on the largest area in Hungary. During hydration of storage proteins of wheat – gliadin and glutenin – the gluten complex is evolved. The gliadin is responsible for the extensibility of gluten complex as well as the glutenin for the strength of gluten. The structure, composition and rheolog...ical properties of gluten proteins influence significantly the baking quality. The gliadin/glutenin ratio and the quality and structure of glutenin fraction play the most important role in evolving gluten complex. Changes in the steps of breadmaking technology also have effect on the quality of product. Several tests proved that the higher glutenin content increases the strength of dough while the higher gliadin content increases the extensibility of dough and decreases maximum resistance to extension. The monomer gliadins play a great part in plasticity of glutenin polymer. The quality of glutenin fraction significantly influences the evolving gluten complex, because of the spiral structure of glutenin which deforms under stress conditions, then the β-spiral structure resumes their original conformation by releasing from stress.
The final quality of product evolves as a result of complex characteristics of wheat proteins, so detailed knowledge on the roles of different protein compounds is the base of the quality oriented product development.

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The effects of fertilization on the protein related properties of winter wheat
Published March 20, 2013
67-69

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The yield and quality of wheat are mainly determined by the plant production system, thus we studied the effect of mineral fertilization.

The field trials were set up in 1983 at the Látókép Research Institute of the University of Debrecen. We examined effect of different Nfertilizer doses (60 kg ha-1 N/P/K, 120 kg ha-1 N/P/K) on Lupus, Mv Toldi and GK Csillag's protein properties in 2012. During the tests, three quality parameters were determined: wet gluten content (%), wet gluten spread (mm/h) and gluten index (%). In the experiment the effect of different doses of N-fertilizers significantly influenced by the wet gluten content and gluten index of Lupus.

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The composition of gluten proteins and their effect on the rheological properties of gluten
Published May 23, 2006
124-129

Wheat is the major cereal component of bread in the world and is grown worldwide. Of the cereals only the bread wheats – and less the triticale – includes storage proteins that play an important role in the performance of gluten. Proteins of gluten complex may be present in two classes:
− low molecular weight (gliadin-) components, and...
− high molecular weight (glutenin-) components.
Gliadins shown appreciable heterogenity and can be separated into 40-50 components with gel electrophoresis. The composition of gliadins is employable for the identification the wheat varieties and to investigate the varieties. In the decreasing electrophoretic mobility sequence may be distinguish α-, β-, γ- and ω-gliadins. A glutenin subunits may be include in two classes:
− high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS),
− low molecular weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS).
Wheat varieties can be identified by glutenin and their quality selection is also possible. The gliadin’s polypeptides encoding genes are located on the short arm of chromosomes 1A, 1B and 1D, 6A, 6B and 6D. Genetic coding for HMW subunits is located on the long arms of chromosomes 1A, 1B and 1D, the LMW-GS are also located on chromosomes 1A, 1B and 1D (Glu-3 loci) near the gliadin-coding loci.
Storage proteins affect the rheological properties of gluten by two factors:
1. The quality and quantity of the protein components of the gluten complex,
2. The interactions between the protein fractions.

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Stability analysis of different winter wheat genotypes in long-term experiment
Published December 16, 2012
135-141

Nowadays, due to the climate change, it is becoming increasingly important in the occasionally extreme years that the yield and the quality
parameters of a given winter wheat variety should not fluctuate at all or only slightly under similar agrotechnical conditions as a result of the year effect. In four years (2005–2008) we studied the c...hanges in the wet gluten content, gluten speading and protein content of five wheat genotypes at six fertilization levels.
In the control, it can be observed that the year had a significant effect on the wet gluten content, the protein content of the flour and gluten speading, therefore, a great fluctuation was detected in these qualities of the varieties in the four studied years. At the optimum fertilization levels (N120-150+PK), the varieties Sixtus, Saturus and Lupus showed a much lower fluctuation and more stable values were measured. The most stable variety in the control treatment was Mv Mazurka for all the three quality parameters, while at the optimum fertilization level (N120+PK), the most stable results were obtained for the variety Sixtus as an average of the four years.
When studying the results using Kang’s method for stability analysis, it can be stated that the most stable values of wet gluten content were obtained at the fertilization level of N120+PK under a variable year effect, the varieties gave also the best gluten content values at this level. The most stable protein content values of flour were obtained at the fertilization level of N60+PK. The results showed that the fluctuation of quality parameters as a result of the changing years differed between the different winter wheat varieties due to their differing genotypes, but this fluctuation could be reduced or minimized by a proper fertilization. 

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The analysis of flour blends as affected by the behaviour of two different quality flours of triticale under different fertilizer treatments
Published October 24, 2016
5-8

Triticale is likely used in many countries in human consumption, due to its advantageous agronomical and nutritional properties mostly in blends. The baking quality of blends depends not just on the proportions of the used flours but also on their individual quality what can be influenced by fertilizer treatments.

22 flour blends were p...repared with commercial wheat flour and triticale wholemeal flour in proportions from 0% to 100%. The triticale was treated with different amount of fertilizers (N30P30K30, N60P0K0). Changes of wet gluten contents and extensograph parameters of the blends were determined. The quality of blends significantly depends on the fertilizer treatment of triticale beside the proportions of the flours. When the N60P0K0 treated triticale was used in blends, wet gluten and extensibility values were significantly higher, but in case of resistant to extensions (Rmax) the N30P30K30 treated samples gave higher values. The measured values of wet gluten and extensibility were above the expected values (synergism), while in the case of resistance to extension the expected values were higher than the measured values (antagonism).

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Effect of the fertilization on some quality parameters of winter wheat
Published December 15, 2010
105-110

We studied the different mineral fertilizer rates effect on the baking quality of five different winter wheat genotypes (GK Öthalom, Lupus, KG Széphalom, GK Békés, Mv Mazurka) on chernozom soil in 2008.
The bigger fertilizer doses increased the wet gluten content, gluten elasticity and the protein content. The high doses of fertilization... has got a moderate effect on the valorigaph value, water absorption, and falling number. The optimum level of the fertilizer doses were the N90-120+PK.
The Pearson’s correlation analysis proved strong relationships between the fertilization and gluten content, the quality of the gluten, a valorigraph value, and the protein content. The analysis verified a strong correlation between genotype and falling number, and the protein content.
The variety Mv Mazurka has got the best baking quality parameters.

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Variations in major quality parameters of forage and medium quality winter wheat varieties in storage
Published July 16, 2007
249-254

We analysed five parameters (moisture-, protein content, Hagberg’s falling number, wet gluten content and alveographic W (10-4 J) values) and the microbiological changes of four forage and milling III. quality winter wheat varieties (Magor, Hunor, Róna and Kondor) during storage, to determine the tendency, type and volume of the o...f the change of this five qualitative parameters during storage.
We found that the examined winter wheat varieties retained their moisture, protein content and their Hagberg’s falling number, they did not change during storage.
A slight growth could be experienced in the values of wet gluten content for all the four winter wheat varieties in terms of the duration of storage (129 days). This result proved the theory of after-ripening, when gluten percentage improves qualitatively and quantitatively as well. The value of the quantitative growth was about 10% for all the four winter wheat varieties.
We placed a special emphasis on measuring the alveographic W (10-4 J) values during storage. All the four winter wheat varieties showed decreasing values of about 20-40%.
Microbiological examinations on the four winter wheat varieties showed that mould, mould flora and total germ count remained balanced with some slight variations and they did not change in terms of time under optimal storage conditions.

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Study of effects on quality of different wheat flour fraction
Published November 2, 2009
123-129

Wheat is one of the most important cereals in the world and the bread made of its flour belongs to the everyday life of human mankind.
The Hungarian standard relating to the laboratory production of wheat flour (MSZ 6367/9-1989) does not mention the type of laboratory mill used for milling, and it only builds up some general criteria, such a...s: the laboratory mill should be provided with four differently nicked barrels, a sieve with appropriate hole sizes, and also with the separated collections of the pilot flour and the bran. Our study was started at this point and the answers for the following questions were aimed to be found: do the flour patterns studied and produced with different grinding and sieving
techniques, widely used in laboratory mills of the same wheat pattern show any alterations after the impact of the formula production as regards chemical constitutions and reologic parameters. Various flours and whole grains of the wheat patterns sieved with different particle sizes were studied in this experiment. In producing this pattern two different mill types of FQC 109 and CHOPIN CD 1 as well as two different grinder types such as PERTEN 3100 and type of RETSCH 200 were applied. There were 3 different corn sizes of 160; 250; 800 μms used in the partition of the fractions. To study the differences the following  measurements were conducted: dry matter, ash, protein content, wet gluten content, gluten index, gluten expansiveness, farinographic value, falling number and amilographic rate.
The results this research confirm that the quality of wheat flour can be modified by different methods of pattern production. In all cases the differences can be explained by the flour-bran ratio, and in some of the cases the higher germ content of the fractions also played a role. The results show differences between the various types of mills and grinders, too. 

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Búzalisztek minőségének becslése tészta nyújtás-szakítás alapján állományvizsgáló műszerrel
Published March 27, 2002
38-44

Literature experience was utilised to develop a method for the extensograph analog testing of paste with a QTS25 Texture Analyser. 54 wheat flour samples from the same variety from variety-preservation experiments at the Szeged were tested with this method. A study was made to establish whether the method is suitable for the estimation of resul...ts derived by traditional classification (trial baking, farinograph and gluten tests).
A close and significant correlation was found between the hardness and area data measured with a QTS25 micro-extensograph, the farinograph values and the gluten spreading data, and also between the stretching index (BC/AC) and the water uptake capacity. These correlations correspond well with the findings from a previous experimental series on industrial flour samples. A close and significant correlation was likewise observed between the grain hardness established by the MININFRA method and all the QTS25 micro-extensograph data. In contrast with earlier QTS25 data, however a close correlation was not found between the QTS25 data and the loaf characteristics.
With the use of micro-extensograph data, the estimation of the baking industry value has been improved through stepwise variable selection, with the inclusion of several variables. The estimation of loaf volume could also be solved by means of stepwise variable selection with the inclusion of QTS25 and MININFRA data.

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Changes in the Quality of Winter Wheat Varieties in a Comparative Experiment
Published May 11, 2003
179-183

The hungarian seed grain supply offers more and more varieties from the field crops for public cultivation in every year. The number of the admitted varieties by state doubled from 1996 to 2001. The question is what changes can the varieties newly inproved show in the quality parameters.
32 varieties admitted in different years was examined ...on quality parameters as wet gluten content, valorigraphic value and falling number from period 1996-2001. We established that the newer varieties surpassed the traditional varieties of the variety-comparativing experiment in accordion to they wet gluten content. In connection with formation of valorigraphical value we saw that the new varieties got place in the varieties admitted for public cultivation in quality based examining. The varieties showed different reaction of fertilizer on the formation of these two parameters. In connection with the formation of the value of falling number the examined varieties suited for the requirements of quality crop production in the experimental years excepted some of them.

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Investigation of the Quality of Winter Wheat in a Sulphur Fertilisation Experiment, 2001/2002
Published May 11, 2003
153-156

We have started a small parcell and a factorial S fertilization experiment with winter wheat in the 2001/2002 cropping year to examine its effect on yield and quality. The scene of experiment was the Latokep Experimental Station of the DE ATC (calcareous chernozeem) in case of small parcell examination and the Agricultural Company of Felsőzsol...ca (brown forest soil) in case od factorial examination.
The protein and gluten content of the grain was investigated with PerCon Inframatic 9001 NIR Analyser, then we have measured these parameters with PerCon 8620 infra appliance. After the milling we measured the following parameters: glutenindex, farinographic parameters (farinographic index, water absorption capacity, dough development time, stability, softening, extension) and valorigraphic index.
Based on the results there’s no justified relation between the fertilization and the protein and gluten content. The valorigraphic index of the samples taken from Felsőzsolca factory characteristically increased as a result of the S-fertilization. In the small-parcell experiment the values of the water absorption capacity, the dough development time and the softening parameters from the valorigrphic parameters depended significantly from the mineral treatments. Signifikant quality improvement wasn’t experieced.
There was sampling in all of critical phenophase (…). The green plant samples were examined on element content with ICP-OES. These measurements are currently in progress.

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Effect of divided nitrogen and sulfur fertilization on the quality of winter wheat
Published February 3, 2016
27-31

The ecological characteristics and agro-ecological conditions in Hungary provide opportunities for quality wheat production. For the successful wheat production besides the favorable conditions; the proper use of expertise and appropriate cultivation techniques are not negligible. Successful cultivation affected by many factors. To some extent ...we can affect, influence and convert the abiotic factors.

Today, a particularly topical issue is the question of nutrition and that the species’ genetic code can be validated using the appropriate quantity and quality fertilizer. Beyond determining the fertilizer requirements of the winter wheat it is important to align the nutrient to the plant’s nutrient uptake dynamics and to ensure its shared dispensing. In any case, it is important to note the use of autumnal base-fertilizer as complex fertilizer. Hereafter sharing the fertilizer during the growing season with the recommended adequate nitrogen dose.The first top dressing of winter wheat in early spring (the time of tillering) can be made, the second top dressing at the time of stem elongation, and the third top dressing at the end of the blooming can be justified. Determining the rate of fertilizer application depends on the habitat conditions and the specific nutrient needs of plants. In autumn the 1/3 of the planned amount of basic fertilizer should be dispensed (in case of N). During setting our experiment we used 3 doses (0 kg ha-1 N-1 active ingredient; 90 kg ha-1 N-1 active ingredients and 150 kg ha-1 N-1 active ingredient). Application dates beyond the autumn basic fertilization are the following: in one pass in early spring, divided in early spring and the time of run up, early spring and late flowering. In addition to nitrogen the replacement of sulfur gets a prominent role as a result of decreased atmospheric inputs. The proper sulfur supply mainly affects the quality parameters. It influences positively the wheat flour’s measure of value characteristics (gluten properties, volume of bread, dough rheology.

In terms of nitrogen doses; the larger amounts (150 kg ha-1 N-1 drug), is the proposed distributed application, while in the case of lower nitrogen (90 kg ha-1 N-1 drug) in a single pass in the early spring can achieve better results. After using sulfur the quality values among the nutritional parameters that can be associated with gluten properties took up higher values than the samples not treated with sulfur.

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Effect of the Cropping Year on the Quality of Winter Wheat
Published May 4, 2004
89-95

We examined the formation of quality parameters of winter wheat in a small plot variety comparison experiment from four cropping years. Our aim was to estimate the year effect on several quality parameters of winter wheat.
We established in relation to the distribution of precipitation of the examined years that the years 1997 and 2000 were ...behind the thirty year average typical precipitation of this site both in the case of the whole vegetation period and the spring and summer. It was unfavourable for qualitative wheat production. 1998 and 1999 were good for cropping considering the amount and distribution of rainfall.
Examining the formation of quality parameters we found that the baking value was maximum in 1997, with a moderate amount of normal distributed rainfall for the examined varieties. The mid-late maturating varieties showed better baking value in drought years than in wet years. In the case of the wet gluten content, we established higher values after a rainier spring-summer period. There is a conspicuous difference between the falling number of extensive and intensive varieties and the year had significant effect on the formation of values. We established with correlation analysis that both the precipitation of vegetation period and the maturing rainfall had considerable effect on the value of falling number. Examining the effect of fertilization on the formation of wet gluten content as a quadratic equation, we found that precipitation may both increase and maximalize the value of this quality parameter.

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Effect of agrotechnological treatment on nutritive value of common millet
Published May 16, 2017
65-69

The cultivation of common millet shows an increasing tendency due to its adaptability to extreme poor circumstances. In addition, millet do not contain gluten forming proteins such as gliadin and glutenin, therefore people with gluten intolerance could consume it. The vitamin B and mineral content increase the importance of millet. The aim of o...ur experiment was to measure the quality of flour of two millet varieties treated with different nitrogen fertilizer doses.

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Effects of agrotechnical factors on the quality and quantity of yield in winter wheat production
Published May 20, 2020
69-75

The present study was conducted to determine the effect of basic agrotechnical factors on the yield and quality of winter wheat. Two experiments were set in 2017/2018 growing season, where we studied the influence of different forecrops, fertilizing treatments and cultivars. 204 samples were measured with Single Kernel Characterization Syst...em and NIR grain analyser to determine protein (NIR-P), wet gluten (NIR-WG), Hardness Index (HI), kernel weight (KW) and kernel diameter (KD). Fertilizing had a significant effect on yield, KW, HI, NIR-P and NIR-WG, except KD. N90PK dosage was enough to realize yield potential for 6 out of 9 cultivars, but considering protein content N150PK dosage was needed. The forecrop had no significant influence on yield, KW, KD or HI, however sweet corn as previous crop had significant improving effect on NIR-P and NIR-WG compared to sunflower as forecrop. According to our data of correlation analysis, no negative relationship was found between yield and NIR-P, however HI was in medium positive correlation with NIR-P. The variety Vyckor had the highest yield, but in quality aspect, the highest NIR-P and NIR-WG values belonged to KG Kunhalom variety.

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Research on rheological characteristics of winter wheat varieties
Published July 16, 2007
266-272

The gluten examination test is dominant in Hungary, comparing it to the qualification system of other countries. The determination of alveographic parameters is a basic criterion of winter wheat specifications in some western and southern European countries.
In the Hungarian and foreign winter wheat qualification systems, in the standards, t...here is no limit for extensographical parameters. Customers dictate the limits and make their claims as to the specifications.
We analyzed the alveographic and extensographical parameters of 19 winter wheat varieties grown by the Cereal Research Non-Profit Company in Hungary, and we made a comparison between the results in the challenges of the European Union expectations.
Examining the information of alveographic and extensographical values, we found that the experimental varieties provide high base to flour types suitable for baking bread and baker’s ware. The GK Élet, GK Petur, GK Memento, GK Csillag, GK Kapos and GK Marcel varieties can meet the market of paste flour needs, too.
In the variety series, the GK Kalász represents the highest values and the GK Garaboly shows the lowest parameters regarding the alveographic W and the resistance to extension.
On the basis of relation, we can establish that we can estimate the following little known and used quality indexes: the extensographical resistance to extension with extensographical energy and the alveographic W value, the extensographical energy with the alveographic W value and the alveographic P and L values with the other alveographic parameters.

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The role and impact of N-Lock (N-stabilizer) to the utilization of N in the main arable crops
Published November 2, 2014
51-55

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The nitrogen stabilizer called N-Lock can be used primarily with solid and liquid urea, UAN and other liquid nitrogen, slurry and manure. In corn it can be applied incorporated before sowing or with row-cultivator or applied with postemergent timing in tank-mix. In postemergent timing need precipitation for long effect. In oil seed rape and autumn cereals the N-Lock should be applied with liquid nitrogen in tank mix late winter or early spring (February-March). The dose rate is 2.5 l/ha. N-Lock increases the yield of maize, winter oil seed rape, winter wheat and winter barley 5-20 %. The yield increasing can be given the thousand grain weight. In case of high doses of nitrogen it can be observed higher yield. The quality parameter also improved, especially the oil content of winter oil seed rape and protein and gluten contents of winter wheat. The use of N-Lock increases the nitrogen retention of soil and reduces nitrate leaching towards the groundwater and the greenhouse effect gas emissions into the atmosphere. The degradation of the applied nitrogen is slowing down and the plant can uptake more nitrogen in long period. The effect of N-Lock the nitrogen is located in the upper soil layer of 0-30 cm and increasing the ammonium nitrogen form. The product can be mixed with herbicide products in main arable crops.

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Changes in the Quality Parameters of Wheat Samples of 16% Moisture Content during Storage
Published May 11, 2003
117-121

We have carried out storage experiments with wheat varieties Magvas, Fatima, Mv Emma and Mv Pálma from the 2001 growth year. During the first half of the experiments quality parameters, such as changes in moisture, protein and gluten contents as well as pharinograph readings, falling numbers and sedimentation indices were analysed and tested a...t an average initial moisture content of 13%.
The findings in the changes in the quality parameters of different wheat varieties with 13% moisture content as a function of storage time duration were published in an earlier paper of mine (12/04/2002).
This paper wishes to give an account of the second part of the storage test when the moisture contents of the different varieties were raised to 16% and the changes in the quality parameters were monitored for seven weeks. The findings show that contrary to what had been experienced in the first half of the trial, there were no changes in the protein contents, pharinograph readings, water uptake or Zeleny counts and falling numbers showed decreases with each of the varieties tested.

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New possibilities to determine wheat quality parameters by near-infrared spectroscopy
Published December 15, 2010
65-69

Analyses and methods in wheat quality determination require more sample, time, work and cost, thatswhy flour quality control needs rapid, reliable tools. Near-infrared spectroscopy has many advantages, which make it suitable in quality control. NIR instruments need calibrations to their work. In our study we examined gluten content, falling num...ber, valorigrpahic waterabsorption, alveographic P/L and W value of wheat samples. Modified partial least squares analyses on NIR spectra were developed for each property. The results show that we got such calibration modells, which are able to predict the properties (expect falling number) with enough accuracy.

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Genetic progress in winter wheat quality and quantity parameters
Published December 1, 2020
71-75

Wheat production is significant branch of Hungarian crop production (with about 1 million hectares of sowing area). Weather anomalies resulted by climate change have increased the importance of biological basis in wheat production. Yield quality and quantity parameters of three wheat genotypes sown on chernozem soil type after maize pre-cro...p were studied in a long-term field experiment. Yield amount of the studied genotypes varied between 2894 and 8074 kg ha-1 in 2017 and between 5795 and 9547 kg ha-1 in 2018 depending on the applied treatments. Based on our results it can be stated that in both studied crop years the highest yield increment was realized by the application of the nutrient supply level of N30+PK. As the result of the application of the optimum mineral fertilizer level – in contrast to the control – resulted in significant yield increment in both crop years. The results of the long-term field experiment prove that water utilization of the studied wheat varieties / hybrids was improved by the application of the optimal nutrient supply. Furthermore, the water utilization of the latest genotypes was more favorable by both the control and the optimum nutrient supply level treatments. Analyzing the quality parameters of winter wheat using the NIR method it has been stated that the quality results of the well-known genotype (GK Öthalom) were better than those of the new genotypes. A negative correlation between winter wheat quality and quantity parameters has also been confirmed. As the result of the mineral fertilizer application protein and gluten content of winter wheat increased to a significant extent.

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