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  • Drought cycle tracking in Hungary using Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI)
    97-101
    Views:
    295

     Drought is one of the natural hazard risks which badly affects both agricultural and socio-economic sectors. Hungary, which is located in Eastern Europe has been suffering from different drought cycles; therefore, the aim of this study is to analyse the rainfall data obtained from ten metrological stations (Békéscsaba, Budapest, Debrecen, Győr, Kékestető, Miskolc, Pápa, Pécs, Szeged, Siófok, Szolnok) between 1985 and 2016, by using the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI).

    The results showed that 2011 was recorded as the worst drought cycle of the studied period, where the SPI ranged between -0.22 (extreme drought) in Siófok, and 0.15 (no drought) in Miskolc. In a similar vein, the study highlighted the year 2010 to be the best hydrological year, when the SPI reached 0.73 (mildly wet) on average. Interestingly, the Mann-Kendall trend test for the drought cycle showed no positive trends in the study area. Finally, more investigation should be conducted into the climate change spatial drought cycle in Europe.

  • Comparison of Pálfai’s drought index and the Normalised Precipitation Index in the North Great Plain region
    59-64
    Views:
    152

    Agriculture has always been an important role in economy, food supplies, sustainability of society and creation of job opportunities in Hungary. Our country has resource-related strength of agriculture, because we have more than 4.5 million ha for agricultural production. Agricultural production can be influenced by several factors, including climate, hydrology, soil conditions and antropogenic impacts. Climate determines the quality and quantity of the crop yields. The climate conditions in Hungary are variable and it shows spatial and temporal extremes. As a result of this, drought have become more frequent in our country (2003, 2007, 2009, 2012), which is reflected in the decline in yields as well. In the present study, Pálfai's Drought Index (PAI) and the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) were compared 2003–2012 in Debrecen. The temperature and precipitation data were calculated from data provided by a local meteorological station to work out PAI, while the SPI-3 index values were downloaded from the database of the European Drought Observatory. This allowed to drought assessment in a local and regional scale. Our study was supplemented with SPI-3, soil moisture anomalies, PAI and yields of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) to evaluating the impact of drought on agriculture.

  • Examination of the conditions of extreme water balance circumstances (water logging, drought) with environmental information technology tools
    79-86
    Views:
    185

    The Carpathian Basin is characterized by varying hydrological extremes, both in space and time. Hungary's natural endowments are more favourable than average, especially for agricultural production, with 5,3 million hectares of land we have which is suitable for agricultural production. These extreme water management are often occur in the same year and mostly in the same region, which may become more frequent in the future, especially in the lowland regions. The negative impacts of extreme water management was influenced by the land use changes in recent years, which has modified the runoff processes of the affected regions.

    The aim of the study was to research the formation of inland water and drought circumstances in two sample areas the Great Plain (Szolnok-Túri flat and Nyírség) by geoinformatic tools. During the investigation in the first step we determined that areas which are susceptible to inland water and drought, based on the AGROTOPO database. In addition, land-use categories of characteristics of the sample areas are evaluated according to the Corine Land Cover. Furthermore, after defining characteristic of NDVI values between the period of 2003–2013, we evaluated the effect of drought whether can be detected in crop failures in respective areas.

    Based on our results, we concluded that the formation of inland water and drought circumstances can be investigated in a large spatial extension by geoinformatic tools and databases.

  • Does drought stress always negatively affect the yield and quality of soybean in Hungary?
    37-40
    Views:
    199

    Globally-fluctuating climate imposed serious abiotic stresses on the agricultural sector, leading to noticeable, and sometimes disastrous, losses in yields and/or quality of crops; however, in certain cases, plants could survive stress with relatively low reductions, and sometimes even with some enhancements as a reaction to changed environment, especially in the case of mild stress. An experiment was conducted in 2017 and 2018 in Debrecen, Hungary to evaluate the mild drought stress influence on the yield and quality of three soybean cultivars. The results showed that both ES Pallador and Pedro cultivars could achieve more yield when subjected to mild drought conditions; however, protein concentration was enhanced in ES Pallador whereas slightly degraded in Pedro under drought. The cultivar Pannonia Kincse followed different trend; both yield and protein concentration were reduced under drought. Oil concentration of the three cultivars did not show significant changes; however, it always followed opposite trend to that of protein concentration. It could be concluded that both ES Pallador and Pedro are recommended to be grown under rain fed conditions in Debrecen, whereas Pannonia Kincse is recommended under irrigation conditions.

  • The Effect of Atmosperical Aridity on the Changes of Quantitative Parameters of Horticultural and Arable Crops
    40-45
    Views:
    103

    The occurence of atmospherical drought causes serious water-supply problems in the most cases of our domestic agricultural plant species. This paper was studied, how can we quantificate the atmospherical drought, with the help of a low input (relative humidityof the air, temperature) index. If this index (LSZI) characterized the atmospherical drought well, it will suitable to estimate the yield amount of agricultural plants.
    The index elaborated by the authors was tested on county average crop yield of 14 agricultural plant species. Moreover we compared the atmospherical drought index (LSZI) to other aridity parameters, how suitable for estimate the yield amount.
    Result of experiments show that, the atmospherical drought index (LSZI) can be used well by several agricultural plant species in especially coern and sugar-beet to estimate yield amount. Excellent results were found by comparison to other aridity indexes, this means it is worth using in the aridity researches in the future.

  • Study of drought stress correlation on yield and yield components of maize cultivars (Zea mays L.)
    67-73
    Views:
    160

    This article was investigated to study the correlation and analysis of drought stress regression on maize cultivars' yield and components. The variance analysis results showed a significant difference between drought stress levels in terms of plant height, total dry weight and number of seeds per row, the total weight of cob, grain yield, harvest index, stem diameter, and cob weight with protective leave. Also, there was a significant difference in ear weight without protective leaves, ear diameter, ear length, plant weight, 100-seed weight, and seed per ear on hybrid treatments. There were statistically significant differences between cultivars in plant height, leaf area, ear diameter, ear length, number of seeds per row, number of seeds per ear, the total weight of cob wood, 100-seed weight, harvest index, plant dry weight. The results of the correlation of traits for the mean levels of drought stress showed a positive and significant correlation between plant yield and plant height, seed per row, ear length and weight of 5 pieces of wood and also with a total weight of cob wood, ear weight with bark showed the highest correlation. There is a significant correlation between leaf area and stem diameter, plant weight, total dry weight at the probability level of 0.05. Correlation coefficients between traits in non-stress conditions showed a positive and significant correlation between grain yield and height, ear length and grain in the row, which was a significant increase compared to stress conditions. The correlation of traits under full stress conditions also showed that the correlation coefficient between cob length trait and positive height was positive and significant. From the study of correlation coefficients between maize traits in non-stress conditions, it can be concluded that the most important components of grain yield are cob length and grain per row. While the correlation coefficients under moisture stress conditions show that the grain trait in the row has a positive and significant correlation with yield, under stress conditions in the cob stage did not show any traits with correlation yield.

  • Physiological traits and yield of three soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) genotypes as affected by water deficiency
    11-15
    Views:
    179

    Soybean is a very important legume; it has the highest protein content, and it is a very important source of vegetable oil. Soybean is droughtsusceptible, and drought is one of the major abiotic stresses that has been increasing over the past decades as a result of the global climatic changes. To evaluate the influence of drought stress, three soybean genotypes were grown under rainfed conditions, and compared to irrigated controls. The obtained results showed that the chlorophyll content, leaf area index and plant height decreased under drought stress conditions, which led to noticeable and sometimes significant yield reduction. Our results suggest more specific studies on the physiological changes of the local soybean genotypes under drought stress to better select the adopted ones.

  • Gene resources for improvement of drought tolerance and yield quality in dry pea breeding
    105-111
    Views:
    86

    The effectiveness of selection for improved drought tolerance and consumption quality in the progeny of crosses between pea cultivars with semi-leafless (afila) and normal leaves and different origins, respectively, were investigated. After single crosses, parent cultivars and F1, F2 and F3 generations were grown under non-irrigated conditions in the same trials. We created a colour scale from 1 to 9 to measure statistically the shade of seed colour. The tolerance of genotypes against high temperature was measured by the number of pods per plant. The 3:1 segregation
    observed in the F2 generation of crosses between semi-leafless and conventional cultivars indicated that the semi-leafless character is determined by a recessive gene. In contrast, the ratios of conventional (Af) and semi-leafless (af) genotypes were 7:1 and 9:1 ratio in the progenies of crosses of Af × af. The genetic progress was effective for improving the seed quality in F3 generation from crosses Af x af where we found that multiple
    dominant alleles controlled the orange colour of cotyledons and its high heritability (h2 A=0,63). Selection is more effective in producing the genotypes with high yield and normal leaves if the crosses were made between the western European cultivars such as semi-leafless Profi and Delta used as maternal cultivars and conventional Auralia cultivars. In this case, there were decreases in the consumption quality, such as seed size and shade of colour. The selection based on the seed weight of single plants for increasing drought tolerance seemed to be more effective in F4
    strains with normal leaves originated from Czechoslovakian maternal cultivar Y228; however, the genetic progress in the improvement of seed size and colour quality was slow. 

  • The Effect of Drought on the Yield of Winter Barley Lines in the Great Cumania Region
    127-129
    Views:
    66

    Winter barley is the third most important fodder plant in Hungary after winter wheat and maize.
    Its accommodation to the changing climatic conditions – mainly to drought in Great Cumania, the driest region of our country is of great importance from the point of view of plant breeding and growing.
    The vegetation period of 2002/2003 can be considered to have been very droughty with 247.5 mm precipitation.
    According to our results six- rowed barley lines have better drought tolerance than two-rowed lines. The average yields of the six-rowed barley lines were 12-25 per cent higher than the yields of the two rowed lines.
    Due to the joint effect of delayed sowing and drought, significant yield depression was detected both in the case of the early and the medium maturity group, and assessable data could be gained only from 35 per cent of the total territory.

  • The effects of drought stress on soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) growth, physiology and quality – Review
    19-24
    Views:
    188

    Abiotic stresses are one of the most limiting factors inhibit plant's growth, leading to a serious production loss. Drought stress is one of the most destructive abiotic stresses and is still increasing year after year resulting in serious yield losses in many regions of the world,
    consequently, affecting world’s food security for the increasing world population. Soybean is an important grain legume. It is one of the five major crops in the world, an essential source of oil, protein, macronutrients and minerals, and it is known as the main source of plant oil and protein. Harvested area of soybean is increasing globally year after year. However, soybean is the highest drought stress sensitive crop, the water deficit influences the physiology, production and seed composition of this crop. We introduce a review for literatures concerning the changes of the above traits of soybean exposed to drought stress, with past explanations for these changes.

  • The hydric stress influence on quantityand quality of the maize yield in the Crisurilor Plainconditions
    21-27
    Views:
    108

    The paper is based on the researches carried out in an experiment placed on the preluvosoil from Agricultural Research and Development Station Oradea, Crisurilor Plain during 2008–2011in the following variants: V1=Irrigated, without irrigation suspending; V2=Irrigated, irrigation suspending in May; V3=Irrigated, irrigation suspending in June; V4=Irrigated, irrigation suspending in July; V5=Irrigated, irrigation suspending in August; V6=Unirrigated. The hybrid used: Fundulea 376. In the variant with optimum irrigation, water reserve on 0–75 cm depth was maintained between easily available water content and field capacity. Pedological drought was determined every year and the irrigation was also needed. The irrigation determined the increase of the total water consumption and yield gain in comparison with unirrigated variant. Irrigation suspending in different months determined the yield losses very significant statistically. The biggest protein content was registered in the variant without irrigation suspending; the values registered in the variants with irrigation suspending in May, June, July and August and in the unirrigated variant are smaller, with differences statistically assured. There was a direct link between de Martonne aridity index values and water consumption, yield and protein content and an inverse link between pedological drought and yield quantity and protein content. These are the arguments for irrigation opportunity in maize from Criurilor Plain.

  • Preliminary test: Evaluation and selection of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) varieties resistant to drought and powdery mildew
    33-37
    Views:
    115

    Powdery mildew (Leveillula taurica) and (Oidium neolycopersici) are two harmful fungi that invade the tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plant and grow in dry conditions. Under the influence of polyethylene glycol 6000 at a concentration of 12%, the total seedlings fresh weight, total seedlings dry weight, seedling growth rate of one seedling, seedling length, and tissue water content percentage for three tomato varieties were assessed. Despite the superiority of the (Mobil) tomato variety in terms of numerical values, the results revealed no significant differences between varieties. As a result, (Mobil) has greater vigor under environmental drought stress of lower osmotic stress than other tomato varieties. More work is required to evaluate the research selection of varieties resistant to biotic stresses in dry areas, such as powdery mildew disease.

  • Interaction of yield stability and year in major agricultural crops
    41-46
    Views:
    84

    The effect of hydro-meteorological extremities on plant cultivation is the result of the correlation of many factors. These may increase or decrease the effects of hydro-meteorological extremes. The degree of this variance depends on the professionality of treatments, on the quality of the applied technique and technology and also on the soil’s water management characteristics.
    The water management characteristics of Hungary’s arable land are mainly unfavorable or medium. In the past two decades the conditions of originally good soils, from a water management aspect, have significantly deteriorated in the critical 0-60 cm soil layer. This is mainly due to unprofessional land use, a lack of deepening cultivation and neglected organic cultivation. At the same time, hydro-meteorological extremities occur more frequently and the sensibility of plant cultivation has increased.
    The sensibility of plant cultivation is type and location specific, yet, it also effects both the quality and quantity of the result.
    The stability analysis, which covered the period of four decades and incorporated 6-7 agro-ecological areas proves and highlights the following:
    • Winter wheat only reacted to extensive cultivation and unfavorable environmental conditions to a small degree. On the other hand, the effect of hydro-meteorological extremities increases.
    • The stability analysis of maize, which is sensitive to cultivation technology and the location of cultivation, proved just the opposite. Good soil and adequate technology significantly reduces the effect of any particular year.
    • From the years examined, the most favorable proved to be the one with average precipitation. Maize reacted to both extremities in a similar way. Winter wheat reacted to more precipitation with less yield.
    • The yield quality of winter wheat was negatively effected by drought. The negative effect of precipitation is limited to the period of ripening and harvest, so the likelihood of such an effect is not significant.
    • The yield of sunflower – due to pests – significantly reduces in years with high precipitation, while a difference between dry and average years cannot be pinpointed out. The oil content in both dry years and in years with high precipitation is evident, compared to years with average precipitation.
    • The root yield of sugar beet is reduced by drought while the sugar content depends on soil characteristics and climatic extremities. A difference could also be noted by location, whether in Western Hungary and on the Great Plain. Great sugar content can be achieved in years with high precipitation in Western Hungary, while the same result occurred with average precipitation on the Great Plain. Drought did not have a positive effect on sugar content in either location.

  • Harnessing diversity in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L.) to enhance climate resilience and micronutrient concentration through genetic and agronomic biofortification
    9-20
    Views:
    166

    Huge consumption of wheat-driven food products with low bioavailability and small concentrations of zinc is responsible for zinc-induced malnutrition and associated health complications. The contemporary durum wheat varieties have inherently tiny zinc concentrations in developing grain, which cannot meet the daily human zinc demand. Despite the fact that over two billion people are suffering from iron and zinc-induced malnutrition, various intervention measures have been deployed to reverse the effect of zinc-induced malnutrition on humans. There are evidences that agronomic and genetic biofortification approaches can increase grain yield and nutritional quality (i.e. zinc, iron, protein, and vitamins) of durum wheat to a greater extent. However, there is a lack of direct empirical evidence for which the influence of both biofortification approaches on improving human health. Application of micronutrient-containing fertilizers either in the soil or foliarly is effective in combination with NPK, organic fertilizers coupled with efficient durum wheat varieties, emphasizing the need for integrated soil fertility management (ISFM). Although genetic biofortification is a cost-effective and sustainable approach, agronomic biofortification provides an immediate and effective route to enhancing micronutrient concentrations in durum wheat grain. The application of zinc-containing fertilizers is more effective under drought conditions than in normal growing situations. Hence, this article provides a key information for agronomists and breeders about the potential of biofortification interventions to improve durum wheat yield and enrich the grain qualitative traits to ensure food and nutritional security of the ever-increasing world population.

  • Drought-induced Losses in Fruit Orchards
    37-40
    Views:
    73

    Scientists investigating the causes of the extremities of climate that have become quite frequent in the Carpathian Basin over the past few years are quite often in doubts as to whether increased atmospheric warming and the shortage of rainfall are to be seen as recurrent natural phenomena under our climate, or the first signs of global warming. Climate anomalies have, to a certain extent, always been common in the Carpathian Basin. However, statistical data of the past few decades indicate that the rise in temperature and the fall in precipitation have, by now, become a tendency, which requires further in-depth scientific research.
    The series of articles to be published in continuation of this paper endeavors to synthesize the research results and many years of experiences, in order to give an analysis of
    I. The economic effects and the symptoms of drought in tree cultures
    II. The possibilities of reducing the adverse affects of drought

  • The effect of drought and cropping system on the yield and yield components of maize (Zea mays L.)
    51-53
    Views:
    122

    Different Cropping Systems have many advantages and ensure better crop growth and yielding. Its combination with other agronomic measures can ensure optimal crop density for maximum crop growth and photosynthesis efficiency. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of different cropping systems on monoculture and biculture rotations [maize- wheat]. The study found that crop rotation does not have a significant effect on the grain nutrition quality, Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Normalized Difference Vegetative Index (NDVI) but has a significant effect on the Soil-Plant Analysis Development (SPAD). Yield and yield components were significantly influenced by crop rotation in this study as yield, plant height, cob weight and number of grains per row all recorded lower mean at 5% probability levels.

  • Integrated nutrient supply and varietal difference influence grain yield and yield related physio-morphological traits of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L.) varieties under drought condition
    111-121
    Views:
    106

    The ever-growing world population entails an improvement in durum wheat grain yield to ensure an adequate food supply, which often gets impaired by several biotic and abiotic factors. Integrated nutrient management, such as nitrogen rate × foliar zinc × sulphur fertilization combined with durum wheat varieties were investigated in order to examine the dynamics of yield and yield related physio-morphological traits under drought conditions. The four durum wheat varieties, three-level of nutrient supply (i.e. control, sulphur, and zinc), and two nitrogen regimes (i.e. zero and 60 kg ha−1) were arranged in split-split plot design with three replications. Zinc and sulphur were applied as foliar fertilisation during the flag leaf stage, both at a rate of 3 and 4 liters ha-1, respectively. Results showed existence of genetic variability for grain yield, plant height, NDVI, SPAD and spike density. Foliar based application of zinc and sulphur at the latter stage improved the plant height. Nitrogen fertilized varieties with lower spike numbers showed to better yield formation. Co-fertilization of nitrogen and zinc improved grain yield of responsive varieties like Duragold by about 21.3%. Spikes per m2 were statistically insignificant for grain yield improvement. It could be inferred that the observed positive effect of sulphur, nitrogen and zinc application on physio-morphology and yield formation substantiates the need to include these essential nutrients in the cultivation system of durum wheat.

  • Application of mycorrhizae and rhizobacteria inoculations in the cultivation of processing tomato under water shortage
    111-118
    Views:
    44

    The effect of mycorrhizal fungi and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on some physiological properties, yield and soluble solid content (Brix) of ‘Uno Rosso’ F1 processing tomato was studied under water scarcity. Inoculation was performed with mycorrhizal fungi (M) and rhizobacteria preparation (PH) at sowing (M1, PH1) and sowing + planting (M2, PH2). The treated and untreated plants were grown with regular irrigation (RI = ET100%), with deficit irrigation (DI = ET50%) and without irrigation (I0). In drought, the canopy temperature of plants inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (M1, M2) decreased significantly, however, the decrease was small in those treated with the bacterium (PH1, PH2), while the SPAD value of the leaves of plants treated only with Phylazonit increased significantly. On two occasions, inoculations (M2, PH2) significantly increased the total yield and marketable yield, however, under water deficiency, a higher rate of green yield was detected than untreated plants. In dry year using deficit irrigation, the one-time inoculation (M1, PH1) provided a more favorable Brix value, while the double treatments reduced the Brix. In moderate water scarcity, the use of mycorrhizal inoculation (M2) is preferable, while under weak water stress, the use of rhizobacteria inoculation (PH2) is more favorable.

  • Determining factors of test weight in maize (Zea mays L.)
    40-42
    Views:
    92

    Most domestic maize production products are sold on markets abroad. Among the increasingly restrictive quality requirements, the demand for the measurement of test weight has also appeared. This measurement is not unfamiliar in the case of other cereals, such as wheat and barley, but it has not been applied widely in maize. It is likely for this reason that we have such little information and research available on this topic. In this study, we show the current state of this field with references from domestic and international literature.
    The density of maize is the weight of a particular volume and the most frequent unit is the test weight (kg/hl). This physical quality factor plays important roles in the storage, transport and mill industries. The value of test weight is influenced by many factors. The most important ones are the moisture content of grains, drying temperature, drought, precipitation, early frost, and the hybrid characters of a given genotype (grain type, FAO number). In general, the grain with higher moisture content has lower test weight and the higher temperature during (above 82°C) desiccation also leads to unfavourable values. Factors such as a drought interval after flowering, early frost in the case of hybrids with higher FAO numbers, injuries by insects, as well as fungal infections also influence the structure and moisture content of the maize grain.
    In the future, broader studies (hybrid testing, application of new agrotechnical elements) will be needed for understanding of the factors effecting test weight.

  • Comparative study of newly-bred black locust clones with regard to photosynthetic rate and water use efficiency: early evaluation
    5-10
    Views:
    199

    Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) is one of the most important tree species in Hungary, due to its positive economic impacts. Research to increase its yield, improve its stem quality and enhance its drought tolerance has been ongoing since the 1960s. Of the current research works in this field, the clone trial of the Forest Research Institute, University of Sopron, established in 2020 in the Nyírség region, is worth highlighting. In this experiment 4 newly-bred clones and a state-approved black locust cultivar ('Üllői') are being tested. In the summer of 2022, ‘on site’ measurements of assimilation parameters – net assimilation (An), transpiration (Tr) – were carried out using the LI-6800 portable photosynthesis system. From the data obtained, the water use efficiency (WUE) was calculated. The results of the statistical analysis (Kruskal-Wallis H test) have shown significant differences (p < 0.05) between the clones for all three parameters (An, Tr, WUE) tested. The NK2 clone has performed the highest value for all the parameters studied. However, no significant differences were found between clones NK2 and PL040 for Tr or between NK2 and control ('Üllői') for WUE. Studies of this kind contribute to the improvement of black locust growing through the production and selection of cultivars, which are relatively resistant to the negative effects (drought) of climate change.

  • The role of the hybrid-specific technological recommendations of maize in precision crop production procedures
    297-302
    Views:
    87

    The necessity of application of hybrid specific crop production technology has been confirmed not only by trial results but also by the experiences gained from the agricultural practice. For this reason it is essential to test and collect data in field trials about the specific agronomic traits of the corn hybrids belonging to different maturity groups and genotypes. Corn hybrids are tested for their responses to sowing time, plant density and fertilizer supply; sensitivity to herbicides; and lately, the resistance to the damages caused by the larvae of corn root worm. Last but not least, mention should be made of the differences in the responses of the corn hybrids to the damages caused by drought stress. Based on the trial results, suggestions for the hybrid specific corn production are compiled and made public for the experts and farmers engaged in corn growing. Corn hybrids may deliver maximum yields on the impact of specific crop production technology only in case if it relies on carefully done general production technology including soil cultivation, seed bed preparation and weed control. Similarly, precision crop production technology may advance the yield increase in economic way if it is constantly drawing on the source of research results.

  • Comparative research of the Wild Sage (Salvia nemorosa L.) population and selected clones flowering biology
    113-118
    Views:
    125

    The collected and evaluated of morphological Salvia variants widespread application provides for a new type of hungaricum series create. The excellent drought and frost tolerant Salvia nemorosa L. is climate change-tolerant perennials include. At the right time carried out with the new propagation cutting method can be shortened the seedling time, because in 1 year from broke cuttings develops flowering population. The flowering period of Salvia during one vegetation period may extended with right fertilization and phytotechnical, so it becomes suitable for planting in public spaces.

  • Assessment of Environmental Susceptibility/Vulnerability of Soils
    62-74
    Views:
    86

    Soils represent a considerable part of the natural resources of Hungary. Consequently, rational land use and proper soil management – to guarantee normal soil functions – are important elements of sustainable (agricultural) development, having special importance both in the national economy and in environment protection.
    The main soil functions in the biosphere are as follows: conditionally renewable natural resource; reactor, transformer and integrator of the combined influences of other natural resources (solar radiation, atmosphere, surface and subsurface waters, biological resources), place of „sphere-interactions”; medium for biomass production, primary food-source of the biosphere; storage of heat, water and plant nutrients; natural filter and detoxication system, which may prevent the deeper geological formations and the subsurface waters from various pollutants; high capacity buffer medium, which may prevent or moderate the unfavourable consequences of various environmental stresses; significant gene-reservoir, an important element of biodiversity.
    Society utilizes these functions in different ways (rate, method, efficiency) throughout history, depending on the given natural conditions and socio-economic circumstances. In many cases the character of the particular functions was not properly taken into consideration during the utilization of soil resources, and the misguided management resulted in their over-exploitation, decreasing efficiency of one or more soil functions, and – over a certain limit – serious environmental deterioration.
    Soil resources are threatened by the following environmental stresses:
    – soil degradation processes;
    – extreme moisture regime;
    – nutrient stresses (deficiency or toxicity);
    – environmental pollution.
    Environmental stresses caused by natural factors or human activities represent an increasing ecological threat to the biosphere, as well as a socio-economic risk for sustainable development, including rational land use and soil management.
    The stresses are caused by the integrated impacts of various soil properties, which are the results of soil processes (mass and energy regimes, abiotic and biotic transport and transformation and their interactions) under the combined influences of soil forming factors. Consequently, the control of soil processes is a great challenge and the main task of soil science and soil management in sustainable development.
    The efficient control of these processes necessitates the following consecutive steps:
    • registration of facts and consequences (information on land and soil characteristics, land use, cropping pattern, applied agrotechnics, yields, with their spatial and temporal variability);
    • evaluation of potential reasons (definition and quantification of soil processes, analysis of influencing factors and their mechanisms);
    • assessment of the theoretical, real, rational and economic possibilities for the control of soil processes (including their risk-assessment and impact analysis);
    • elaboration of efficient technologies for the „best” control alternatives (best management practice).
    Scientifically based planning and implementation of sustainable land use and rational soil management to ensure desirable soil functions, without any undesirable environmental side-effects, require adequate soil information. In the last years such data were organized into a computer-based GIS soil database in Hungary, giving opportunities for the quantification, analysis, modelling and forecasting of the studied environmental stresses and for the efficient and scientifically based prevention, elimination or reduction of environmental stresses and their unfavourable ecological and economical consequences.
    Special attention was paid to the assessment of various soil degradation processes, as: (1) soil erosion by water or wind; (2) soil acidification; (3) salinization and/or alkalization; (4) physical degradation (structure destruction, compaction); (5) extreme moisture regime: drought sensitivity and waterlogging hazard; (6) biological degradation; (7) unfavourable changes in the plant nutrient regime; (8) decrease of natural buffering capacity, (9) soil (and water) pollution.
    The actions against undesirable environmental stresses and their unfavourable consequences are important elements of sustainable, efficient, economically viable, socially acceptable and environmentally sound crop production and agricultural development. These are joint tasks of the state, decision makers on various levels, the land owners, the land users and – to a certain extent – of each member of the society.

  • The effect of different fertilizer treatments on the sulphur and protein content of wheat
    73-76
    Views:
    111

    In this study the effect of N,P and K nutrients on the S and protein content of wheat grains was investigated in a long-term fertilization experiment set up in Nagyhörcsök. The calcareous chernozem soil having the following characteristics: pH (KCl): 7.3, CaCO3: 4.27%, humus: 3.45%, Al-soluble P2O5 and K2O: 60–80 and 180–200, KCl- Mg: 150–180, KCl+EDTA-soluble Mn-, Cu- and Zn-content: 80–150, 2–3 and 1–2 mg kg-1. The experiment had a split-split-plot design with 40 treatments in 4 replications. Plant samples were collected from 2002 and 2004. 2002 was a drought year while 2004 was very wet.
    The main conclusions are as follows:
    – The sulphur and protein content were than the control higher in every NPK treatments.
    – The sulphur and protein content of the wheat grains were higher in 2004 that had a lot of rain than in 2002 that had drouht.

  • The effect of irrigation on the yield and quality of maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids
    143-147
    Views:
    156

    In this study, the effect of water supply on the quality and productivity of different maize hybrids was observed.

    Maize production is influenced by many agro-technical factors such as nutrient supply, plant density, environmental factors, water supply and temperature. Good soil quality and adequate technology significantly reduce the unfavourable effect of crop year. The impact of fertilization, crop rotation, irrigation and plant density on maize yield was greatly affected by crop year and crop rotation. The main constituent (69–75% dry matter concentration) of maize seed is starch, however, its increase can be achieved only to a limited extent, as increasing the starch content will reduce other parameters, especially protein content. Significant nutrient content improvements can be achieved by appropriate hybrid-site connection and the use of adequate technology. Protein content reduction with optimal water supply can be positively influenced by the appropriate nutrient supply for the hybrid.

    The experiments were carried out at the Látókép Experimental Site of Crop Production on calcareous chernozem soil. The weather of the examined year, which was partly favorable for maize and partly unfavourable in other respects, was also reflected in the development of maize and yields achieved.

    In 2019, we were examining the hybrids of Kamaria (FAO 370), P 9903 (FAO 390), DKC 4351 (FAO 370) and KWS Kamparis (FAO 350–400). Due to the dry soil condition, sowing was delayed, however, the hybrids emerged ideally because rain arrived soon after sowing, which facilitated initial development. Young plants evolved rapidly and dynamically in the case of all hybrids. In terms of heat-demanding bread, the month of May was unfavourable to temperatures below the annual average, but the higher amount rainfall helped the development. However, due to the drier period in early July, 25–25 mm of irrigation water was applied to half of the experimental areas on July 1 and 15.

    The aim of our research was to determine the best population density for hybrids under favourable soil conditions (calcareous chernozem soil). In both irrigated and dry conditions, a crop density of 75,000 crops were the most favourable for the Kamaria hybrid. The P9903 hybrid in the case of a crop density of 85 crops proved to be ideal and the DKC4351 had an optimal population density of 95,000.

    However, it should be taken into consideration that, in the case of soils with poor water management, the drought sensitivity of the crop stand may increase at a population density of 95,000.

    As a result of irrigation, yield increased and the difference between the examined plant numbers decreased. The yield growth was relatively moderate (341 kg ha-1 – 1053 kg ha-1), which makes the economicalness of irrigation doubtful in the given year.