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Horn colour varieties of the Hungarian Grey cattle
Published November 24, 2008

The Hungarian Grey Cattle breed is a ‘success-story’ of the national genetic conservation work. Traits of the breed have been subjects of several research projects, although many relationships remained unclear. Our present research results were meant to call attention to a less emphasized trait of the breed: the different horn colour variet...ies. Research work was carried out in the Hungarian Grey stock of the Hortobágy Non-profit Company for Nature Conservation and Gene Preservation. Ratio of the three main horn colour varieties (white, ‘cardy’, green) were determined in the observed female, male and steer stocks. Our results showed no significant differences (P<0,05) in the distribution of the horn colour varieties of the female and bull stocks, and of the female and steer stocks. We found that on the basis of the ratio of white colour, four sub-categories can be distinguished within the ‘cardy’ colour variety. Results of the statistical analysis (P<0,05) confirmed that the colour of the horn and the ratio of the black part on the horn tip are two different traits. 

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Additional data for the evaluation of coat colour varieties in the Hungarian Grey cattle
Published July 16, 2007

When preserving genetic resources, one of the most important tasks is to conserve as much of the given gene pool for the future generations as we can. Therefore, traits that have no economic value at the moment should also be conserved. The great variety of coat colours seen in the Hungarian Grey cattle form part of the world’s genetic In order to maintain the world’s genetic diversity, we have to maintain these varieties, as well. The different coat colour varieties were determined – in both sexes and in several age groups – with a Minolta Chromameter CR-410 in an objective way. We found that the rate of the three main coat colour varieties of calves: the light reddish, the reddish and the dark reddish were 26%, 52% and 22%, respectively. Statistically significant differences were found between the L*a*b* values of the reddish coat colour of the Hungarian Grey and the red coat colour of the Limousin calves. The rate of the crane, the grey and the light grey coat colour varieties were determined in the measured female groups. The L*a*b* values of the Hungarian Grey and Maremman bulls’ coat were compared and evaluated.

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Genetic Diversity of Hair Colour in Horses
Published December 6, 2005

The main aim of this study was to analyze sources of variability for coat colour expressed as a quantitative trait as well as to determine non genetic factors influencing horse colour variation and shades. Traditional Hungarian horse breeds such as Lipizzan (grey), Gidran (chestnut), Shagya Arabian and Arabian Pure Bred (grey) and Nonius (bay a...nd black) horses were involved in the current study. We report results using direct measurements of horse coat colour using objective colorimetric dimensions and a spectrophotometer for determining hair melanin. Correlation analysis indicated that the single biological component that correlated best with the total melanin content of horse hair is the L* value (r=-0.858, p<0.0001). Subjective colour classes and coat colour variables L* and a* were obviously related, with R2 values of 0.88 and 0.46 respectively, with a lower R2 for b* of 0.22 (all p<0.001).

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Analysis of the Grey Colour Intensity in Horses
Published September 22, 2004

An investigation of different grey coat colours and a connection between colour and age of horses was carried out with two Hungarian State Studs: Bábolna and Szilvásvárad. For objective measurement of coat colour Minolta Chromameter (Model CR-210) was used. The average value of L (lightness) level by Shagya and Pure Bred Arabian horses was 6...3.83 ± 2.23, for Lipizzan horses was x=71.00 ± 2.29 respectively. In each stud older horses (over 10 years of age) have a flea-bitten colour stage, which decreased the L value considerably. Changes in coat colour in connection with the greying process did not show an evident tendency in the three breeds.

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The effect of daytime and nighttime temperature on the cover colour of fruits in an apple gene bank
Published September 14, 2005

Skin colour of fruits is an important fruit quality parameter. Fruit growers know the phenomenon that the apple colouration is very good in one year while in other years the green and red apples can be differentiated only on the basis of the morphological characteristics of the fruits. There are great differences in values of cover colour betwe...en years.
In the first step, the relationships between day and night temperature, the difference between day and night temperature and fruit skin colour should be determined. In this study, the authors investigate and quantify this relationship.

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Gene resources for improvement of drought tolerance and yield quality in dry pea breeding
Published November 15, 2007

The effectiveness of selection for improved drought tolerance and consumption quality in the progeny of crosses between pea cultivars with semi-leafless (afila) and normal leaves and different origins, respectively, were investigated. After single crosses, parent cultivars and F1, F2 and F3 generations were grown under non-irrigated conditions the same trials. We created a colour scale from 1 to 9 to measure statistically the shade of seed colour. The tolerance of genotypes against high temperature was measured by the number of pods per plant. The 3:1 segregation
observed in the F2 generation of crosses between semi-leafless and conventional cultivars indicated that the semi-leafless character is determined by a recessive gene. In contrast, the ratios of conventional (Af) and semi-leafless (af) genotypes were 7:1 and 9:1 ratio in the progenies of crosses of Af × af. The genetic progress was effective for improving the seed quality in F3 generation from crosses Af x af where we found that multiple
dominant alleles controlled the orange colour of cotyledons and its high heritability (h2 A=0,63). Selection is more effective in producing the genotypes with high yield and normal leaves if the crosses were made between the western European cultivars such as semi-leafless Profi and Delta used as maternal cultivars and conventional Auralia cultivars. In this case, there were decreases in the consumption quality, such as seed size and shade of colour. The selection based on the seed weight of single plants for increasing drought tolerance seemed to be more effective in F4
strains with normal leaves originated from Czechoslovakian maternal cultivar Y228; however, the genetic progress in the improvement of seed size and colour quality was slow. 

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The effect of sunburn damage on the fruit quality parameters of apple (Malus domestica cv. Idared)
Published September 14, 2005

In the present study the authors investigated the effect of sunburn injury on fruit quality parameters (cover colour, depth of tissue damage, fruit flesh firmness, dry matter content) of apple.
The symptoms of sunburn injury appeared as concentric rings, differing in colour from each other and the cover colour. This can be connected with the... ratio of the injury. The authors observed the following colours on the fruit surface (from the epicentre of spots on the surface of the fruit) dark brown (strongly damaged), light brown (moderately damaged), pale red transition (weakly damaged), red surface cover colour (not damaged).
Sunburn of apple fruits is a surface injury caused by solar radiation, heat and low relative humidity. In the initial phase, a light corky layer, golden or bronze discolouration and injuries of the epidermal tissue appear on the surface exposed to radiation. Thus, it detracts from the fruit’s appearance, but in most of the cases it would not cause serious damages in the epidermal tissue. The depth of tissue damage is not considerable, its values are between 1.5-2.0 mm in general. It is commonly known, that tissue structure of the apple fruit is not homogeneous. Accordingly, the degree of injury shows some differences under the different parts of the fruit surface.
On the basis of the flesh firmness studies, it can be stated that the flesh firmness of the damaged parts increases due to the sunburn effect. This is due to the fact that the damaged plant cells die, the water content of the tissue decreases and it hardens. However, due to this reduction in the water content the dry matter content will increase.

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Organoleptical and instrumental examination of broilers’ valuable meat-parts
Published July 31, 2012

The aim of our study was to compare some meat quality parameters (color,- evenness of colour- and tone of meat) of Ross 308, Cobb 500 and 
Ross parents hibrids. These qualities are of preliminary importance for consumers and are related to several evaluating features influencing the preparation. The colour of the breast and thigh muscle...s was measured by Minolta CR-300 type colour measuring equipment. The evenness of color- and tone of the breast and thigh muscles were measured in the laboratory of Campden BRI Magyarország Nonprofit Kft.
We found that in the females the color of Ross 308 pullets’ breast meat was significantly darker. In the males the darkest breast meat was detectable in the case of the Ross parents hybrids. In neither sexes wast found significant difference – in all but one – in quality parameters of thigh meat.

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Horn and coat color varieties of the Hungarian grey cattle
Published May 23, 2006

Due to the intensification of agricultural production, genetic diversity has been reduced to a large extent. Presently, in the period of worldwide genetic conservation, we try to preserve as much of the gene pool of our valuable indigenous domestic animal breeds as we can. Therefore, traits that have no economic value at the moment should also conserved. The different horn and coat colour varieties of Hungarian Grey Cattle are such valuable traits. Research has been done on the largest Hungarian Grey Cattle stock, at the Hortobágy Kht. Rates of the different horn and coat colour varieties were determined and relationships were analyzed between the above mentioned qualitative traits

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Antioxidant activity and total flavonoid content of honeys
Published December 15, 2010

The influence of honey on human health has been known since ancient times. Different components, like vitamins, amino-acids, enzymes, and the so called antioxidant activity of the honey play role in this effect, and also in the excellent quality. The aim of present study was to determine the total antioxidant activity and the flavonoid content ...of some honey samples. These two parameters are widely studied, and a lot of data can be used to compare and analyse. On the basis of them we can state that our results are quite similar than those we can find in literature. Characteristic feature of the examined honey samples is, that the antioxidant activity increased with the darkening of the colour. The lowest antioxidant activity and flavonoid content was produced by the acacia honeys with greenish shade of colour. The highest values was found in the very dark honeys (forest, sage, golden rod). The only exception was the coriander honey, where despite of its lighter colour, very high antioxidant activity was

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Effect of raised level α-linolenic fatty acid diet on broiler meat quality
Published July 16, 2007

The aim of our investigation was to determine the effects of increased α-linolenic content in food on the colour, total pigment content, organoleptic characteristics and oxidative stability of poultry meat. The experiment was carried out with 1200 Ross-308 cock chicklings. Birds were fed three-phase diets, contained four different fat sources:... lard, sunflower oil, flaxseed oil and soybean oil. According to the experiment, the different oil sources had no effect on growth performance, but the fatty acid composition of diets was reflected in the meat fatty acid profile. We could detect just slight change in colour in the treated meat, which was not caused by the decreased pigment content. The detected change in colour during the storage was not in relation to initial PUFA content. TBA level did not prove the accelerated lipid peroxidation which was expected in case of higher α-linolenic containing the meat. The data obtained in meat storage trial, could not prove clearly the negative effect of the higher α-linolenic content of the meat.

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Effect of dietary fatty acids on the oxidative stability and the colour of broiler meat
Published May 23, 2006

The aim of our investigation was to determine the effects of increased PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acids) content on the colour, total pigment content, organoleptic characteristics and oxidative stability of poultry meat. The experiment was carried out with 1200 Ross-308 cock chicklings. Animals were fed with a 3 phase diet, and in each phase, ...additional fat was added to the feed. The isocaloric and isonitrogenic feed was produced as the breeder organization suggested; only the fat content differed (4 treatments: pig fat (lard), sunflower oil, soy oil, flax-seed oil).
The different fat complements did not influence broiler production. However, the fatty acid composition of meat was similar to the fatty acid composition of feed (additional fats). The analyses of meat samples, after a storage period, did not significantly prove the possible negative effects of higher PUFA content.

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Tendencies of various brewery operation parameters
Published March 5, 2015

Beer is a very popular beverage which is the result of complex processes. Its quality and parameters are the outcomes of transformation of components from raw material. We tried to find out during our research how the parameters – the total polyphenol content, the colour and the total sugar content – of our self-brewed beers change during t...he brewing.

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The effect of rootstocks on the fruit quality parameters of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.)
Published September 14, 2005

The authors studied the effect of rootstocks with different growing vigour on fruit quality of different cultivars. Research results shows that best fruit diamter and fruit weight of all cultivars are for M9 rootstock. Similar tendency was found in skin colour, but in the case of Granny Smith, MM106 rootstock is more favourable because the gree...n skin colour is necessary for the consumers’ acceptance. Seedling rootstok has some unfavourable effects on fruit quality, thus its usage is not expedient.

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Changing of antioxidant and sugar contents of self brewed beers during the brewing steps
Published March 23, 2016

Beer is a valuable beverage, its composition is influenced by raw materials and technology. We tried to determine how the technological steps influence the antioxidant content, the colur value, and the carbohydrate content, and how fruit syrups influence the antioxidant content and the colour value.

The Relationship Between the Moisture Content of Sweetcorn Raw Material and the Quality of the Deep-Frozen End Product
Published May 11, 2003

One of the remarkable effects of the economical and social development is the changing of the eating habits, first of all increasing consumption of deep-frozen products. The spreading of the sweet corn under these vegetables is characteristic.
The parameters exerting influence on the quality of the deepfrozen sweetcorn is classed in 3 catego...ries:
• Physical quality: foreign matter, clumps, blemished corn, broken kernel, miscut, pulled kernel.
• Organoleptical features: taste, colour, texture, and sweetness.
• Microbiological features: TVC, mould, yeast.
The moisture content of the raw material influences the organoleptical features to the highest degree.
We take continuously samples from the raw material arriving in to the factory to determinate moisture content, and from the product to specify the organoleptical features.
Based on the data of 2002 we can make the following findings:
The colour of the deepfrozen sweetcorn is less influenced by the moisture content. The taste is between 69% and 72% the most optimal, but over 72% get worse, more „milky”, water-tasted because of the underdevelopment of sweetcorn. The texture continuously becomes better with the increasing of moisture content. Under 67% of water the class „C” is typical, which means a taste with weak charasteric, a bit scathing or bitter, and texture with rubbery inner part and hard pericarpia. The decadence of taste is caused by converting a great part of sugar into starch.
The correlation between moisture and quality is varying by varieties; different varieties have their best quality by different moisture content. By our investigations the best harvest time is at the 69-72% moisture content. At this point are the organoleptical features the most optimal, and the grower has not the loss of yield caused by early harvesting.

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Morpometric study of Hungarian honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies
Published February 10, 2013

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The honey bees are essential for the pollination of agricultural plants. The Pannonian honey bee, Apis mellifera pannonica, is native to Hungary, only these subspecies are being bread in our country. The parameters have been separated the pannon and italian honey bee subspecies, the colour of tergit, the cubital index and proboscis length. The morphometric analisys is of special importance because this, on the one hand, shows correlation with honey bee production and on the other hand, the pure morphometric charactersitics is the basis of any potential honey bee export. Mitochondrial DNA and microsatellites are the common methods to define genetic diversity and the separation of subspecies.

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Determining the antioxidant compounds of beer
Published June 30, 2018

The increasing consumption of beer indicates the necessity of the thorough analysis of its composition. In this study, the total phenolic content, flavonoid content and colour intensity of 24 beer samples have been determined. The samples contained pale barley, dark barley, pale wheat and dark wheat beers. The aim of the study was to determine ...the amount of the antioxidant compounds in beer, as well as to find correlation between different beer types and the above mentioned parameters.

Dark barley samples contained phenolic compounds in the highest concentrations, and it can also be concluded that dark beers contain phenolic compounds and flavonoids in higher concentrations than pale beers in the case of barley and wheat samples.

According to the performed statistical analysis, these beer types cannot be differentiated based on the analysed parameters. The highest percentage of correctly classified samples could be observed in case of dark barley samples, but this value has only been 75%, and the total result of correctly classified cases was only 41.7%. The analysis of more samples and parameters is required to carry out a successful differentiation.

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Comparing skull formation of the Hungarian (Hortobágy) Zackel sheep breed by geometrics morphometrics
Published March 24, 2015

This work seeks to explore the morphological changes of the Hungarian (Hortobágy) Zackel sheep's skull, which occurred in the past 50–70 years. In this study, we compared individuals skull forms by geometric morphometric methods. The origin of the breed is not known, we do not know when entering the Carpathian Basin. Therefore, the compariso...n involved the only known early archaeological findings. We have shown that there is no difference between each period colour variations, but over time change has occurred in the skull formation of the breed.

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Inland and foreign Erwinia amylovora isolates by carbohydrate utilization
Published November 10, 2010

Fire blight, a plant disease caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora, produces serious losses in apple and pear orchards all over the world. Since the appearance of fire blight in Hungary (Hevesi, 1996) Erwinia amylovora isolates were collected in different years, from different hosts and areas in order to establish gene bank for future epide...miological studies. We had isolates from foreign countries as well. The aim of our research was to compare all of the Hungarian and foreign isolates by carbohydrate utilization. 
In our experiments effect of carbohydrates on E. amylovora multiplication was determined using API 50 CH strip (bioMérieux, France). By the API 50 CH strip method we checked a number of unstudied carbohydrates. The results of the tests shows colour changes. Based on utilization of 49 carbohydrates of API 50 CH kit by E. amylovora isolates, two groups of carbohydrates can be defined: “Utilized” - and “Not utilized”  carbohydrates. All isolates utilized 20 different carbohydrates after 164 hour incubation. Conversely, isolates also could be divided into four groups (1, 2, 3, 4) by arbutin and raffinose utilization. In group 1.-isolates utilize arbutin; 2.- utilize raffinose; 3.- utilize both arbutin and raffinose; 4. -utilize neither arbutin nor raffinose. Presumably carbohydrate content of nectar could play an important role on invasion of the (E. amylovora) bacterium via flower.
It could be concluded that the carbohydrate utilization – completed with genetic analysis – can be used for characterization of Erwinia amylovora isolates.

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The Fattening and Slaughtering Examination at the Hungarian Racka Sheep
Published May 4, 2004

Fattening and slaughtering characteristics of both types (black and white) of the Hungarian racka sheep were investigated at the site of the National Institute for Agricultural Quality Control in Atkár. The Hungarian merino, the dairy cigaja and the British milksheep were applied as control groups. 10 animals were examined from both sexes in e...ach genotype. The examination was carried out according to the principles set in the Codex for sheep breeding. During the test acute diarrhoea occurred in each control group. However, only few lambs were excluded from the test from the British milksheep and the Hungarian merino groups because of significant changes in their condition. Consequently, the results obtained were not significantly influenced. No symptoms of any illness could be recognised in the Hungarian racka sheep, though. The significance of the difference between the average of the examined groups were checked by T-tests.
Daily gain was significantly less compared to the control groups, except for the white racka males. The lambs starving for 24 hours before slaughtering weighed 25.3-30.0 kgs on average. The black and white racka females weighed the least while the Hungarian merino females weighed the most. The quantity of abdominal and kidney fat was significant in the case of our native females. The quantity of abdominal fat was significantly bigger compared to each control group. On comparing the investigated groups it turned out that the white racka males had the biggest skin weight while the white Hungarian racka females had the smallest, that is the two extremes were recognised in the same colour (white) of one bred. On qualifying the slaughtered animals females had better results than males in each bred; the racka sheep were better than the dairy cigaja but were worse than the Hungarian merino and British sheep groups.
The huge differences in the carcasses of the groups were seen clearly when chopping. Examining the leg, it was noticed that the native groups proved to be smaller than the control groups, except for the black racka males. As for the short loin, the Hungarian racka and the Hungarian merino sheep proved to be the best, whereas the dairy cigaja and the British milk males had much smaller ones. The results gained when investigating the rack were similar to those of the short loin. As far as the rib and shoulder are concerned, the black racka females and the dairy cigaja females had the worst results. After chopping, the right side was also boned in every group. The small proportion of bone in the case of racka sheep was easily noticeable that resulted in the fact that the white racka females had the highest quantity of short loin compared to the other groups. When examining the back quarter, the bone proportions of the 4 racka groups proved to be significantly less than those of the control groups but it was not true for the meat proportions. As for the front quarter meat, the racka males were prominent in the great shoulder meat and in the small proportion of bone. The quantity of the first quarter bone was the least in the case of racka sheep and was the biggest for dairy cigajas. This difference proved to be significant in most cases.
In short, the Hungarian racka groups had the best results in meat quantity, which was especially significant compared to the dairy cigaja sheep. However, the quantity of external fat increased.

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The Effect of Mg Foliage Fertilization on Beetroot (Beta vulgaris ssp. esculenta var. rubra) Morphology, Quality Traits and their Relations
Published September 22, 2004

Mg-treatment increased solid soluble content in roots probably due to the larger assimilation area.
The applied foliage fertilization affected inner colour intensity and uniformity in roots positively.
The 2% Mg-sulphate solution affected pigment quantity favourably depending on varieties.
Close correlation (r=0,71) was found between t...he yellow (BX) and red (BC) pigments which indicates a similar biosynthetic pathway of the two compounds.
The Mg-sulphate foliage fertilization improves quality considerably but the individual reaction of varieties needs further studies.

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Lack of polymorphism of the agouti signaling protein (ASIP) gene among four different brown hare (Lepus europaeus Pallas 1778) populations
Published October 24, 2016

The brown hare (Lepus europaeus Pallas 1778) is a common palearctic and a popular game species therefore it has been an obvious subject for population genetic studies since the second part of the 20th century. Among the several mitochondrial DNA studies some have been carried out concerning nuclear genes as well. The agouti signaling... protein gene (ASIP) is involved in regulating the synthesis of eumelanin and pheomelanin in melanocytes of mammals. Though many studies focused on it in relation with several mammalian species, minimal information is available on this topic concerning the brown hare.

Here we present a short communication concerning the agouti signaling protein (ASIP) gene in four different country’s L. europaeus populations, namely Lithuania, Hungary, Serbia and Georgia. N=45 tissue samples have been investigated from overall 17 sampling sites of the different countries. There has not been found any polymorphism among the sequences. In an alignment with other Leporid species’ partial ASIP sequences downloaded from ENA we have found that based on a 178 base pairs long DNA sequence the haplotype of our samples contains three other Lepus species as well. This is concordant with the findings of a previous study focusing predominantly on the European rabbit (Orycto lagus cuniculus Linnaeus 1758) and the several mutations of its ASIP gene.

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The methodology of the Hooded Crow’s (Corvus cornix L.) colour ringing and the previous results
Published July 31, 2012

The Hooded Crow (CorvuscornixL.) have moved in several Hungarian cities in the last few decades. It is breeding in Debrecen since 1959, and nowdays it’s presence can be detected at all points of the city, it is an permanent breeding species of the bird fauna. Our knowledge about the nature of urban races, including motion patterns, area fidel...ity is sufficiently incomplete. The aim of our research is to answer these questions by using our colour-ring program. In this study we present in details the methodology of Hooded Crow’s colour-ring program in urban area, and we also report our previous

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A simple method for preparing elemental selenium nano- coating inside a silicone surface
Published June 1, 2021

Selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) with a bright red colour have aroused worldwide attention due to their unique properties in selenium supplementation because of their low toxicity and favourable bioavailability. A simple method was developed for making a red selenium nanolayer on the inner surface of Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and silicone tube.... The selenium nanoparticles were produced by the reaction of sodium selenite and ascorbic acid. Red amorphous selenium nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by the reaction of 500 mg dm-3 Se (sodium selenite) solution with 10 g dm-3 ascorbic acid solution at room temperature, and morphology was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The coating density was compared on PVC and silicone surfaces by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy-dispersive X-ray (EDS) analysis. The nanolayer with about 16 µm thickness on the silicone surface significantly evenly distributed compared to the PVC surface. The selenium coated silicone tube could be a good source of selenium for a continuous, low-level selenium supplementation of farm animals via drinking water.

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