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  • The effect of grazing of various cattle breeds on botanical composition of low-lying pasture in Hortobágy
    57-63
    Views:
    174

    Coenological surveys were conducted in the Hortobágy National Park (Pap-ere and Zám-puszta) in May 2015 and 2016. During the tests,a total of 40 permanent plots were analyzed on grasslands grazed by extensive cattle (Hungarian Grey) and mixed genotype intensive cattle. The presence of plant species, percentages of total coverage of species and vegetation cover were recorded. Two habitat types were chosen according to their moisture content: wet salt marsh meadow (Bolboschoenetum maritimi) and drier salt meadows (Beckmannion eruciformis).

    We compared the impact of increased number of animals (2016 years) and the low number of animals (2015 years, initial state) and the grazing exclusion on vegetations.
    We tested: (i) what is the impact of grazing on the vegetation, (ii) how do species composition and vegetation charachteristics differ in the two habitat types (iii) and is there a difference in the impact of different cattle breeds (Hungarian gray, intensive beef cattle) grazing on the grasslands species composition? During the investigation we found, (i) that the greatest number of species was recorded in 2015, on the area that received moderate to intensive grazing (14.3 species per m2). Somewhat the number of species was reduced in 2016 due to more intensive grazing. The control group had the lowest number of species (11.7 species per m2). The undergrass and legumes cover significantly increased on intensive grazed lands. (ii) Our results indicate that the effects of different grazing differ in the two studied habitat types. On the drier grasslands greater number of species were found (16.2 species per m2), oppositely to the wet grassland (11.2 species per m2). The cover of the undergrasses was higher in the drier habitat than in the wet. (iii) The extensive beef cattle left a bigger number of species (16 species per m2) than the intensive beef cattle (11.4 species per m2). The grass cover was more intense on areas grazed by intensive cattle. The absolute and potential weeds cover showed a higher value on areas grazed by Hungarian Grey. Our two-year results suggest that grazing by both extensive and intensive cattle breeds can be a proper tool for the conservation management of alkali grasslands.

  • The effect of different genotype cattle grazing on the nutrient content of saline grasslands vegetation
    46-50
    Views:
    179

    Maintaining saline grasslands in good condition, preserving their yield and diversity is important not only for the purpose of nature conservation, but also for farming. Therefore, the primary purpose of our study is to analyse the effect of pasture use of the smaller weight extensive and the larger weight intensive beef cattle on the grassland vegetation and nutrient content. In this way, we can answer the question whether grazing for nature conservation can be achieved with more profitable, more economical and more intense varieties.

    The tests were carried out in May 2016 and May 2017, in the Hortobágy National Park (Pap-ere and Zám puszta), where a total of 16 sample areas were analysed. These areas are grazed with extensive beef cattle (Hungarian grey) and mixed genotype of intensive cattle. The associations were selected along a moisture gradient, such as wet salt marsh (Bolboschoenetum maritimi) and drier saline meadow (Beckmannion eruciformis). All the vegetative material collected both years in May was analysed for the following parameters: dry matter, crude protein, crude fibre and life-sustaining net energy content. We compared the effects of medium grazing (0.46 livestock/ha) and abandonment on vegetation and nutrient content.

    We examined the effect of (i) grazing, (ii) different grasslands (salt marsh, saline meadow) and (iii) grazing of different cattle breeds (Hungarian grey, intensive beef) on the nutrient content of the vegetation of grasslands Based on our results, it was found that grazing had an impact on crude protein and life-sustaining net energy content. The highest crude protein content (12.75 m/m%) was obtained in the year 2017 in the area where higher density had been grazed for two years. For the lifesustaining net energy, the highest value (5.05 MJ/kg d.m.) was also obtained in 2017 and the lowest in 2016. Furthermore, it was found that there was no significant difference between the effect of the two cattle breeds on the parameters examined. Significant effects were observed only in the case of life-sustaining net energy: in the area of intensive beef cattle we received a higher value (5.15 MJ/kg body weight) than in the area with extensive beef cattle (4.96 MJ/kg body weight).

    Our results have also shown that cattle grazing is of the utmost importance for the maintenance of both wet and mesophilous habitats. Based on our three-year study, we can say that grazing by both extensive and intensive cattle breeds is suitable for the management of saline habitats.

  • Daily behaviour of Hungarian Grey Cattle under range grazing conditions
    45-48
    Views:
    162

    Cattle behaviour on rangeland depends on external factors, such as grass allowance and quality, temperature, net solar radiation, distance from water-source, wind speed and direction, air pressure changes and the applied breeding technology. Our research is based on previous empirical observations and modern methods to analyze the behaviour of the Hungarian Grey Cattle. Today it is crucial to use cost-effective solutions in modern beef cattle farming therefore we introduce a cost-efficient method to study and follow cattle herds. We are studying relation between traveled daily distance and air pressure. The various weather fronts influence behavioural characteristics and traveled daily distance. According to our hypothesis, the pressure-change and the wind direction has significant effect on cattle activity on pasture. As the different air masses alter the barometric conditions and unbalance the neuroendocrine system, indirectly cause relaxed or agitated behaviour

  • The Effect of Grazing Intensities on Magnesium Contents
    8-13
    Views:
    158

    Research was carried out on two areas of grassland in Hortobágy National Park, Hungary. Two herds of Hungarian Grey Cattle were kept in free range grazing and the effects of grazing pressure on the magnesium content of soil and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L) were determined.
    Changes of plant available and total soil magnesium content under different grazing intensities did not show any evident tendency on the investigated grasslands. Different amounts of cattle faeces, urine and trampling had no effect on the magnesium concentration of ryegrass. We conclude that the magnesium content of ryegrass on both grassland sites as moderate grazing and overgrazing matches the requirements of cattle. Symptoms of magnesium deficiency of cattle will likely not appear.

  • Search for polymorphism in exon 5 of cattle pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide gene
    17-20
    Views:
    156

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide is a neuropeptide expressed primarily in the hypothalamus and in other tissues, which divergent and extensive physiological functions are proved. Large number of SNPs in PACAP are published involved SNP that is associated with phenotypic trait of cattle as well. Hungarian Grey, Hungarian Simmental, Holstein, Charolais and Angus cattle breeds were involved in this study to search for polymorphism in exon 5 1–391 bp and G/A transition. Our results of PCR RFLP and PCR SSCP did not prove the occurrence neither G/A transition, nor any other SNP in cattle breeds involved.

  • Influences of different organic fertilizers on nutrients of humic sandy soil and on the growth of Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.)
    23-28
    Views:
    315

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to compare the effects of manure with different origin (horse, cattle), various bedding materials (straw, sawdust) and diverse doses (30 t ha-1, 60 t ha-1) and the impact of food waste compost on the plant growth and the available plant nutrient content of soil. The study was conducted on humic sandy soil and consisted of 9 treatments in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) was grown as the test crop. The treatments were: 1. unfertilized control; 2. horse manure with straw (30 t ha-1); 3. horse manure with sawdust (30 t ha-1); 4. cattle manure (30 t ha-1); 5 food waste compost (30 t ha-1); 6. horse manure with straw (60 t ha-1); 7. horse manure with sawdust (60 t ha-1); 8. cattle manure (60 t ha-1); 9. food waste compost (60 t ha-1). Plant growth was monitored for 4 weeks. Shoot and root weights per pot were measured, total biomass weight per pot were counted.

    On the basis of the results it can be concluded, that among treatments the application of horse manure with straw enhanced spinach growth most significantly compared to other treatments and to the non-treated control, resulted the highest weights of leaves and roots of spinach. At the same time even small dose (30 t ha-1) of this fertilizer caused increased plant available nitrogen and phosphorus of soil and the higher dosage further increased these values. The horse manure with sawdust applied in lower dose did not alter the leaves and roots weights, but higher portion (60 t ha-1) caused significantly decreased plant biomass. The results proved that the bedding material may significantly alter the composition of manure and may change the plant nutrition effect of organic fertilizer. Cattle manure and food waste compost in both applied doses enhanced plant growth. Both fertilizers increased the plant available nitrogen forms and phosphorus content of soil, but cattle manure caused higher increase.

  • Horn and coat color varieties of the Hungarian grey cattle
    44-48
    Views:
    99

    Due to the intensification of agricultural production, genetic diversity has been reduced to a large extent. Presently, in the period of worldwide genetic conservation, we try to preserve as much of the gene pool of our valuable indigenous domestic animal breeds as we can. Therefore, traits that have no economic value at the moment should also be conserved. The different horn and coat colour varieties of Hungarian Grey Cattle are such valuable traits. Research has been done on the largest Hungarian Grey Cattle stock, at the Hortobágy Kht. Rates of the different horn and coat colour varieties were determined and relationships were analyzed between the above mentioned qualitative traits

  • Estimation of direct and maternal genetic parameters for weaning weight in Hungarian Simmental cattle
    17-22
    Views:
    140

    The aim of the current research was to estimate variance components and genetic parameters of weaning weight in Hungarian Simmental cattle. Weaning weight records were obtained from the Association of Hungarian Simmental Breeders. The dataset comprised of 44,278 animals born from 1975 to 2020. The data was analyzed using the restricted maximum likelihood methodology of the Wombat software. We fitted a total of six models to the weaning weight data of Hungarian Simmental cattle. Models ranged from a simple model with animals as the only random effect to a model that had maternal environmental effects as additional random effects as well as direct maternal genetic covariance. Fixed effects in the model comprised of herd, birth year, calving order and sex. Likelihood ratio test was used to determine the best fit model for the data. Results indicated that allowing for direct-maternal genetic covariance increases the direct and maternal effect dramatically. The best fit model had direct and maternal genetic effects as the only random effect with non-zero direct-maternal genetic correlation. Direct heritability, maternal heritability and direct maternal correlation of the best fit model was 0.57, 0.16 and -0.78 respectively. The result indicates that problem of (co-)sampling variation occurs when attempting to partition additive genetic variance into direct and maternal components.

  • Upgrading breeding value estimation in beef cattle
    451-458
    Views:
    199

    This paper gives a summary of the possibility for applying genomic information for breeding value estimation in beef cattle breeding. This process is called genomic prediction and is now widely used in dairy cattle globally as well as in some beef and sheep populations. The advantage of genomic prediction is a more accurate estimate of the genetic merit of an individual at a young age thereby facilitating greater annual genetic gain, predominantly through shorter generation intervals. Genomic predictions are more advantageous for sex-linked (e.g., milk yield), low heritability (e.g., fertility) and difficult-to-measure (e.g., feed intake) traits. The larger the reference population, on average, the more accurate the genomic predictions; additionally, the closer genetically the reference population is to the candidate population, the greater the accuracy of genomic predictions. Research is continuing on strategies to generate accurate genomic predictions using a reference population consisting of multiple breeds (and crossbred). Retrospective analysis of real-life data where genomic predictions have been operation for several years clearly shows a benefit of this technology.

  • Study of changes in the strength of connection between grey cattle cows and their offspring after weaning
    129-136
    Views:
    249

    It is important to minimize stress for cattle because of animal welfare and profitability. This study aims to reveal how long after abrupt weaning the cow and her offspring show a need to rebuild the connection if physical barriers are removed and distances disappear. The research was carried out on Szamárhát Farm owned by the Tiszatáj Foundation, Hungary. In the autumn of 2019, thirty-one calves were weaned, randomly selected from 81 grey cattle cows’ offspring. The oldest calf was 10 months old, while the youngest one was 6 months old on the day of weaning. They were divided into three groups and reunited with the cows during the first, third, and fifth weeks after weaning. Each reunion happened in the early afternoon and the cow and her offspring spent 24 hours together again. The formation and the strength of the connection were recorded for an hour three times during this period, first in the afternoon, then in the morning, and the next afternoon. It can be seen that both parties showed the need to form the connection during the first week after weaning because the bond made between them was obvious in a short time. The connections proved to be strong. However, neither the cows nor their offsprings showed any intention to form strong connections in the third and fifth weeks. In the majority of the cases, no connection was formed. 

  • Horn colour varieties of the Hungarian Grey cattle
    83-87
    Views:
    100

    The Hungarian Grey Cattle breed is a ‘success-story’ of the national genetic conservation work. Traits of the breed have been subjects of several research projects, although many relationships remained unclear. Our present research results were meant to call attention to a less emphasized trait of the breed: the different horn colour varieties. Research work was carried out in the Hungarian Grey stock of the Hortobágy Non-profit Company for Nature Conservation and Gene Preservation. Ratio of the three main horn colour varieties (white, ‘cardy’, green) were determined in the observed female, male and steer stocks. Our results showed no significant differences (P<0,05) in the distribution of the horn colour varieties of the female and bull stocks, and of the female and steer stocks. We found that on the basis of the ratio of white colour, four sub-categories can be distinguished within the ‘cardy’ colour variety. Results of the statistical analysis (P<0,05) confirmed that the colour of the horn and the ratio of the black part on the horn tip are two different traits. 

  • Polymorphism of the bovine GH and LEP genes in a population of Slovak spotted bulls
    19-23
    Views:
    92

    The aim of this study was the detection of polymorphism in the bovine growth hormone and leptin genes using the PCR-RFLP method. A
    polymorphic site of the growth hormone gene (Alul loci) that results in amino acid change at position 127 of the protein chain (leucine, L to
    valine, V) has been linked to differences in circulating metabolites, metabolic hormones and to milk yield. The polymorphism in bovine leptin
    gene is situated in the intron between two exons, which results in an amino acid change at position 2059 of the protein chain (cytosine, C to
    thymine, T). The polymorphisms were studied in a group of 58 bulls of the Slovak spotted breed. A strategy employing PCR was used to amplify 428 bp (GH gene) and 422 bp (LEP gene) products from blood samples. Digestion of PCR products with restriction enzymes AluI and Sau3AI revealed alleles: L and V; A and B for GH gene and LEP gene, respectively. The growth hormone gene is a candidate gene for body weight gain in cattle, since it plays a fundamental role in growth regulation. Leptin plays an important role in the regulation of feed intake, energy metabolism, growth and reproduction of cattle; therefore, animals with higher leptin gene expression will probably have lower daily weight gain than others with similar forage offer and nutritional condition and will also likely have longer calving intervals. 

  • Analytical overview of dairy industry in the Poltava region, Ukraine
    47-51
    Views:
    124

    The author presents essential characteristics of the state and place of Poltava region in it. The study aims at identification and description of latest trends in Ukraine’s and Poltava’s dairy industry. The author stresses an important place of the dairy industry in the agriculture of Ukraine, and particularly in the Poltava region. This article also presents the information of main indicators of dairy industry of Ukraine in the comparison with other countries of the World. It describe sources of forming the main agricultural products and directions of their use for the calendar year, data on per capita consumption of main dairy products in Ukraine and the Poltava Region and per capita average daily consumption of basic micro- and macro elements in foods. The study contains basic indicators which characterize the social and economic state of agriculture in Ukraine and its regions for 1990–2012. There are also the data of gross production and main kinds of dairy products per capita and as well as some indicators of livestock’s productivity and so on.

    The goal of the article is to describe the complex evaluation of the achieved level of milk production, consumption of milk and dairy products in Ukraine and the Poltava Region, to show the specifics of the national dairy cattle breeding, identifying the main challenges in it.

  • Some methodological aspects of animal behaviour during beef cattle grazing
    31-35
    Views:
    111

    Ethology, the research field of animal behaviour, during the past half century developed into an independent science and became more important in recent years as the farming industry has turned toward quality production. Farm animals respond for every environmental factor. Essential to know the answers to avoid unpleasant economic consequences. Based on the shepherds’ experience, this science has merged with modern technology, constantly expanding and searching new methods. According to the literature the article summarizes the observation methods in cattle grazing. This paper introduces the beginnings and shows the future trends. Finally we share personal experiences as the Hungarian Grey cattle grazing behaviour at conditions of Hortobágy, Hungary.

  • Additional data for the evaluation of coat colour varieties in the Hungarian Grey cattle
    44-47
    Views:
    98

    When preserving genetic resources, one of the most important tasks is to conserve as much of the given gene pool for the future generations as we can. Therefore, traits that have no economic value at the moment should also be conserved. The great variety of coat colours seen in the Hungarian Grey cattle form part of the world’s genetic heritage. In order to maintain the world’s genetic diversity, we have to maintain these varieties, as well. The different coat colour varieties were determined – in both sexes and in several age groups – with a Minolta Chromameter CR-410 in an objective way. We found that the rate of the three main coat colour varieties of calves: the light reddish, the reddish and the dark reddish were 26%, 52% and 22%, respectively. Statistically significant differences were found between the L*a*b* values of the reddish coat colour of the Hungarian Grey and the red coat colour of the Limousin calves. The rate of the crane, the grey and the light grey coat colour varieties were determined in the measured female groups. The L*a*b* values of the Hungarian Grey and Maremman bulls’ coat were compared and evaluated.

  • The identification of phylloquinone in cattle samples using T.L.C. method
    75-78
    Views:
    78

    A case of hemorrhage of unknown origin was observed in cattle and liver samples were submitted for assay of Vitamin K or
    possible cuomarol. After evaluating normal and reverse phase Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) plates and different solvents,
    reverse phase TLC plate with indicator and methylene chloride:methanol 70:30 were chosen for direct method of detection and
    indication of Vitamin K.Gass Chromatography and Densitometry were used to quantitate the Vitamin K present in liver samples and
    confirmation of Vitamin K was done by Mass Spectroscopy.

  • Examination of the presence and effect of udder edema in Holstein-Friesian cattle
    125-130
    Views:
    108

    Mastitis is the most common disease of dairy cows and the most expensive in terms of treatment. For this reason, great emphasis must be placed on its prevention. Based on literature sources, it can be said that there is a positive correlation between the prevalence of udder edema and the occurrence of mastitis. Our studies were carried out in a dairy farm in Csongrád-Csanád county. So far we have collected data from 64 cows with udder edema. The severity of udder edema was evaluated on a scale of 0–3 points one week before calving and for 3 weeks after calving. We observed that udder edema occurred in 78% of the studied cows at the time of the first calving. After calving, the length and diameter of the four udder teats were examined. Both anterior and posterior teats were shortened in severely edematous cows. When examining the diameter of the teat, we found that, depending on the severity of the edema, the anterior and posterior udder teats were 2.5 and 1.6 and 1.6 and 1.5 mm thicker respectively than those of cows without edema.

  • Effect of the claw disorders on production performance in dairy cattle
    15-19
    Views:
    164

    The aim of the study was the influence of claw disorders on production traits in dairy cattle. Observed were claw traits as claw angle, claw length, heel index, claw height, claw diagonal and claw width. Right hind claw after functional trimming was evaluated. Occurrence of claw disorders like interdigital dermatitis and heel erosion (IDHE), digital dermatitis (DD) and sole ulcer (SV) as well as the progress of disease were observed. Basic summary and variation statistics was performed by the SAS software. Two herds were included in the study. Holstein dairy cows (n=101) produced 11 875 kg of milk, 468 kg (3.94%) of fat and 396 kg (3.34%) of proteins. Holstein cows were affected with IDHE in 22 cases, with DD in 6 cases and with sole ulcer in 10 cases. Slovak Simmental dairy cows (n=101) produced 5834 kg of milk, 258 kg (4.44%) of fat and 209 kg (3.59%) of proteins. Slovak Simmental cows were affected with IDHE in 8 cases, with DD in 5 cases and with sole ulcer in 19 cases. Observed was that claw disorders caused deviations of milk production.

  • Changes in the relationship between Hungarian Grey cows (Bos primigenius taurus hungaricus) and their calves in the period from calving to four months of age
    85-90
    Views:
    121

    The ability of cows to care for their offsprings is a very important trait concerning beef cattle. Maternal instincts are highly influenced by breed, specific cow, and social and rearing environment. In 2020, at the Szamárháti farm of the Tiszatáj Public Foundation, we selected 15 dam-calf pairs and studied them for four months from the birth of the calves. We grouped calf-rearing behaviors according to strength and analyzed the related changes during the program. At the beginning of the relationship, "standing close to each other" (53%) and "suckling" (24%) characterized the pairs. After the first month, "standing or lying separated" grew by 69%, and "vocalization" by both animals fell by 66%. Even though the daily frequency of suckling decreased by 34% as the calves grew older, it remained a typical element of the relationship. Over time, the bond between the animals gradually weakened. This natural process of separation takes a month to complete.

  • Comparative analysis of Carpathian Braunvieh’s morphological traits
    15-19
    Views:
    179

    The Carpathian Braunvieh cattle established by the cross-breeding of the Schweizer Braunvieh and the local breeds of the Carpathian basin approximately 150 years ago. The evolved three usage breed was durable and resistant, however in comparison with the high-productivity breeds was less competitive. The dramatic lay-off, and the endangered status of the breed requires a conservation programme. University of Debrecen took the investigation of the Hungarian population and it’s detailed genetic studies. Within this research project among others we carry out body measurements and rates of the body traits. Depending on these results, we may decide on the subsequent gene-reserving objects. Based on body measurements and live weight we established that the breed at Mikóháza favours to the one lived in Hungary in the 1960’s, and to another, named Ukrainian Carpathian Brown. Compared to the earlier data (Horváth, 1966) smaller body traits can be seen. Our livestock is proportionately smaller than the other breeds in height at withers, as well as in live weight. Based on the comparative analysis, we established, that – thanks to the aware sorting – the imported individuals represent the ancient, primitive Carpathian variant.

  • Identification of cow’s and buffalo’s milk and dairy product using a DNA-based method
    279-282
    Views:
    142

    Aim of our study was the optimization of a DNA method, that is appropriate for reliable, low cost identification of animal species in milk and dairy product (cheese) and to determine the ratio of species. Mitochondrial DNA was used in our work to analyse buffalo/cow milk mixtures contained different ratio of bovine milk such as 0.1%, 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 2%, 5%, 10%, 15% (v/v%). Buffalo cheese were produced using buffalo and cows milk (0%, 2%, 5%, 10%, 15% – v/v% cows milk in buffalo milk). In case of milk mixtures, using species specific primers, the PCR assay showed a 0.5 v/v% detection limit. Cattle, in the buffalo/cows milk 99.9/0.1 v/v% mixture, was not detectable. The identification of buffalo and cows DNA in cheese was successful. The intensity of eletroforetic PCR fragment indicated the increase of cow milk ratio in milk and cheese samples as well.

  • Examination of feral pigeon populations at animal breeding farms
    52-56
    Views:
    88

    In the course of our examination, we assessed biometric data that determine gender, we evaluated sexual activity, measured the nourishment and necropsies of two feral pigeon populations feeding and nesting at animal breeding farms. The changes in the body weight of the different genders were significant on both farms (p<0.05).
    The body weight and the crop volume of the birds were not significantly different at the examined farms.
    On both farms, the elemental food source of the birds was the fodder and corn kernels given to cattle, and was supplemented by that of the pigeons living at the Debrecen farm with food from surrounding farms and with other seeds (pea, millet, rye).
    By the examination of the genitals, the birds collected from the Nyírbátor farm showed sexual activity from the beginning of spring, and in the summertime decreasing activity is characteristic, while the pigeons from the Debrecen farm are only active from the summer months. In the course of the examinations in the Veterinary Institute of Debrecen, the birds proved to be free of parasites and the results of the Newcastle disease analysis were negative as well. The bacteriologic analyses showed a different proportion of E.coli, Pasteurella multicoda, haemolysing Staphylococcus bacteria at the two cattle farms. During the examinations for the statement of Salmonellas, this causative agent was stated only in case of birds that spend nights and nested in the town, which allude to human origin. We demonstrated Eimeria oocysts during the parasitological examination of the fecal samples in 5 cases at the Debrecen, and in 1 case at the Nyírbátor farm.

  • Önitatók konstrukciós és hidromechanikai vizsgálata
    52-57
    Views:
    101

    Our research aimed to examine Hungarian automatic drinking system constructions and hydromechanics under laboratory conditions and in operation with special emphasison the small volume, valve types.
    Considering that no Hungarian standard of automatic drinking system examination and qualification exists, on the basis of technical literature, the new examination method of automatic drinking systems has been elaborated.
    For laboratory measurements, a universal measuring bench was assembled which is applicable to the hydromechanic testing of all automatic drinking systems (cattle, sheep, pig).
    Summary of the laboratory measurements:
    Upon comparison of the flow capacity of the valves, in the case of same opening values (h/dn), the rubber spring valve of SZI type automatic fountain has the highest flow capacity, although in the case of 100 kPa pressure even this type has only 15-16 l/min value which hardly surpasses the lower limit of the desired 15-25 l/min range.
    The loss coefficients of the valves, on investigating in the range 100-200 kPa, showed the lowest value (2,2-5,8) with the steel spring self drinking device.
    Summary of the operational investigations:
    In the long term operational investigations, the rubber stripped valve and the rubber spring automatic fountains had the most favourable operational reliability values: K4=0,98 and K4=0,94, respectively.
    From the aspect of animal operation of the valves, all the Hungarian types are frontal operated, thus such system automatic valve drinking devices can be used only in long and moderately long stands, directed toward the animal.
    On the basis of hydromechanical and construction examinations of the Hungarian tied cattle production technology the construction modification of the rubber spring valve of SZI type automatic drinking fountain, which is the most frequantly used in this country, was carried out. Due to design modifications the valve parameters improved significantly.
    The goals of the accomplished valve modification were
    ζ'sz – loss coefficient to be reduced
    q – flow capacity to be increased

  • Detection of DNA mutations by PCR-TTGE method
    21-25
    Views:
    169

    In our study PCR-temporal temperature gelelectrophoresis (TTGE) and MeltINGENY bioinformatic program were used to analyse the mutations in the genes of melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) and pituitary adenylate-cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) in cattle. Amplification of target DNA by PCR was performed with GC-clamp primers and non-GC-clamp primers in simplex PCR reactions. The fragments were separated by denaturing polyacrylamide gelelectrophoresis (denaturing agents: high temperature, urea) after PCR reactions.MC1R homozygous individuals were used for the reaction.

    We concluded that MeltINGENY program makes the decision and detection system easier, and more simple as the melting profile of target sequence is determined by the software. In case of MC1R gene, PCR-TTGE method is appropriate for SNP detection, however PACAP gene polymorphism can not be identified by the method, because PACAP mutations are not included in melting domains, therefore PCR-TTGE cannot detect them.

  • Analysis of longevity in Holstein Friesian cattle using proteomic approaches
    21-25
    Views:
    128

    The aim of the present study was to determine marker proteins those are associated with functional longevity of dairy cattle. Holstein-Friesian cows were grouped based on their performance as follows: group 1) individuals with good longevity traits; group 2) short production life because of poor reproduction traits; group 3) short production life with low milk yield. Twelve individuals were sampled in each group, blood and milk samples were collected from cows. Blood samples were analysed with two dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D PAGE), MALDI TOF/TOF and nanoLCMS/MS. The milk samples were analysed with MALDI TOF/TOF and nanoLC-MS/MS. Using the optimized gel based proteomic approach,
    we have succesfully separated 143 proteins in the group1, 139 proteins in the group2 and 136 proteins in the group3, but we could not find significant differences between groups in the expression pattern. Using MALDI TOF/TOF and nanoLC-IonTrap MS, we have found eleven protein sequences those were expressed only in the samples of good longevity group.