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The impact of different fertilization methods on some microbiological soil characteristics
Published December 21, 2008

In our experiment, we studied the impact of an organic fertilizer, Bactofil® A10 (half- and full dosage applied in field practice) and an artificial fertilizer of Ca(NO3)2 content in different dosages (20-40 mg kg-1) – in addition to control treatments – on two different soils (calcareous chernozem, humus sandy soil) in 2005-2006, the expe...riment was complemented with treatments applying 250% dosage (100 mg kg-1 N, Bactofil® A10 2.5 times the field dosage) and a compost from urban sewage (25 g kg-1 compost) was also tested on these two soil types. In the
experiment, several soil microbial parameters were studied. The experiment was set up at the Department of Agrochemistry and Soil Science using 1-kg pots.
Our laboratory experiments were performed at the soil microbiology laboratory of UD CAS Department of Agrochemistry and Soil Science, the total number of bacteria, microscopic fungi, nitrifying and aerob cellulose-decomposing bacteria were determined together with the CO2-production of soil, N content of the biomass and urease enzyme activity.
Statistical analysis of the data was done using the program SPSS 13.0, means of the measurements, deviation and significance values were calculated. 
In 2005-2006, the effect of the different dosages of Bactofil® A10, and the Ca(NO3)2 fertilizer on the examined microbial parameters of calcareous chernozem and humus sandy soils can be summarized as follows:
• Concerning the total number of bacteria, both treatments were effective on calcareous chernozem soil, the higher (significant) increment in bacteria number was observed in the artificial fertilizer treatments, while in the humus sandy soil Bactofil treatments had a beneficial effect. The number of microscopic fungi also increased in both treatments, higher numbers were observed in the average of two years in the Bactofil treatments.
• The number of nitrifying bacteria was 2.5 times higher in both high-dosage treatments on calcareous chernozem soil, while on humus sandy soil a slight (not significant) increment was observed only int he high-dosage Bactofil treatment. The amount of aerob cellulose-decomposing bacteria significantly increased on calcareous chernozem soil in both the highdosage artificial fertilizer and the small-dosage Bactofil treatment, however, on humus sandy soil no significant increase was observed in either treatment.
• The CO2-production increased in both soil types, although it was not significant in either treatment. A higher (though not significant) soil respiration was observed in the Bactofil treatments in both soil types.
• The microbial biomass N values were significantly higher in the high-dosage Bactofil treatments, however, the high-dosage artificial fertilizer treatment also increased these values significantly on calcareous chernozem soil.
• On calcareous chernozem soil, urease activity was significantly increased and reduced by high-dosage artificial fertilizer treatments and Bactofil treatments, respectively. On humus sandy soil, urease activity was also reduced except for the high-dosage artificial fertilizer treatment. In 2007, the pot experiment with 250% dosages was complemented with the application of compost rich in organic matter, the results of these treatments are sumnmarized as follows:
• In the case of the total number of bacteria, all three treatments resulted in a significant increase on calcareous chernozem soil with the highest values in the Bactofil treatment. The Bactofil treatment was the most effective on the humus sandy soil, but the artificial fertilizer treatment also
resulted in a significant increment. In the case of the total number of fungi, Bactofil treatments resulted in the highest values on both soils, but the compost treatment also increased the number of fungi in calcareous chernozem significantly. 
• The number of nitrifying bacteria was increased most (significantly) by the Bactofil and compost treatments on both soil types. The amount of cellulose-decomposing bacteria was significantly increased by he compost treatment on calcareous chernozem soil, while its effect was not significant on humus sandy soil. The number of these bacteria was increased significantly by the Bactofil treatment on humus sandy soil.
• On calcareous chernozem soil, all three treatments significantly increased CO2-production, while the compost treatments had the resulted in the largest increment in soil respiration on both soil types.
• The soil biomass N content was significantly increased in both soils by the compost treatment, while in the case of the humus sandy soil, the Bactofil treatment also resulted in a significant increment.
• Urease enzyme activity was significantly increased by the artificial fertilizer treatment on both soils. In calcareous chernozem soil, the Bactofil treatment resulted in a slight (not significant) reduction in enzyme activity. In humus sandy soil, the Bactoful treatment also resulted in a slight reduction, while the compost treatment increased (though not significantly) the urease activity.
Based on our results, it can be stated that all three treatments were effective with respect to the studied soil microbial parameters. For both the calcareous chernozem and the humus sandy soil, the organic fertilizer Bactofil and the compost with high organic matter content had a stronger effect on some soil microbial parameters than the artificial fertilizer.

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Statistical comparison of soil analysing results of chernozem soils
Published October 10, 2008

The soil fertility was degraded as a result of unreasonable tillage, therefore the application of site-specific nutrient replacement is necessary. It is essential for the application of precision fertilization to know the location, extension, soil properties and nutrient-supply of the different soil types of
cultivated areas.
We collected... soil samples from 580 hectares of land in 2006. Soil samples were collected from every 5 ha in 30 and 60 cm depths during Spring from 20.05.2006 to 12.06.2006 and again in Autumn from 09.19.2006 to 02.10.2006. Soil samples were analysed at the Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science of DE-ATC.
The two examined soils are slightly calcareous, weakly saline, poor in zinc. The calcareous chernozem soil is slightly acid, the content of humus, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium is medium in this soil. The meadow chernozem soil is slightly alkaline, and properly supplied with humus and potassium, and middling supplied with nitrogen and phosphorus. The meadow chernozem soil is more heterogenous in soil plasticity, lime, saline, nitrogen phosphorus and potassium content and less heterogenous in pH and zinc content than the calcareous chernozem soil.
Standard deviation of measured values in pH, soil plasticity, humus and nitrogen content significantly differ between the examined soil types. The soil plasticity, pH, humus, nitrogen and zinc content significantly differ among calcareous chernozem soil and meadow chernozem soil, but the difference in phosphorus content can be statistically proven only in case of Spring soil sampling.

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Comparative examination of a bacterium preparation (BACTOFIL® A10) and an artificial fertilizer [CA(NO3)2] on calcareous chernozem soil
Published November 3, 2010

In a small-pot experiment a bacterium preparation, Bactofil® A10 and an artificial fertilizer containing Ca(NO3)2 in different dosages were studied on calcareous chernozem soil, concerning the readily available nutrient content of soil (nitrate-nitrogen, AL-phosphorus, ALpotassium content of soil, some soil microbial char...acteristics (total number of bacteria and fungi, cellulose-decomposing and nitrifying bacteria, CO2-production of soil), and the amount of the plant biomass.
The readily available nutrient content of the calcareous chernozem soil increased due to the treatments, except for the change in the soil nitrate-nitrogen content, which did not measure up to the control due to the effect of high-dosage Bactofil.
The treatments also influenced the examined microbial characteristics of the soil positively. The artificial treatments significantly increased the total number of bacteria and the number of cellulose-decomposing and nitrifying bacteria. The low-dosage Bactofil significantly increased the number of cellulose-decomposing bacteria and both Bactofil dosage significantly increased the number of nitrifying bacteria. The measure of the soil respiration grew in all treatments, but significantly only in Ca(NO3)2 fertiliser treatments.
The quantity of the plant biomass was grew in a low-dosage Bactofil and significantly in the artificial fertiliser treatments. The highest plant biomass quantity was measured in the high-dosage artificial fertiliser treatment.
In the correlation analyses we found some medium positive correlation between the soil chemical, microbiological parameters examined, and the plant biomass in the case of both treatment-forms. 
Based on our results Ca(NO3)2 artificial fertiliser treatments on calcareous chernozem soil proved to be more stimulating regarding the
examined soil characteristics and the amount of the plant biomass, but the low-dosage Bactofil also positively influenced the majority of the
soil characteristics examined in terms of nutrient supply.

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Changes of some soil chemical and microbiological characteristics in a long-term fertilization experiment in Hungary
Published September 5, 2018

Agricultural management practices – directly or indirectly – influence soil properties.

Fertilization rates and crop rotation can strongly affect soil pH, soil nutrient supply and soil organic matter content due to the changes of microbial processes. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of different fertilization d...oses in monoculture and tri-culture of maize (monoculture: only maize grown since 1983, tri-culture: it is a three-year crop rotation system: pea – winter wheat – maize) on selected soil characteristics. The long-term fertilization experiments were set up in 1983 in Eastern Hungary. These experiments are situated west of Debrecen in Hajdúság loess region, on calcareous chernozem (according to WRB: Chernozems).

The test plant was maize (Zea mays L.). One-one pilot blocks were selected from monoculture and tri-culture of the long-term experiments. The observed soil samples were taken in the 30th year of the experiment, in 2013. The doses of NPK fertilizers increased parallel together, so the effects of N-, P- and K-fertilizers cannot be separated.

With the increasing fertilizer doses, the soil pH has decreased in both crop production systems and, in parallel, the hydrolytic acidity has significantly increased. A close negative correlation was proved between the pHH2O, pHKCl and hydrolytic acidity. An increased nutrient content in soil was recorded in every NPK treatment and the available phosphorus and nitrate content increased in higher proportion than that of potassium. Of the measured parameters of C-and N-cycles, fertilization has mostly had a positive effect on the microbial activity of soils. Besides the effects of fertilizer doses, correlation were looked for between soil microbiological properties. Evaluating the ratios among the measured parameters (organic carbon and microbial biomass carbon, OC/MBC ratio; carbon-dioxide and microbial biomass carbon; CO2/MBC proportion), the fertilization rate seems to be favoured by the increase of amounts of organic compounds

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Analysis of maize and sunflower plants treated by molybdenum in rhizobox experiment
Published March 5, 2015

In this study, maize (Zea mays L. cv. Norma SC) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. cv Arena PR) seedlings treated by molybdenum (Mo) that were cultivated in special plant growth boxes, known as rhizoboxes. During our research we tried to examine whether increasing molybdenum (Mo) concentration effects on the dry mass and absorption of some ele...ments (molybdenum, iron, sulphur) of shoots and roots of experimental plants.

In this experiment calcareous chernozem soil was used and Mo was supplemented into the soil as ammonium molybdate [(NH4)6Mo7O24.4H2O] in four different concentrations as follow: 0 (control), 30, 90 and 270 mg kg-1.

In this study we found that molybdenum in small amount (30 mg kg-1) affected positively on growth of maize and sunflower seedlings, however, further increase of Mo content reduced the dry weights of shoots and roots. In case of maize the highest Mo treatment (270 mg kg-1) and in case of sunflower 90 mg kg-1 treatment caused a significant reduction in plant growth.

In addition, we observed that molybdenum levels in seedling were significantly elevated with increasing the concentration of molybdenum treatment in comparison with control but the applied molybdenum treatments did not affect iron and sulphur concentration in all cases significantly.

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Impact of ammonium nitrate and Microbion UNC bacterial fertilizer on dry matter accumulation of ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)
Published November 3, 2010

Pot experiment was performed to investigate the effects of increasing NH4NO3 doses with or without Microbion UNC bacterial fertilizer
application on dry matter production of ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). Experiment was set up on calcareous chernozem soil of Debrecen-Látókép and on humus sandy soil of Őrbottyán. The bi-factorial trials w...ere arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Grass was cut three times. Dry matter production was determined and the sum of biomass of cuts was calculated as cumulated dry weights. Analysis of variance was carried out on the data in order to provide a statistical comparison between the treatment means. The least significant difference (LSD5%) test was used to detect differences between means. On the basis of our results it can be concluded, that the dry weights of ryegrass cultivated on chernozem soil were higher than on sandy soil. With increasing nitrogen supply the dry matter production of grass significantly increased in both types of soils. In case of sandy soil the increasing effect was more expressed, but dry weights of this soil never reached the appropriate values of chernozem soil. Application of Microbion UNC had positive effect on dry matter production of ryegrass grown on both two types of soils but the effect was more expressed on chernozem soil. Finally it can be concluded that the increasing effect of NH4NO3 on biomass weights was more expressed in both types of soils, the biofertilizer application also increased the dry weights of plant in a small degree. 

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The effect of different microbial preparations on some soil characteristics
Published July 31, 2012

In pot experiment the effect of different microbial inoculants and their combinations with NPK fertilizer and wheat straw on some soil properties (physical, chemical, and microbiological parameters) were studied. The experiment was set up in 2011 at the Institute of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science, in a three replications, in a random b...lock design. The studied soil type was calcareous chernozem soil from Debrecen (Látókép) with ryegrass (Lolium perenne, L.) test plant.
At the end of the experiment in our laboratory the nitrate-nitrogen content of soil, the AL-soluble phosphorus and potassium content of soil, the urease enzyme activity of soil, the total number of bacteria and the number of microscopical fungi were determined.
The results of the study were the following:
– The straw treatment and the straw + biofertilizer combinations influenced positively the nitrate content of soil.
– The NPK fertilization and the straw+bacterial fertilizer combinations had significant positive effect on the AL-soluble phosphorus content of the soil.
– The biofertilization and the straw+biofertilizer combinations stimulated the AL-soluble potassium content of soil occasionally.
– The total number of bacteria was influenced by the NPK fertilization, the bacterial fertilization and the straw+bacterial fertilizer combinations significantly.
– In case of the number of microscopic fungi caused in some cases significant changes the NPK+bacterial fertilizer and straw+bacterial fertilizer combinations.
– The soil urease enzyme activity was increased in all cases strongly especially by the straw+bacterial preparation combinations.

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The effect of different bacterial fertilizers on the AL-soluble P2O5 content of soil, and the biomass of the rye-grass (Lolium perenne, L)
Published December 16, 2012

In pot experiment the effect of different bacterial fertilizers on some soil properties, and the amount of plant biomass were studied. The
experiment was set up in 2010 at the Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, in a three replications in a random block design. The ryegrass (Lolium perenne, L.) was used as a test plan...t. The studied soil type was calcareous chernosem soil from Látókép. In our laboratory AL-soluble P2O5 content of soil, the phosphatase enzyme activityof soil, the dry weight of rye-grass, and the phosphorus content of rye-grass were determined.
The results of the study were the following:
– The bacterial fertilizers - by basic treatments NPK - had significant positive effect on the AL- soluble phosphorus content of the soil.
– The soil phosphatase enzyme activity was increased in all cases strongly by the microbial preparations used, the greatest impact was the Bactofil A bacterial fertilizer.
– The plant educed P values significantly increased by the effect of microbial products, in addition to the fund NPK. In this case, the EM-1 and Microbion UNC bacterial fertilizer were the effective.
– In case of the rye-grass biomass none of the bacterial preparations used caused any significant changes, either alone or when used them with straw treatment.

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The effect of sulphur and nitrogen supply on the growth and nutrient content of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
Published June 30, 2018
Sulphur is an essential element for plants. Decreasing sulphur deposition from the air, and the use of more concentrated phosphate fertilizers, which contain no sulphur, has led to reports of sulphur deficiencies for wheat. Sulphur deficiency significantly affects yield and also the quality of wheat. The pot exper...iment was set up on calcareous chernozem soil at Látókép, Hungary, test plant was spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L). Seven treatments were used where nitrogen and sulphur were supplied as soil fertilizers in increasing rates (NS1, NS2, NS3) and in foliar fertilizer as well (NS1+fol., NS2+fol., NS3+fol.). Plant aboveground biomass production was determined in samples taken in the stages of development BBCH 29-30, 51-59, 61-69, 89. The nitrogen and sulphur content of straw and grain were measured. N/S ratios of grain and straw were calculated. The weights of grain were ranging between 8.6–16.1 g/pot. NS2 and NS2+fol. treatments produced the highest values. Foliar fertilizer had no further effect on grain. Analysing the values of the straw, it was observed that tendencies were similar to values of grain. The NS2 treatment produced the highest weight of straw and the NS3 rate already decreased that amount. The obtained results show the unfavourable effect of excessively high rate applied in NS3 treatment. The supplementary foliar fertilizer had no significant influence on the weight of straw. Both N and S-uptake of plant was very intensive at the stem elongation stage, then the N and S-content of plant continuously decreased in time in all treatments. The N-content of grain ranged between 2.215–2.838%.
The N-content of grain slightly increased with increasing of nitrogen doses. In the higher doses (NS2, NS3) foliar fertilization slightly increased the nitrogen content of grain, although this effect was not statistically proved. The N-content of straw varied from 0.361 to 0.605%. The growing dose of soil fertilizer also considerably increased the nitrogen content of straw. Foliar fertilization further increased the nitrogen content of straw. The S-content of grain ranged between 0.174–0.266%. The lowest fertilizer dose (NS1) significantly increased the sulphur content of grain. The further increasing fertilizer doses (NS2, NS3) did not cause additional enhance in sulphur content of grain.
The foliar fertilizer also did not change the sulphur value of plant. The increasing amount of soil fertilizer and the supplementary foliar fertilizer had no effect on the sulphur content of straw. The treatments influenced the N/S ratios of grain and straw. On the basis of experimental results it can be concluded that the examined nitrogen and sulphur containing soil fertilizer had positive effect on the growth and yield of spring wheat grown on the calcareous chernozem soil. The soil fertilizer application enhanced the grain nitrogen and sulphur content. The highest rate of fertilizer (600 kg ha-1) proved to have decreasing effect on the yield. The sulphur and nitrogen containing foliar fertilizer did not have significant effect on the yield parameters but slightly increased the nitrogen content of plant.
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Examination the effects of different herbicides on the soil microorganisms of a calcareous chernozem
Published November 3, 2010

Pesticides play a key role in fighting weeds, pests and parasitic fungi. According to surveys, pests reduce the yield of agricultural crops by 35% worldwide. Pests, fungi and weeds account for 14%, 12% and 9% yield loss, respectively (Gáborjányi et al., 1995). Chemicals have contributed to increasing and maintaining the yields of crop product...ion for decades. Today, agricultural production (in spite of many efforts) is unthinkable without the use of pesticides (herbicides, insecticides and fungicides). On the other hand, these chemicals contribute to the pollution of the atmosphere, surface and underground waters, and agricultural soils, especially if they are applied improperly.
The sustainable agricultural production pays attention to environment-friendly cultivation-technologies; but at the same time it makes an effort to produce good quality and economical products. The examination of the herbicides’ secondary effects, fits into this chain of idas namely, how the herbicides affect – stimulating or inhibiting – the soil microbiological processes, prevention of soil fertility.
In the course of the experimental work the effect of herbicides on soil biological properties were examined in different maize (Zea mays) cultures. We wanted wished to know that how the herbicides affect the quantity change of soil microorganisms, the life of different physiological groups of bacteria and the activity of microorganisms. A small pot experiment was set up in 2008 with the application of two herbicides - Acenit A 880 EC and Merlin 480 SC – in the breeding house of the Department. The moisture content and nutrient supply were at optimal level in the experiment.
On the basis of results the following can be stated: 
1. It can be stated that the two herbicides and all their doses affected negatively the number of total soil bacteria, the
inhibiting effects were significant. The quantity of microscopical fungi increased by the effect of Merlin 480 SC and decreased in the treatments of Acenit A 880 EC.
2. The Acenit A 880 EC had stimulating effect on the nitrate mobilization. The CO2-production was stimulated by the basic doses of herbicides; the other treatments did not influence the CO2-production significantly.
3. The quantity of microbial biomass-carbon –except for only one treatment- decreased significantly by the effect of herbicides. Besides it, the quantity of microbial biomass-nitrogen increased significantly in the treatments of Acenit A 880 EC.
4. The biomass of test plant decreased in the treatments of herbicides, their quantities were smaller than in the control. In the pots treated by Merlin 480 SC, parallel with the increase of doses decreased the quantity of plant-biomass.

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Microbiological preparations affecting the soil nutrient availability and growth of ryegrass in a pot experiment
Published March 11, 2014

The effects of different bacterial fertilizers and their combinations with NPK fertilizer and wheat straw were investigated on some soil properties (chemical parameters) and on the biomass production of testplant. The applied quantities of the bacterial fertilizers were the double of the recommended dose. The experiment was set up in 2013 at th...e Institute of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science, in a three replications, in a random block design. Calcareous chernozem soil; originating from Debrecen (Látókép) was used with ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) test plant. At the end of the experiment (after 8 week) the samples of soil and plants were determined for nitrate-nitrogen, ALsoluble phosphorus and potassium content of soil, the weight of green biomass of ryegrass per pot, the dry matter and moisture content of ryegrass. Straw treatment resulted better water and available nutrient content of soil in general. Inoculation however was not improving the biomass production over the fertilizer treatment. Interrelation with the recommended dose could be further studied.

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Effects of some herbicides on the microbiological characteristics of soil nitrogen cycle under maize plantation
Published December 21, 2008

Nitrogen is a key element for the living organisms and influence not only for the quantity but for the quality of the yield, considerable. Availability of nitrogen from the soil is influenced by several microbiological processes of the Nitrogen-cycle. Among the intensive agricultural production the herbicide application cannot be omitted more i...nformation needs therefore about the inhibitor effect of herbicides on the different microorganisms.
An experiment was set up on calcareous chernozem soil under maize culture. Effect of four different herbicides (Acenit, Frontier, Merlin, and Wing) was investigated. The effect of herbicides was measured to four microbiological parameters of the Nitrogencycle (abundance of nitrifying bacteria, nitrate solubilisation, biomass nitrogen and urease enzyme activity). There were singledouble-  and five times of recommended doses of herbicides applied for two onsecutive vegetation periods.
From the results of the different doses of herbicides, the following can be stated:
– The Acenit has a stimulating effect on nitrifying bacteria in general. The Frontier and Merlin also influenced the quantity of nitrifyers, however in certain cases decreased in another cases increased the number of bacteria.
– The double doses and five times doses of herbicides was found to be increasing the nitrate content of soil, -especially in 2006.
– The quantity of microbial biomass nitrogen increased in the 60% of treatments and decreased in the 40% of the treatments.
– Except of the result of Wing in 2006 and Merlin in 2005, the effect of simple dose herbicides was the smallest on the urease enzyme activity. According to the results the effect of Merlin was positive; the effect of Wing was negative on the soil enzyme’s activity.
Regarding the application of four different herbicides in three  different doses on the microbiological parameters of soil (at two consecutive years-) in 39% of the treatments has resulted a significant inhibitory effect, 28% of the treatments, however have significant stimulating effect on the parameters measured. More than 50% of the inhibitory effect was measured in case of the Wing, at more than 50% of the Frontier the microbiological parameters have not changed.

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Magnesium uptake dynamism of maize (Zea mays L.) on prairie soil
Published December 22, 2010

Different influence factors on the magnesium (Mg) uptake in case of three maize hybrids with different long vegetation period have been investigated at the Experimental Station of the University of Debrecen, Centre of Agricultural Sciences and Engineering, at Debrecen-Látókép. The soil of the experiment is a calcareous chernozem, based on lo...ess, with high fertility, that is characteristic for soils of the region Hajdúság.
Upon irrigation is the experiment divided to main plots, by different hybrids into sub-plots, while treatments of five nutrientsupply levels with fixed N:P2O5:K2O rate (beside control)mean sub-subplots. Soil samples were taken from the upper, cultivated soil layer 3 times during the year 2008. Their pH has been measures in a 0.01 M CaCl2-solution and their Mg-content from the same solution and from ammonium-lactate acetic acid (AL) extract. Plant samples were taken seven times in the vegetation period, of which we measured the Mg-content. Beside this, the during the
vegetation period by maize biomass extracted Mg-amount has been calculated using fresh and dry matter weights. The effects of irrigation, hybrids and nutrient-supply levels on the soil pH and on the AL- and CaCl2-extractable Mg-amount have been studied, as well. After that I tried to find a correlation between soil pH and the Mg-content of soil determined in different extractants, beside this between the by the two solutions extracted Mg-amount. 

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The influence of fertilization on the soil characteristics of a calcareous chernozem in a long term experiment
Published November 3, 2010

In the long term fertilization experiment of the University of Debrecen, Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economic Science(CAAEC) (Debrecen Látókép), the effects of a 25-year-long fertilization were examined in terms of some chemical and microbiological properties of soil. With the growing doses of fertilizers, the available nutrient cont...ent of soil increased. At the same time the pH significantly decreased, while the hidden acidity increased. Moreover, the ratio between the soil bacteria and microscopic fungi, and the occurrence of microbes also changed. The number of sensitive physiological bacteria groups decreased dramatically. These changes indicate the reactions of living organisms; they correspond to the „resistance stage” of stress effects, but in the case of nitrifying bacteria, they reach the „exhaustion stage”.

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The effect of irrigation on the yield and quality of maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids
Published May 20, 2020

In this study, the effect of water supply on the quality and productivity of different maize hybrids was observed.

Maize production is influenced by many agro-technical factors such as nutrient supply, plant density, environmental factors, water supply and temperature. Good soil quality and adequate technology significantly... reduce the unfavourable effect of crop year. The impact of fertilization, crop rotation, irrigation and plant density on maize yield was greatly affected by crop year and crop rotation. The main constituent (69–75% dry matter concentration) of maize seed is starch, however, its increase can be achieved only to a limited extent, as increasing the starch content will reduce other parameters, especially protein content. Significant nutrient content improvements can be achieved by appropriate hybrid-site connection and the use of adequate technology. Protein content reduction with optimal water supply can be positively influenced by the appropriate nutrient supply for the hybrid.

The experiments were carried out at the Látókép Experimental Site of Crop Production on calcareous chernozem soil. The weather of the examined year, which was partly favorable for maize and partly unfavourable in other respects, was also reflected in the development of maize and yields achieved.

In 2019, we were examining the hybrids of Kamaria (FAO 370), P 9903 (FAO 390), DKC 4351 (FAO 370) and KWS Kamparis (FAO 350–400). Due to the dry soil condition, sowing was delayed, however, the hybrids emerged ideally because rain arrived soon after sowing, which facilitated initial development. Young plants evolved rapidly and dynamically in the case of all hybrids. In terms of heat-demanding bread, the month of May was unfavourable to temperatures below the annual average, but the higher amount rainfall helped the development. However, due to the drier period in early July, 25–25 mm of irrigation water was applied to half of the experimental areas on July 1 and 15.

The aim of our research was to determine the best population density for hybrids under favourable soil conditions (calcareous chernozem soil). In both irrigated and dry conditions, a crop density of 75,000 crops were the most favourable for the Kamaria hybrid. The P9903 hybrid in the case of a crop density of 85 crops proved to be ideal and the DKC4351 had an optimal population density of 95,000.

However, it should be taken into consideration that, in the case of soils with poor water management, the drought sensitivity of the crop stand may increase at a population density of 95,000.

As a result of irrigation, yield increased and the difference between the examined plant numbers decreased. The yield growth was relatively moderate (341 kg ha-1 – 1053 kg ha-1), which makes the economicalness of irrigation doubtful in the given year.

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Molybdenum - accumulation dynamics of cereals on calcareous chernozem soil
Published December 16, 2012

This work is about the molybdenum-accumulation of cereals analyzing soil and plant samples from a field experiment set in
Nagyhörcsök by Kádár et al. in 1991.
In this long-term field experiment different levels of soil contamination conditions are simulated. Soil and plant samples were collected
from the experiment station to study... the behaviour of molybdenum.
In this report results of maize, winter wheat, winter barley and soil analysis are presented. The conclusions are as follows:
– Analysing soil samples from 1991 we have found that roughly half of the molybdenum dose applied is in the form of NH4-acetate+EDTA soluble
– Comparing element content of grain and leaf samples we have experienced that molybdenum accumulation is more considerable in the  vegetative plant parts
– Winter wheat accumulated less molybdenum then maize in its vegetative parts. Comparing molybdenum content of winter wheat to winter barley we found that the concentration of the element in wheat was lower by half than in the winter barley. It seemed that molybdenum accumulated to the least degree in winter wheat.

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Impact of nitrogen and sulphur fertilization on the growth and micronutrient content of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
Published September 5, 2018

Micronutrients are as important as macronutrients for crops. Each micronutrient has its own function in plant growth. Zinc is important for membrane integrity and phytochrome activities. Copper is an essential micronutrient required for the growth of wheat. Manganese is required for enzyme activation, in electron transport, and in disease resis...tance. The pot experiment was set up in greenhouse on calcareous chernozem soil Debrecen-Látókép with a spring wheat. In certain development stages (according to BBCH growth scale of wheat), at the beginning of stem elongation (29–30), at the heading (51–59), at the flowering (61–69) stage three average plants were removed from all pots for analysis. Fresh and dry weight of the plant samples were measured. Plant leaves after drying were digested by HNO3-H2O2 methods and manganese, zinc and copper contents of plant were quantified by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. At the flowering stage, when the nutrient uptake of plants is the most intensive, the weight of wheat ranged between 0.94–1.57 g plant-1. In this development stage, the NS2 treatment produced the highest weight of wheat, and compared to this the NS3 treatment decreased that value already. The results show unfavourable effect of NS3 treatment. On the basis of microelement content of wheat and the weight of a plant, nutrient uptake by plant were calculated. At the beginning of growth the starter treatment had positive effect on Cu-uptake compared to the NS1 treatment, where the same dose of fertilizer was stirred into the soil. Wheat is very sensitive to copper deficiency, so copper dissolved by starter treatment could be favourable to the early development of wheat. At flowering stage the Zn-uptake of wheat became the highest and it was between 133.7–234.6 mg plant-1. The Mn-uptake of wheat plant was higher than the Cu- and Zn-uptake of wheat.

This phenomenon can be explained by the fact that the untreated soil had higher Mn-content, than Cu- and Zn-content. To summarize the results, it can be stated, that the copper uptake of wheat was more affected by the different treatments in the stage of stem elongation, while Mn- and Zn-uptake of wheat were influenced primarily in the stage of heading and flowering.

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The effect of lead and copper heavy metal salts on soil microorganisms under laboratory circumstances
Published March 20, 2013

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">he population dynamics of calcareous chernozem soils polluted with different concentrations of lead and copper heavy metal saline solutions was examined.

The experiment was carried out in the soil biological laboratory of the Institute of Agricultiral Chemistry and Soil Science at DE AGTC MÉK in 2012. For the determination of the concentration of the undiluted stock solutions we multiplied the smallest toxic concentration values of the MSZ 08-1721/1-86 Hungarian standard by forty. The intermediary concentrations of the treatments were produced with adequate dilution of the stock solutions until a dilution level equal to the values of the standard. The statistical evaluation of the data was performed with ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) including the determination of the standard deviation and significant difference. Investigating the effects of the different treatments on the soil microbes we established that both heavy metal saline solutions had a negative effect on the population dynamics of bacteria and microscopic fungi living in the soils. The negative effect of copper – as a potential toxic micro nutrient – turned out to be less strong than the negative effect of the toxic lead. According to our results the correction of the treatment levels is recommended in order to further tolerance examinations and the determination of the tolerance levels.

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The Effect of Forecrop and Plant Protection on the Pathology Parameters and Yields of Winter Wheat
Published December 6, 2005

We carried out our experiment in the cropyears of 2000/2001, 2001/2002 and 2002/2003, on calcareous chernozem soil, at the experimental site of the Debrecen University Farm and Regional Research Institute, at Látókép. We examined the disease resistance and the yield quantity of Mv Magvas variety by adopting different forecrops and plant prot...ection technologies, at 30+30 N level and at normal cereal row spacing. We applied two forecrops (wheat and pea) and two plant protection technologies (extensive and intensive). We measured the rate of infection by population survey in the first ten days of June.
In the course of our examinations, we found, that the rate of powdery mildew infection was higher in the thicker population sown after pea forecrop in all three years, as powdery mildew is not a typical cereal disease.
The infection rate of leaf mildew and DTR (Dreschlera tritici-repentis) was higher after wheat forecrop in all examined years, because these are typical wheat diseases and infection centres in the soil promote the spreading of these diseases. However, it was possible to parry the adverse effect of forecrops by intensive plant protection.
Due to the chernozem soil, wich has good water management features, and due to the good preparation of the seedbed, the effect of forecrops on yield quantity did not appear in the examined years. The quantity of the yield was only slightly larger after pea forecrop in the cropyears of 2000/2001 and 2002/2003 than after wheat. Nonetheless, the data of technical literatures state that the yield quantity can be larger, even by 15-20%, after pea forecrop.
In the course of intensive plant protection technology, we applied systemic pesticides, while in the course of environmentally sound technology, we used contact pesticides of sulphur content. In those populations that were treated with environmentally sound plant protection technology, infection rate was higher in all three years.
Yield quantities were somewhat lower in the course of applying extensive, environmentally sound technology, because diseases appeared in these populations to the higher degree. Powdery mildew does not, but leaf mildew and Dreschlera tritici-repentis have a significant yield decreasing effect. With appropriate, well-selected fungicides, we were able to keep every leaf diseases well in hand, and the rate of infection was almost independent of the influence of the breeding year.

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The impacts of spring basal and side dressing on maize yield
Published April 23, 2014

The yield potential of maize is very high. According to Tollenaar (1983), maize yield potential is as high as 25 t ha-1 (absolute dry yield) which is the highest among all cereals. In order to fully utilise this high yield potential, proper nutrient replenishment is of chief importance among all agrotechnical factors.

The aim... of research was to examine the effect of nitrogen fertiliser applied as basal and side dressing on maize yield.

The measurements were performed at the Látókép experiment site (47° 33’ N, 21° 26’ E, 111 m asl) of the Centre for Agricultural Sciences of the University of Debrecen on mid-heavy calcareous chernozem soil with deep humus layer in an established experiment in 2011, 2012 and 2013. The trial design was split-split-plot with two replications.

Based on the experiment results, it can be established that the nutrient uptake of maize is greatly dependent on the amount of water store in the soil. From the aspect of the development of the maize plant and water supply, the most determinant factor was the distribution of precipitation over the growing season and not the amount precipitation. This is shown by the fact there was only 276 mm precipitation – which was favourably distributed – in 2012 to increase the availability of nutrients and the main average was the highest in this year (14.394 t ha-1).

Spring basal dressing helped maize development in all three years even on chernozem soil which is well supplied with nutrients. Although the effect of side dressing did not result in any yield increase, it could still contribute to mitigating the stress effects caused by environmental factors. Altogether, nutrient supply adapted to the various development stages of maize can favourably affect the success of maize production.

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Examination of the Binding Forms of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd
Published May 11, 2003

Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd binding forms were examined on brown forest soil with clay illuviation, on clcareous chernozem and on meadow soil type. We applied one metal ion and the mixture of all at two different concentrations on the soils. Our results show all the four metal ions significantly bound to the mobile fraction on brown forest soils, while o...n calcareous chernozem and on meadow soil type they were mainly in other fractions. The higher heavy metal load and the presence of other metal ions increased the ratio of the mobile binding form.

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Effect of N, P and K fertilisers and their interactions in a long-term experiment on winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)
Published October 24, 2016

The aim of this work was to analyse the effect of K, P and N supplies on the yield of winter barley in a long-term mineral fertilisation experiment with clearly distinct soil nutrient supply levels in order to develop fertilisation guidelines for winter barley growers. The experiment was set up in 1989 on a chernozem meadow soil calcareous in t...he deeper layers, applying all possible combinations of 4 levels each of N, P and K fertiliser, giving a total of 64 treatments.

The results of analyses performed in 2011 and 2012 can be summarised as follows:

  1. In 2011, when rainfall supplies were deficient in the shooting phase, improved K supplies (324 mg kg-1 AL-K2O) increased the grain yield, but in 2012, when rainfall supplies were more evenly distributed, K supply levels in the range 210–335 mg kg-1 AL-K2O had no significant influence on the yield of winter barley.
  2. An analysis of the P treatments revealed that, compared to the 119–133 mg kg-1 AL-P2O5 level (P0), better P supplies (186–251 mg kg-1) led to a significant increase in the grain yield.
  3. In both years rising N rates significantly increased the yield up to an annual N rate of 160 kg ha-1.

      4. A K×N interaction could only be detected in the nutrient supplies of winter barley in 2011. The yield-increasing effect of N fertiliser was more    pronounced at better K supply levels, while K fertiliser led to higher yields in the case of better N supplies.

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Studies of plant density increase – on maize hybrids of various genotypes on chernozem soil
Published March 11, 2014

The yield and crop safety of maize are influenced by numerous ecological, biological and agrotechnical factors. It is of special importance to study one of the agrotechnical elements, the plant density of maize hybrids, which is influenced by the growing area conditions and the selected hybrid.

We have investigated the effects of three ...different plant numbers (50 thousand plants ha-1, 70 thousand plants ha-1 and 90 thousand plants ha-1) on the yield of 12 maize hybrids of different genotypes in Hajdúság, on calcareous chernozem soil, in the Látókép Research Farm of the University of Debrecen, Centre for Agricultural Sciences, in 2013. The experiment was set in four replications, besides commonly applied agrotechnical actions. In the experiment, 1 hybrid of very early (Sarolta), 9 of early (P 9578, DKC 4014, DKC 4025, P 9175, NK Lucius, Reseda, P 37N01, DKC 4490, P 9494) and 2 of medium (Kenéz, SY Afinity) maturation were used.

With the increase of the plant number, the number of individuals per unit area increases. According to our experimental results, we have concluded that with the increase of the plant number, the yield increased in the average of the hybrids. In the average of the hybrids, in the case of 50 thousand plants ha-1, the yield was 13 130 kg ha-1, in the case of 70 thousand plants ha-1, it was 13 824 kg ha-1, while in the case of 90 thousand plants ha-1, the yield became 13 877 kg ha-1.

In addition to plant density increase, it is necessary to determine the optimal plant number that is the most favourable for the certain hybrid under the given conditions. To fulfil this aim, we have determined the optimal plant number corresponding to the maximum yield of the given hybrid, within the given plant number range. The optimal and applied plant numbers differ, since the optimal one could only be applied under ideal conditions. Since the agrotechnical actions cannot always be carried out in appropriate quality and one has to adapt to the weather conditions, thus we have determined a plant number range in the case of each hybrid. The hybrids were classified into categories of producible in narrow and broad plant number range.

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Examination of drought stress of two genotype maize hybrids with different fertilization
Published May 20, 2020

In the growing season of 2019, we analysed stress resulting from climatic factors on maize hybrids of different genotypes, with the aim of gaining a better understanding of the physiological responses of each hybrid, which might support the elaboration of a cost-effective irrigation plan.

Our experiments were carried out at... the Látókép Experimental Station of the University of Debrecen on calcareous chernozem soil in a small-plot long-term field trial with strip plot design. In the scope of the experiment, N-fertilizer doses were applied as basic fertilizer and top-dressing in addition to the non-fertilized (control) treatment. The 60 and 120 kg N/ha doses applied as basic fertilizers in the spring were followed by top-dressing in the V6 phenophase with a +30 kg N/ha dose. Measurements were carried out with the involvement of the Renfor early (FAO 320) and Fornad (FAO 420) late maturity hybrids-

The stomata of the plants became more and more closed with the progression of the phenological phases; their stomatal conductance decreased. However, the hybrids responded differently to environmental stress. In the case of the Renfor hybrid, the highest conductance (669 mmol/m2-s) was recorded in the V12 phenophase with the 150 kg N/ha treatment. The stomata were more open due to the high turgor pressure, allowing plants to evaporate properly. The plant was in its worst physiological condition on 2nd July, at the time of the appearance of the last leaf in the case of the 120 kg N dose (224 mmol/m2-s). The value measured in the V12 phenophase has already shown that the stomata were closing due to the self-regulating system of the plant. It would have been necessary to dispense irrigation water following the measurement. This confirms the finding that water stress can be prevented by measuring stomatal conductance.

In the case of the Fornad hybrid, stomatal conductance was the highest on 12th June (630 mmol/m2-s) in the 90 kg N/ha treatment and it was the lowest (183 mmol/m2-s) in VT (emergence of the last leaf) phenophase in the 60 kg N/ha treatment. In this case, the appropriate time for applying irrigation water would have been early July, when the conditions for the plants were still adequate. Subsequently, the stomata began to close due to a reduction of the water resources available to them.

There was a significant correlation between soil moisture and stomatal conductance, as well as between temperature and stomatal conductance.

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Studies of the effects of N fertilizers and Microbion UNC biofertilizer on microelement content of horseradish (Armoracia macrocarpa)
Published November 3, 2010

A field experiment on calcareous chernozem soil was performed to study the effects of different N and bacterial fertilizers on the nutrient content of horseradish (Armoracia macrocarpa). In the experiment the trials were arranged in a randomized block design with three replications, applying three levels of NH4NO3 and diff...erent N fertilizers, namely ammonium-nitrate, urea and calcium-nitrate, with or without application of Microbion UNC biofertilizer.
In the present paper the changes and distribution of manganese, zinc and copper contents of the horseradish plant are summarized by the
effect of different treatments.
The Mn content of leaves were higher in all cases than those of roots, but Zn mainly accumulated in the roots. The distribution of copper within the horseradish plant was more equalized than that of Zn and Mn. Different N fertilizers and increasing doses of ammonium-nitrate had effects mainly on the microelement contents of leaves. The highest Mn contents of plant were measured in treatments of Ca(NO3)2 and Ca(NO3)2+Microbion. The lowest ammonium nitrate dose (N1) decreased the Mn content of leaves compared to control, but further doses
(N2, N3) did not alter these values any longer. Microbion UNC biofertilizer did not have any effect on the Mn content of roots, but we measured higher Mn in leaves in some combined treatments. Ca(NO3)2 increased the zinc content in leaves and roots in a noticable manner. With the increasing of NH4NO3 doses, the Zn content of leaves and roots augmented significantly. Neither N fertilizers (or the increasing doses of NH4NO3) nor the biofertilizer application influenced the Cu content of horseradish plant. 
N fertilizers had higher effects on the microelement content of horseradish, the biofertilizer’s effect was smaller and was not the same in every treatment.

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