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  • Livestock production development in AP Vojvodina

    The aim of this paper is to present the effects of breeding program implementation on the development of animal breeding in Vojvodina since 2010. Data from the Main breeding organization (controlled population) and data from the Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia (total population) were used as a basis for this research. The main breeding organization is the Departmant of
    Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Novi Sad that implemented the main breeding programs in cattle, pig, sheep, goat, horse and poultry production. The milk yield in a recorded population of Holstein Friesian and Simmental cows shows evident phenotypic increasing trend as opposed to a population that is not controlled. The results of the selection measures in Vojvodina show that pig breeding has an upward trend and that we have an increasing number of small and medium (family) farms. Interest in sheep and goat production is increasing primarily because of the high demand for products made from sheep meat and goat milk and meat. In the recent decades, Vojvodina has been faced with a decrease in the number of horses. At the same time, there is an increasing interest in sports horses and recreation. According to poultry production results of parental flocks, an increasing tendency was  observed in the production of controlled flocks recently, while the number of breeding stock breeders was reduced.

  • The comparison of sperm motility and density in four different goldfish (Carassius auratus) types

    Different goldfish types play an important role both in ornamental fish farming and science. Considering its historical background, the goldfish is a suitable model animal for the study of artificial selection as well as for developmental biological studies. Sperm motility and cell density is an important parameter in determining sperm quality. The aim of our study was to examine the effects of different goldfish types on the sperm quality. Several sperm motility parameters (progressive motility (pMOT, %), straight line velocity (VSL, μm s-1), curvilinear velocity (VCL, μm s-1), linearity (LIN, %), amplitude lateral Head Displacement (ALH, μm), Beat Cross Frequency (BCF, Hz)) of four different goldfish types (Common goldfish-“wild type” N=5, Shubunkin N=4, Black Moor N=4, Oranda N=5) was compared during 60 hours (at 12-hour intervals) at refrigerated storage (4 °C). The variability of sperm density was also investigated in all types. A similar cell concentration was determined in the four goldfish variants (Common goldfish 2.01*1010 ± 3.46*109; Shubunkin 1.71*1010 ± 3.25*109; Black Moor 1.66*1010 ± 3.02*109; Oranda 1.56*1010 ± 5.83*109). Statistically significant difference between the 4 goldfish types in the motility parameters and cell density was not noted. However, a decreasing tendency in Black Moor sperm motility parameters (pMOT, VCL and VSL) was observable, as well as a reduced spermatozoa density in Oranda was also recorded. Our results can contribute to the improvement of the common hatchery propagation of goldfish. Future studies can add more evidence of the possible effects of artificial selection on the reproduction in different goldfish types.


  • Identification of the Slovak traditional cheese “Parenica” microflora

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the higher accuracy, faster time-to-results and lower costs provided by MALDI Biotyper systems compared to classical methods. In this study, the culturable population of total count of bacteria, enterococci, coliforms bacteria, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and microscopic fungi and yeasts from cow’s dairy products was identified using the MALDI-TOF MS Biotyper. Altogether, 50 samples of the Slovak cheese “Parenica” were examined. Total numbers of bacteria were cultured on Plate count agar at 37 °C for 24–48 h, aerobically; enterococci were cultured on Enterococcus selective agar at 37 °C for 24–48 h, aerobically; coliforms bacteria were cultured on Violet Red Bile lactose agar at 37 °C for 24–48 h, aerobically. The LAB were cultured on MRS (Main Rogosa agar), MSE and APT agar at 30 °C in microaerophilic conditions. The microscopic fungi and yeasts were cultured on Malt extract agar at 25 °C for 5 days, aerobically. Isolated strains (total 669) were subjected to identification by the MALDI-TOF MS. Among total count the identified bacteria mostly were Acinetobacter baumannii, Bacillus cereus, Micrococcus luteus and Staphylococcus warneri. Escherichia coli and Enterobacter cloacae were the most abundant coliform bacteria representatives identified. Coliform bacteria included Citrobacter, Hafnia and Klebsiella. Altogether three genera belonged to the LAB – Lactobacillus, Lactococcus and Leuconostoc were identified with Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus coryniformis, L. fructivorans and Leuconostoc mesenteroides were considered as the dominated LAB species in dairy products. Among yeasts, Kluyveromyces lactis, Candida zeylanoides and Yarrowia lipolytica were among the most isolated.

  • Effect of genotype on the hematological parameter of TETRA-SL and Hungarian Partridge coloured chickens at young age

    Indigenous chickens are well known for their dual-purpose function and palatable meat. However, the information on their hematology parameters is lacking and hence hampering the poultry industry production of local breeds. The main objective of this study was to examine the hematological parameters of Hungarian Partridge Coloured hen (HPC) and TETRA-SL (TSL) genotype and determine the hematological reference interval values. This trial was part of the larger experiment where a total of 200 chicks (HPC + TSL) were reared. For this trial the blood samples were obtained from brachial wing veins of 8 chicks of each genotype for blood hematological analysis. The results indicated that some of the hematological parameters such as red blood cells-RBC, white blood cells-WBC, hemoglobin-Hb, hematocrit-Ht, platelets-Plt, lymphocytes-LYM, and granulocytes-GRAN were significantly affected by the genotypes (p < 0.05). The genotype did not affect the mean corpuscular volume-MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin-MCH, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration-MCHC, and GRAN (p > 0.05). The hematological reference interval values were slightly higher in the TSL genotype compared to HPC chicks. It is concluded that genotype has a significant effect on the hematological parameters. The results from this trial will be help and design the baseline reference values for the HPC genotype which will be useful in assessing the health status of these indigenous chickens.

  • Alternative Income Sources in the Agriculture of Settlements Along the Hortobágy

    Agriculture has played a dominant role among the income sources of population living along the Hortobágy just like in any other rural areas. I represent the situations of settlements along the Hortobágy by studying four of them, such as Balmazújváros, Hortobágy, Tiszacsege and Egyek. Big companies having worked in the examined settlements had significance in ensuring local working facilities, and restraining people from leaving. Acts dating back to the beginning of the 1990’ies, privatisation, transformation of the state farm and co-operatives have decreased the rate of employment in agriculture. Alternative income sources relating to agriculture, such as bio-farming by alternative plants, herb production and rural tourism will determine the future of agriculture in this area due to the closeness of the Hortobágy National Park, the unique but unfavourable natural conditions for agricultural production, financial aids by the National Agricultural Environmental Programme and the imminent EU-membership. In this way supporting these activities may ensure the livelihood of ex-agricultural workers and alternative income for those working in agriculture.
    I am going to deal with two issues in this article:
    • with the change of the role of agriculture in the examined settlements,
    • with economic analyses of alternative income sources by a model of a family farm.

  • Regulation in Hungary of the Use of Waste Water and Sewage Sludge in Agriculture

    Regulating the use of waste water and sewage sludge in agriculture in such a way as to prevent harmful effects on soil, vegetation, animals and man.
    In European Union there is a Council Directive (86/278/EEC) on the protection of the environment, and in particular of the soil, when sewage sludge is used in agriculture.
    In the enlargement process of the European Union the Hungarian Government created a new rule (50/2001. (IV. 3.) Government regulation) which regulate using of waste water and sewage sludge in agriculture. This Hungarian rule is legal and reconcilable with the Council Directive.
    The Regulation lays down limit values for concentrations of heavy metals in the soil, in waste water, in sludge and for the maximum annual quantities of heavy metals which may be introduced into the soil.
    Waste water, sludge and soil on which it is used must be sampled and analysed.
    Sewage sludge must be treated for six months before being used in agriculture.
    The use of waste water and sludge prohibited on grassland, on nature reserved areas, in ecological farming, and soil in witch fruit and vegetable crops are growing, with the exception of fruit trees.
    The states soil conservation authority must keep records registering the following:
    – the quantities of waste water and sludge produced;
    – the composition and properties of sludge;
    – the type of treatment carried out;
    – the names and addresses of the recipients of the sludge and places where the sludge is to be used.
    The Government every four years must prepare a consolidated report on the use of sludge in agriculture, specifying quantities used, criteria followed and any difficulties encountered. This report must be forwarded to the Commission.
    Last but not least in the light of Member States reports, the Commission will if necessary submit appropriate proposals for increased protection of the soil and the environment.

  • Marginalisation and Multifunctional Land Use in Hungary

    Our study prepared as a brief version of National Report in the frame of EUROLAN Programme. We deal with the interpretation of some definitions (marginalisation of land use, multifunctionality of land use, marginalisation of agriculture, multifunctionality of agriculture), with sorting and reviewing indicators of marginalisation and finally with the analysis of functions of land use. We suggested a dynamic and a static approach of marginalisation. We can explore the dynamic process by time series and the static (regional) one by cross-section analyses.
    It is very hard to explain the perspective of the future of marginalisation of land and of agriculture in Hungary. The process of marginalisation seems faster in the agriculture in the coming years, but it depends on the utilisation of new possibilities given by the EU financial resources and by the Common Market. At this moment agriculture seems one of the big losers of the accession.
    In the long term we should face considerable challenges in the land use. It is necessary to take into account that there is a supply market of foods and traditional fibre production world-wide. There are limited possibilities to produce and to market for example biodiesel (fuel), bioethanol, or maybe biogas. Thus the environment and landscape preservation becomes more and more real land use alternatives.
    The environmental interpretation of the multifunctionality of land use: activities (functions) of environmental preservation and nature conservation in a certain area, which aim to preserve natural resources by the existing socio-economic conditions.
    Preservation of rural landscapes is the task mainly for land-users, who can be commanded by legal means and can be encouraged by economic measures to carry out the above activity. In the recent past measures of „command and control” type regulation were predominant, however nowadays, especially in the developed countries, the role of economic incentives increases.
    As a conclusion of our analysis we can state that as long as the main land-dependent activities (agriculture, forestry, housing, tourism, local mining) cease to be viable under an existing socio-economic structure, then it is hardly possible to sustain the rural landscape on an appropriate level by non-commodity products (such as environment preservation, cultural heritage, nature conservation, employment etc.).
    1 The study was prepared in the frame of EUROLAN (EU-5 Framework Project), QLK5-CT-2002-02346, as a compiled version of the Hungarian National Report, The national project co-ordinator: Prof. Dr. Gabor Szabo.
    A part of places with high ecological values coincides with the areas with unfavourable agricultural endowments and underdeveloped micro-regions. We think so that the marginalisation preserves the non-environmental-sound activities and hinders the development of multifunctional agriculture and this process can change only by joint utilisation of endogenous and exogenous resources and methods. Thus the successful programmes for agri-environmental protection and multifunctional land use can serve the moderation of negative effects of marginalisation or maybe the marginalisation process itself.

  • Influence of nitrogen fertilisation on the technological quality of wheat

    Wheat is one of the most grown crops around the world. Its primary use is in the production of bread, bakery, and confectionery. The provision of essential nutrients, mainly nitrogen, plays a pivotal role in the growth and development of wheat. The wheat varieties used in the experiment are Alfold and Mv. Menrot. The rates of nitrogen used in the experiment are: 0, 200, 400, 600, 800, and 1000 kg N ha-1. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of nitrogen fertilisation on technological quality of wheat and to find the appropriate fertiliser rate to reduce pollution. The results indicate that nitrogen fertilisation did not show a significant effect on thousand kernel weight and test weight. However, nitrogen fertilisation significantly affected protein content, gluten content, Zeleny sedimentation index, and the falling number. The higher the nitrogen fertilisation the better the technological quality parameters of the wheat. The protein content, gluten content, Zeleny sedimentation index and the falling number were the lowest at 0 kg N ha-1 followed by 200 kg N ha-1 then 400 kg N ha-1 and the highest at 600 kg N ha-1.

  • Application of mycorrhizae and rhizobacteria inoculations in the cultivation of processing tomato under water shortage

    The effect of mycorrhizal fungi and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on some physiological properties, yield and soluble solid content (Brix) of ‘Uno Rosso’ F1 processing tomato was studied under water scarcity. Inoculation was performed with mycorrhizal fungi (M) and rhizobacteria preparation (PH) at sowing (M1, PH1) and sowing + planting (M2, PH2). The treated and untreated plants were grown with regular irrigation (RI = ET100%), with deficit irrigation (DI = ET50%) and without irrigation (I0). In drought, the canopy temperature of plants inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (M1, M2) decreased significantly, however, the decrease was small in those treated with the bacterium (PH1, PH2), while the SPAD value of the leaves of plants treated only with Phylazonit increased significantly. On two occasions, inoculations (M2, PH2) significantly increased the total yield and marketable yield, however, under water deficiency, a higher rate of green yield was detected than untreated plants. In dry year using deficit irrigation, the one-time inoculation (M1, PH1) provided a more favorable Brix value, while the double treatments reduced the Brix. In moderate water scarcity, the use of mycorrhizal inoculation (M2) is preferable, while under weak water stress, the use of rhizobacteria inoculation (PH2) is more favorable.

  • Conceptions regarding sustainable agriculture – the national sustainable development strategy

    The task of the national sustainable development strategy is to provide a long term conception for the economy and society, so that this might function and develop in harmony with the environment. Creating the conditions for sustainable agricultural production requires the elaboration and implementation of long-term programs spanning generations. The objective is to find a compromise between the conceptions appearing in the long-term and the short-term programs.
    In Hungary, several principles, conceptions and proposals have been suggested regarding sustainable agriculture. In the present study, I intend to systematize the above mentioned principles and conceptions, and compare them to the conceptions regarding agriculture in the national strategies of the EU member states. Furthermore, I examine to what extent the agricultural policy of the European Union supports the conceptions regarding agriculture in the strategies. This topic deserves special attention, as the Hungarian national sustainable development strategy is being prepared and is supposed to be finished by the end of 2005.

  • Organic soybean production in Hungary

    Organic soy production, particularly for feedstuff in organic animal husbandry, is needed in Hungary and the EU regions. Soybean producing crop area in Hungary has increased in the last years, however, the agroecological potential would allow for a larger soybean production area. This study presents the soybean market in Hungary, and the role of soybeans in protein supply in food and feed, summarising the critical elements of organic soybean production from variety selection to marketing. During the field research, the effects of the agronomical environment on yield potential factors were examined. We aimed to determine how different row spacing and tillage systems affect organic soybean yields of different varieties, with particular attention to the dry region, and determine the specific methods and varieties of soybean that favour these areas. We found that the tillage (plough/grubber), the spacing (wide/narrow), and the variety effects were all significant on morphological variables. The most remarkable difference was seen in plant height and the number of pods per plant, while the number of nodes was also highly impacted by tillage treatment and variety. The nutrition variables were significantly different, mainly as an effect of tillage and spacing interaction with significantly different plant responses of varieties.

  • Connections between land usage, property structure and agricultural enterprises in Hungary

    The last decade of Hungarian agriculture was marked and changes which affected all parts of agricultural production. This process resulted in a new ownership and organisation structure. The paper presents the effects of the changes in ownership on land use and the various enterprise forms and intends to outline the main tendencies. In general, it can be stated that the role of agriculture in GDP production and employment is decreasing in Hungary, but according to concurrent opinions of experts, agriculture still has and will have a major role in income production and the ease of social tensions in rural areas in the future as well. Hungary’s accession to the European Union provides new chances and new prospects for Hungarian agriculture and rural areas. Hungarian agriculture became a part of the internal market which includes about 450 million people. The safety of marketing became stronger, the rate of financial support is increasing and the income of growers will increase in the future. This process implies more obligations and the keeping of strict regulations. Competition inside the internal market is intensifying, competitiveness will be more important while the chances of development and investment of the growers and the feasibility of more effective land use are increasing. After the accession, integration into the directives formulated in the CAP and the packages of measures accepted in it is framework have growing importance.
    These directives encourage farm-reallocation, namely the rational estate concentration. In general, it can be stated that rational estate concentration, and more effective land use as a consequence, will increase the efficiency of agricultural production.

  • Agricultural aspects in river basin management plans

    In the European Region agriculture is the second largest water user after power industry cooling water use. As part of the implementation of Water Framework Directive EU Member States prepared their river basin management plans by the end of 2009 or first half of 2010, In these plans impacts of agriculture on water bodies have received attention. The detailed information elaborated in the plans by countries and river basin districts were uploaded into the WFD section of the WISE system. This database provides opportunity for multi-criteria analysis for different water types. The paper discusses the effects of agriculture on hydromorphological pressures and impacts affecting surface water bodies. It was pointed out that among the pressures affecting European surface water bodies the hydromorphological and diffuse pressures represent the highest ratios (Figure 1). Within the hydromorphological pressures affecting classified surface water bodies the ratio of pressures related to agricultural activities is low,
    it does not exceed 1% at European level. In case of Hungary the agriculture related river management pressures effect about 80% of the surface water bodies, which is much higher than the corresponding European average. The agricultural water abstractions affect about 10% of the Hungarian surface water bodies (Figures 2 and 3). The river and lake water bodies are impacted in significant ratio by nutrient enrichments and organic material enrichments, while in case of river water bodies the impact of organic material enrichments is also significant (Figures 4 and 5).

  • Labour productivity in the Hungarian agriculture

    This paper presents the situation of the agricultural labour employment and evaluates the agricultural labour productivity in Hungary. Since Hungary’s EU accession, the share of agricultural employment in the total employed population has been stabilized at around 5% in the country. Due to low wages, low profit and low prestige, agricultural jobs are not attractive. The gross and net labour productivity gap between Hungary and the EU have been significant since the EU accession. The agricultural labour productivity of the Hungarian regions also shows a different picture. The labour productivity influences the cost, profitability and competitiveness of products. The advantage of the cheap labour force in Hungary’s agriculture significantly decreased due to low labour productivity. There are several opportunities to increase the agricultural labour productivity such as the increase of labour force qualification, moving toward producing higher value added agri-food products, rejuvenation of population in agriculture and the improvement of the conditions of financing agriculture.

  • Investigation of combining ability and superiority percentages for yield and some related traits in yellow maize using line × tester analysis

    Combining ability estimation is an important genetic attribute for maize breeders in anticipating improvement in productivity via hybridization and selection. This research was carried out to investigate the genetic structure of the 27 F1 maize hybrids established from nine lines derived from Maize Research Department and three testers, to determine general combining ability (GCA), determine crosses showing specific combining ability (SCA) and superiority percentages for crosses. Nine lines, three testers, 27 F1 hybrids and two check commercial hybrids (SC162 and SC168) were studied in randomized complete block Design (RCBD) with three replications during 2016. The results of mean squares showed that significant and highly significant for most studied traits (days to 50% tasseling, days to 50% silking, plant and ear height, ear position, ear length, no. of kernels per row, 100-kernel weight and Grain yield). Estimates of variance due to GCA and SCA and their ratio revealed predominantly non-additive gene effects for all studied traits. Lines with the best GCA effects were: P2 (line 11) and P6 (line 21) for grain yield, for testers Gm174 and Gm1021 had significant GCA effects for grain yield. The hybrids P5×Gm1021, P6×Gm1021, P7×Gm1021, P8×Gm1002, P9×Gm1002 had significant and negative SCA effects for grain yield. Crosses P1×Gm174, P2×Gm1002, P5×Gm1021, P6×Gm174, P6×Gm1021, P7×Gm1021, P8×Gm1002, P9×Gm1021 were the best combinations manifested and significant superiority percentages over than check varieties (SC162 and SC168) for most studied traits. Therefore, these hybrids may be preferred for hybrid crop development.

    Abbreviations: GCA general combining ability; SCA specific combining ability

  • History of origin and development of replacement of plants crop rotations is in world agriculture

    In practice of world agriculture a long ago the known problem of decline of harvests of agricultural cultures at their permanent growing, scientific explanation of this phenomenon became possible only with appearance of natural sciences. At first the declines of harvests bound to the toxic action of root excretions cultures on her repeated sowing, with development of humus theory of feed of plants of diminishing of harvests at the permanent sowing began to explain impoverishment of soil on a humus.

    During a few centuries the known farmers development the looks in relation to forming of scientific bases of construction of replacement of plants crop rotations in the world systems of agriculture, set history of their development and improvement. The analysis of influence of possibility of optimal satiation of replacement of plants crop rotations is conducted by agricultural cultures on the level of fertility of soil, water and nourishing modes and their productivity. For the terms of the insufficient moistening a positive action is marked black pair on the improvement of the water mode of soil in crop rotations.

    In historiography the problem of introduction and mastering of replacement of plants crop rotations for the decision of scientific and practical tasks of agricultural production is represented in many-sided aspects, worked out and the recommended replacement of plants crop rotations that are base on zonal principle of development of world agriculture that passed the protracted term of test and counted on various specialization of economies. But for today development of scientific and technical progress requires intensification of agricultural production with the use of intensive crop rotations and growing of high-performance cultures.

    Hereupon there was a necessity of realization of analysis of the systems of historical value of scientifically-practical knowledge about development and improvement of replacement of plants crop rotations, as it gives an opportunity to work out to recommending a production with the use of the most effective elements of the past on modern agrarian business and allows to forecast them on the future.

  • Production of corn in Serbia in the light of climate change

    This paper presents the basic elements of maize production technology in Serbia. For their good knowledge, it is necessary to be familiar with the basic biological requirements of the species, phenology and its particular requirements for water, heat, soil conditions and mineral nutrition. A special emphasis in this paper is given to recent research by the author regarding the correction of production technology (selection of hybrids, time and density of sowing, etc.) from the aspect of knowing the weather conditions of the year to the moment of sowing and the amount and position of available nitrogen in the soil profile during the spring before sowing. In the light of predicted climate change conditions for the Republic of Serbia, the authors of this paper have proposed and appropriated adaptation measures. The general conclusion is that there are no general recipes for the correct production technology of this plant species, but should be adapted to each specific year, field and hybrid.

  • Effects of diets with different fibre content on the performance of rabbit does and on parasitological infection

    The effect of two diets with different fibre contents was examined on rabbit does’ performance and parasitological infection. Diet P2 had 1% higher crude fibre, ADF and starch contents than that of diet P1. The performance of 12–12 does and litters per group were examined during two consecutive inseminations. In both dietary groups, according to a 49-day reproduction rhythm, the does were artificially inseminated 18 days after kindling. Most production traits were not affected by the diets (kindling rate, weight of does and their kits, feed intake, mortality; P>0.05). Significant differences were only found in litter sizes as the number of kits was lower in P1 diet fed group at all examined days of lactation. The significant “Diet x Reproduction cycle” interaction showed that the litter sizes of dietary groups did not differ at the first examined insemination, however at the subsequent reproduction cycle 6–8% lower litter sizes were counted in P1 fed does compared to group P2 (litter size at 4 day: 9.00 vs 9.58–9.92, P = 0.004; litter size at 11 day: 8.83 vs 9.58–9.92, P = 0.037 for diet P1 at the 2nd reproductive cycle compared to all the other cases, respectively). The two diets with different compositions did not affect most of the production results of the rabbit does and their kits, but the lower litter size of does consuming P1 diet at the second examined lactation suggests the adverse effect of P1 diet’s long-term use. From the collected manure samples not any parasites were detected which presents a very favourable picture of farm from the point of view of hygiene and animal health.

  • Agri-Environmental Issues in the National Sustainable Development Strategy of the Member States of the Enlarged EU

    In preparation for the World Summit on Sustainable Development (Johannesburg), almost all EU member-states and some accession countries presented their national strategies for sustainable development (NSSD) during the summer of 2002. Along with other countries, Hungary is only now setting up this important document. Everywhere during the last decade, as in the EU countries, the intention was to involve the environmental problems into other political questions (agricultural, energy and transport policy, etc.). Today the strategy-builders have given up the sectoral view because of difficulties and setbacks, and use a view aiming the problem.
    Agri-environmental issues appear as the elements of sustainability in the national strategies. For example, in accordance with the danger of global warming, the emission of green-house gasses of agriculture; in line with eco-efficiency, the production of renewable raw materials and energy sources originating from agriculture, and, in relation to changing lifestyle, food-safety and the future of biological agriculture will be disputed. With this study, I investigate the main characteristics of sustainable development strategies at both the EU level and at the level of the different member states from an agri-environmental point of view.

  • Comparative analysis of the transformation of Hungarian and East German agriculture

    Agriculture, and within it, the development and later transformation of the cooperative system shows many similarities between Hungary and the Eastern German provinces. A few examples can be mentioned, such as the mistrust against the notion of cooperation, the forced development of the cooperatives and, as an occupied territory, the influence of the Soviet Union. Similar issues emerged in both countries’ agriculture and the measures taken were also alike. Similar social, economic processes and changes were started at the end of the 1980s (1989/90) and these had a significant effect on the areas that serve as a basis for this study.

  • Characteristics of Land Use and Plant Production in Transcarpathia

    The character of plant cultivation and animal husbandry in different parts of Transcarpathia, are mostly determined by the location of a given region. Usually, four zones are delineated: 1. lowlands; 2. foothills and volcanic remains zone; 3. inter-mountainous subsidence and deep valley; 4. mountain zone.
    In county this zone divides quite visibly. By studying the soil, climatic conditions and plants, it is not difficult to see that the vertical zones play a major role in their characteristics and formations. If we go from lower to higher elevations, we can observe the qualitative difference in the environment and, of course, in the character of agriculture.
    Environmental pollution is a global problem of our age. In agriculture, the most important thing is to preserve the ideas of sustainable development, because only these can ensure the protection of production resources, which will ensure the continuous production of agricultural products. Present environmental conditions pose a more problematic challenge to agriculture.

  • Microbial assessment of potential functional dairy products with added dried herbs

    The market of dairy products is a dynamically developing sector of the food industry. Potential, functional dairy products, made by adding herbs or spices, will have antimicrobial and antioxidant effect due to the active biochemical agents of the plant additives. Furthermore, these active components will widen the storage life of food products and enhance their organoleptic properties too. We worked out a technology for creating fresh cheeses using a gentle pasteurizing method by treating the mixture of raw milk and 1.5% fat contained in commercial milk. As herb additives, we used citronella (Melissa officinalis), and peppermint (Mentha x piperita) harvested by us and dried them via Tyndall-method in convective dryer on 40 °C for 5.5 hours per day. The drying period took three days. We bought dried citronella and mint from the supermarket, which were dried by ionizing radiation, to compare the microbiological pollution with the herbs dried by us.

    The main target of this research was to create a microbiologically stable, potential functional dairy product. However, because of the bad quality of the raw milk and the gentle heat treatment we used for sterilizing bulk milk, or else, cheeses were not safe for human consumption. As a consequence, we need further studies to modify our technology and get a microbiologically stable product.

  • Interpretation of the multifunctional agriculture’s function in regional dimensions

    Many branches of science have been examining the concept of multifunctional agriculture. Different interpretations have come into being on global and regional dimensions as well. This study deals with certain interpretations of the concept of multifunctional agriculture. It compares the concepts about multifunctional agriculture of the United States, the Cairns-group, the least developed countries (the LDC-s), as well as the developed countries which import food (the G10), the concept of the EU and Hungary too. It states that the different approaches to the concept have been started by the agricultural problems which are typical of certain areas. These problems have been formed in each and every area by the threefold functions (economic, social and ecological), which are characteristics of rural areas.

  • Water relations composition among Egyptian cotton genotypes under water deficit

    Background: water shortage is one of the major factor effects on growth characters and yield of most crops. Objective: this study was conducted to get to know the reactions of some Egyptian cotton genotypes to water deficit. Methods: The genetic materials used in this study included thirteen cotton genotypes belonging to Gossypium barbadense L., from the Cotton Research Institute (CRI), which was devoted to establishing the experimental materials for this investigation. Results: the ratio of GCA/SCA was less than unity for all studied indices, indicating predominance of non-additive gene action (dominance and epistasis), which is an important in exploitation of heterosis through hybrid breeding. Results: The data showed significant reduction in water relationship characters for all parental genotypes under stress conditions. The Egyptian variety Giza 68 gave high values for most water relationship characters. Data revealed that the greater the value of tolerance index is, the larger the yield reduction is under water deficit conditions and the higher the stress sensitivity is becoming. The parental genotypes Giza 96 showed the highest reduction in yield under water deficit conditions. At the same time, the cross combination Minufy x Australy showed higher values of yield reduction followed by the combinations Giza 67 x Australy. Of the male parents, the Russian genotype 10229 recorded the best GCA values for most water relationship characters. At the same time, the female parents, the old Egyptian genotype Giza 67 recorded the best values and exhibited good general combined for most water relationship characters. The cross combinations Giza 86 x Pima S6, Giza 77 x Pima S6, Giza 94 x Dandra and Giza 96 x Australy showed significant desirable SCA effect for most characters. Conclusion: relative water content %, osmotic pressure, chlorophyll and carotenoids content indicates better availability of water in the cell, which increases the photosynthetic rate. Also, the higher level of proline accumulation in the leaves which was recorded under deficit water suggests that the production of proline is probably a common response of plant under water deficit conditions.

  • Impact of lameness on the milk production of ewes

    The aim of this study was assessing the impact of lameness on the milk production, somatic cells count and component of milk. We assess also impact of lameness on the order of entry into the milking parlour.

    The experiment was carried at the farm, located in northern Slovakia. The farm keeps sheep Improved Valachian. Samples of milk were taken during two periods: May, July. It was taken 428 samples together. We recorded three groups by lameness- strong lame, slightly lame, non-lame ewes. We recorded also the order of entry of ewes into the milking parlour in milking row. The results were mathematically processed using the Microsoft Excel program and statistically evaluated by SAS.

    We found significant statistical differences between months (P<0.0001) in all the above mentioned indicators. In July we recorded 26 ewes with slightly lameness and 18 ewes with strong lameness. Other ewes were non-lame. Non-lame sheep had in July the highest milk yield (356±148 ml) and the lowest decrease in milk yield from May to July (-206±131 ml) compared with slightly (317±116 ml, -223±163) and strong (319±122 ml, -219±151 ml) lame ewes. However, these differences were not statistically significant. We have not identified statistically significant differences between groups in somatic cells count (logxSCC for non-lame: 4.83±0.608 in ml, slightly lame: 4.76±0.653 in ml, strong lame 4.71±0.787 in ml). Milk composition (fat, proteins, lactose) nor changes in the composition of milk that occurred between May and July were not affected by lameness of ewes. But lameness in July affected the change the order of entry of ewes in the milking parlour in July compared with the order of entry recorded in May.