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Relationship between the change of soil moisture content of different soil layers and maize yield
Published April 23, 2014

The development of chernozem soil water management and its relationship with maize yields was studied in a 30-years long-term field experiment with different crop-rotation systems (mono-, bi- and triculture), in three crop years with different natural precipitation: a drought (2007), a wet (2008) and a dry (2009 one. The relevant soil layer was... divided to three sub-layers: (0–60 cm, 61–120 cm, 121–200 cm) in which the development of soil moisture content was investigated during the whole vegetation. From the results it can be stated that change of the water stock of the upper soil layer (0–60 cm) was the most intensive. Both the direct effect of natural precipitation and irrigation could be observed in the most obvious way in it. Yield result of maize and the highest water supply deficit values in the vegetation were compared in our work too. According to the results it was revealed that among the three studied crop rotation systems it was the monoculture, the success of production of which depends the most of water supply. The most favourable crop rotation system was the triculture from both the aspect of the yield of produced crops and the favourable soil properties too.

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Relationships between nutrientsupply, genotype and some physiological properties of winter wheat
Published July 31, 2012

The chlorophyll content (SPAD), leaf area index (LAI) and leaf area duration (LAD) of three winter wheat varieties have been investigated on a chernozem soil. Three winter wheat varieties (GK Öthalom, Pannonikus and Genius) in three different nutrient-supply levels have been involved in our experiment in the crop-year of 2010/2011. The investi...gated physiological properties have been set against to the yield results. Upon the results of this comparison it has been stated that there is a close relationship between the investigated physiological properties and yield averages. The SPAD-values showed a growing tendency parallel to the growth of the nutrient-supply levels. The varieties have the highest SPAD-values at the nutri ent-level of N120+PK. Compared to the yield averages we have stated that varieties that have higher SPAD-values have realized higher yields as well. Higher nutrient dosages have increased in the leaf area. In case of all the three varieties the highest LAI-values were measured at the flowering stage (23. 05.) in the treatment whit N120+PK. Varieties with higher leaf area have produced higher yields as well. Parallel to the increasing nutrient-supply levels the value of leaf area duration increased as well. We measured the highest LAD-values in the treatment of N120+PK nutrient-level. By the LAD-values it can be stated that more durable and larger leaf area has been produced in the flowering and ripening phenophases, due to the higher nutrient-dosages. Analysing the relationships between the results it can be stated that there is a strong positive relationship between fertilizer treatments and SPAD-, LAI- and LAD-values. The genotype showed a strong positive correlation to SPAD-values. Yield averages showed strong positive correlation to SPAD-, LAI- and LAD-values as well.

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Harvesting system established for the utilisation of Miscanthus sinensis ‘tatai’ “energy cane” in biomass power plants
Published March 23, 2016

The increasing demand for energy worldwide and the resulting environmental impacts of fossil fuels forced many countries to turn to renewable energy resources as a clean and sustainable alternative. More than a third of Europe’s binding renewable energy source target of 20% by 2020 will come from solid biomass for electricity and heating acco...rding to the National Renewable Energy Action Plans submitted by member states of the European Union (EU) to the European Commission. To achieve this goal long-term yield studies in renewable energy plants are important to determine mean annual biomass and energy yield, and CO2 emission. Field experiments worldwide and also in Europe have demonstrated that Miscanthus, a fast-growing C4 rhizomatous grass can produce some of the highest biomass and energy yield per hectare of all potential energy plants. Miscanthus is a plant that originates from the southern slopes of the Himalayas. It was bred for the Hungarian climatic conditions in 2006 under the name of Miscanthus sinensis ‘Tatai’ (MsT). The species has high frost and drought tolerance and high energy value. This is why there is growing demand for the biomass (lignocellulose) produced by growing this plant. The biomass, produced from the high yield energy reed, can be transported to power plants in large quantities, in forms of bales. Its household consumption is not yet significant. This study presents the external features, characteristics, propagation and plantation process of MsT energy reed. The study also demonstrates the harvest technology of the species worked out between 2009–2012 in Tata, Hungary and the options of supplying to biomass

power stations.

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The effect of sowing date and plant density on the yield of maize (Zea mays L.) under different weather conditions
Published June 30, 2018

Maize has high productivity and produces huge vegetative and generative phytomass, but this crop is very sensitive to agroecological (mainly to climatic, partly to pedological conditions) and agrotechnical circumstances. In Hungary, maize is grown on 1.1–1.2 million hectares, the national average yields vary between 4–7 t ha-1 depending on ...the year and the intensity of production technology. The longterm experiment was set up in 2015–2016 on chernozem soil in the Hajdúság (eastern Hungary). The maize research was set up on chernozem soil at the Látókép MÉK (Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences and Environmental Management) research area of the University of Debrecen. We examined the following commonly used hybrids of Hungary: SY ARIOSO (FAO 300), P9074 (FAO 310), P9486 (FAO 360), SY Octavius (FAO 400), GK Kenéz (FAO 410), DKC 4943 (FAO 410). The experiment was set up in three different plant densities. These were 60, 76, 90 thousand plant ha-1. The experiment was set up with three different sowing dates, early, average and late sowing. The yield was measured using a special plot harvester (Sampo Rosenlew 2010), measuring the weight of the harvested plot and also taking a sample from it. As a next step, we calculated the yield (t ha-1) of each plot at 14% of moisture content to compare them to each other. We evaluated the obtained data using Microsoft Excel 2015.

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Effect of Irrigation on Maize Yield (Zea mays L.)
Published September 15, 2003

We have been continually examining the fertilizer and irrigation reaction of commonly cultivated maize hybrids for nearly twenty years at the Látókép experimental station of the Center for Agricultural Sciences, Debrecen University.
Upon evaluating the results, it can be established that year significantly influences the size of yield. Be...tween the years of 1999 and 2002, in the average of applied fertilizers the difference is 3,4 t/ha, but even in irrigated treatments it reaches 3 t/ha. This is more than the effect of irrigation. Of the applied agrotechnical elements, the yield increasing effect of fertilization is the greatest and can even be greater than the effect of year. The yield increasing effect of fertilization can be reliably detected with small and medium doses, but at higher doses a plateau section is reached, where it is not worth applying more nutrients. Cultivation with irrigation can only be done with appropriate nutrient supply, due to the positive correlation of the two factors. The positive correlation also means that if the water supply of the plant declines, less fertilizer is needed for safe production. The two factors (irrigation and fertilization) have to be increased or decreased at the same time.
According to the experiment, in unirrigated treatments, 90 kg/ha nitrogen and the related phosphorus and potassium are enough, while in irrigated treatments this was 120 kg.

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The impact of crop year and certain agrotechnical factors on maize yield
Published March 20, 2013

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The experiment was set up with eight maize hybrids with different genetic characteristics in 2012. In our study were included hybrids with different length of growing season. We studied the effect of NKP fertilization and plant density on the yield. Comparing to controll treatment it was found that highest yield was at N40+PK treatment. It was three times higher than agro-ecological optimum. Due to the droughty year the effect of plant density it was minimum. The development rate in case of sowing date I. and II. showed an almost identical picture in the scope of the sowing date trial. However, hybrids with excellent adaptability were capable of a yield above average even in this extreme year.

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The purple coneflower’s (Echinacea purpurea L.) nutrient requirements investigation in a small plot trial
Published June 30, 2018
During our research, we investigated the purple coneflower's (Echinacea purpurea L.) drug yield and drying loss change with different fertilization settings in a small-plot trial. We measured the raw and dry drug yield, which we harvested in 2016 and in 2017, as well as the drying loss of these yields. Harvest and... all other works were performed manually. We dried the harvested herba under prenumbra for three weeks. Based on the obtained data, every fertilization settings’ yield was less than that of the control plots in 2016. We measured the highest drying loss in relation to the N60P80K120 supply in this year. In 2017, we measured the highest yield data in the N75P100K150 fertilization setting.
We made single-factor variance analysis to investigate the connection between the quantity of the raw, the dried herba, the drying loss and the different nutrient settings
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Findings on the cultivation of potatoes in organic farming
Published November 20, 2011

This paper explores the effectiveness of organic and plastic mulching for potato production in the Czech Republic. The mulching with chopped grass (GM) and black textile mulch (BTM) were compared to non-mulching control variant (C) with mechanical cultivation. Especially in plots with BTM were first formed ridges and covered by the black polypr...opylene non-woven textile and then they were planting. During vegetation the infestation of Colorado potato beetle (CPB), weeds biomass, course of soil temperature and soil water potential were assessed. The results showed that surface of GM had a positive effect on soil temperature reduction, soil water potential depression. This study also indicated a positive effect of GM on the larvae of CPB diminution, on the other hand higher incidence of larvae and higher defoliation was observed in BTM. GM had a significant effect on the yield of potatoes. The yield of ware potatoes was higher by 27 % higher on plots with GM and by 16 % lower on plots wit BTM in comparison with C. NeemAzal T/S decreased statistically significantly % of defoliation and increased yield of ware potatoes by 35 % in comparison with control.

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Impact of fertilisation and the fluctuation of precipitation on the ecophysical and production characteristics of maize
Published September 18, 2014

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The aim of this study was to analyse the problems caused by the unfavourable (dry and wet) weather and its consequences in the R1 growth stage of maize (Zeamays L.), as well as their management and the alternatives of preventing yield reduction by using agrotechnical measures fertilisation, irrigation), also, we wanted to examine whether the Chl content measured in the R1 growth phase provides reliable prediction of yield per hectare.

The examinations were carried out in a moderately warm and dry production area at the Látókép Experiment Site of the University of Debrecen, Centre for Agricultural Sciences on calcareous chernozem soil in 2007 and 2008. Six different N doses (0,30,60,90,120,150 kg ha-1) were used in the irrigated and non-irrigated treatments of the field experiment.

The results showed that there is a significant strong positive correlation between Chl content and yield both in the non-irrigated (P<0.001, R=0.777) and the irrigated (P<0.001, R=0.801) treatment. The results of the correlation analyses performed yearly showed that weather factors significantly influence the strength of correlations, but these correlations are always positive.

The Chl content of maize leaves provided a reliable prediction of yield per hectare in the R1 growth stage. In the irrigated treatment, the correlation is always closer than in the non-irrigated treatment.

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Examination of nutrient reaction of winter wheat after sunflower forecrop
Published February 3, 2016

We tested the fertilizer reaction of four different winter wheat varieties in three different crop years, on chernozem soil, in long-term experiment. We examined the optimum fertilizer requirements and the maximum yield of the varieties. According to our results there were significant differences among the years: the yield of the winter wheat v...arieties changed between 1.4–6.1 t ha-1 in 2013, 3.8–8.6 t ha-1 in 2014 and 3.2–8.6 t ha-1 in 2015. The yield increasing effect of fertilization was significantly different in the tested years. The optimum level of fertilization was determined by, besides the genetic differences among the varieties, the crop year and the extent of fertilization. In milder winter months, due to the higher average temperatures, yields of winter wheat increased compared to an average crop year.

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Effect of different N doses on maize yield and quality
Published June 1, 2021

 The effect of N doses on the yield and nutritional values of the Sushi (FAO 340) maize hybrid were analysed in three years (2018, 2019, and 2020). The analyses were performed at the Látókép Experimental Station of the University of Debrecen on calcareous chernozem soil, in a striped, small-plot, non-irrigated ...long-term field experiment. In the experiment, in addition to the non-fertilized treatment (A0), the N-fertilizer doses were applied as basic fertilizer and top dressing. The 60 and 120 kg N ha-1 dose (A60, A120) applied as spring basic fertilizer were followed by two phases of top-dressing in V6 (V690, V6120) and V12 (V12150, V12180) phenophases; the amounts were +30 and +30 kg N ha-1.

Maize yields were affected to varying degrees by crop year. The highest yields in 2018 and 2020 were recorded in the same V6150 treatment, while in 2019 the highest yield was obtained in the A120 treatment.

Increasing the N doses resulted in an increase in the protein content of the maize kernel. Depending on the fertilizer treatments and the crop year effect, the protein content of maize kernels varied between 6.2–10.2 g x 100 g-1. In all three years, the protein content was the lowest in the control treatment (A0) and the highest in the V6150 treatment.

The starch content ranged from 70.7 to 77.9 g x 100 g-1 in the average of the three years. In 2020, it was significantly higher in all nutrient treatments than in the other examined two years. The highest starch content - except for 2020 (A120, 77.9 g x 100 g-1) - was recorded in the A0 treatment (74.2, 72.3 g x 100 g-1).

The oil content of maize kernels varied between the values of 3.8 and 5.2 g x 100 g-1 in the average of three years. In terms of oil content, the results for 2018 and 2019 can be considered the same, while in 2020 it was significantly lower. Fertilizer treatments did not significantly affect the oil content of maize in any of the years.

The fertilizer dose applied in the V12 phenological phase was not effective in terms of yield and nutritional content (protein, starch and oil content).

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The effect of the plant density for the yield of the maize hybrids
Published May 23, 2006

In order to enchance the yield stability of maize, the effect of plant density on yields was studied on a typical meadow soil in Hajdúböszörmény between 2002-2004. In the plant density experiment, we used the method of Béla Győrffy. The plant densities applied therefore 20 to 100 thousand plants/ha by ten thousand scale. The application o...f fertilizer rates for the maize hibrids in every year were N: 110 P: 90 K: 120 kg/ha. We used a manual soiling-gun in the experiment. In every year we used plant protection techniques against monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous weeds. The harvest was done by hand. The facts were read by variancie analysis and linear regression analysis. The moisture and the temperatures were extreme in 2002, 2003, 2004. We have to mention defficiery of moisture in 2003 which is shown that the hot days number increased. After evaluating our findings we can conclude that most hybrids showed a significant correlation between increased plant density and the volume of yields. On the basis of the experiments we divided the hybrids into four groups: the first group included the hybrids suitable for increased plant density with a wide range of optimal density values; the second group included hybrids, which did not require high plant density, were capable of good individual performance and tended to grow several ears; the third group included flexible corn types, which grew longer ears in favourable years, thus yielded more; and the fourth group included the hybrids, which were sensitive to increased plant density and which showed a narrow range of optimal density values. Finally, plant density determines the yield; we have to consider optimal plant density intervals as well as optimal plant density, and we also have to place a high emphasis on the use of hybrid-specific technologies.

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The role of leaf area and photosynthesis in optimising the sowing date of maize
Published March 5, 2015


Our sowing date experiment took place in the Demonstration Garden of Institution of Plant Sciences, Agricultural Center of University of Debrecen, in 2012–2014. The thesis contains data of test year 2014. Our purpose, besides several other examinations, was to observe how sowing date influences leaf area index and activity of p...hotosynthesis of maize hybrids, and how those factors affect fruiting. In the experiment we monitored the change of the leaf area index and the photosynthesis of hybrids with four different growing seasons.

Based on the results, it can be concluded that most of the examined hybrids reached their smallest leaf area with the third sowing date and with the highest yield results. Hybrid Da Sonka had the largest leaf area (4.10 m2 m-2), and hybrid DKC 4590 produced the highest yield (13.16 t ha-1)

with the third sowing date.

During testing the photosynthetic capacity, the extremely high performance of the youngest plants with the third sowing date is outstanding, which can be explained by the different ripening periods. Examination of the correlation between the photosynthetic capacity and the yield, by linear regression analysis, also proves that photosynthesis has a determinative role in fruiting.

The results obtained confirm that not only the environmental and agricultural factors in the growing season have effect on the yield, but also other factors like the leaf area index and the photosynthesis are determinative parameters, and all those factors together, modifying effects of each other, develop average yields.

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Inheritance of Plant and Ear Height in Maize (Zea Mays L.)
Published September 5, 2002

Plant and ear height are very important characters not only for describing new varieties of maize (Zea mays L.), but for green and dry matter production, and even for grain yield. Significant positive correlations have been reported by various authors between plant height and stover yield, plant height and dry matter yield, and plant height and... grain yield. The height of the main ear is also correlated to plant height. It depends on the variety or the environment, but is likely to be the same height within a population. Many environmental and agronomical factors (e.g. plant density, fertilization, pests and diseases) influence the expression of these characters, which are not quality traits. Their expression is controlled by many genes and by the interactions between these genes. The heritability of these traits is high and they show significant genotypic variability and positive heterosis, as reported in many research publications.

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Using research findings in precision maize production
Published November 13, 2012

The effect of crop production factors on maize yield are examined on chernozem soil in a more than 30 year old long-term experiment on the Látókép Experiment Site of the Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economic Sciences of the University of Debrecen. The aim of research is to evaluate the effect of fertilisation, cultivation, plant numbe...r, genorype and irrigation. The analysis of the data in the database of the examined period makes it possible to evaluate the effect of maize yield, as well as that of the crop production factors and the crop year, while the correlations and interactions between these factors were also examined. During the examination of the cultivation treatments, it was concluded that the highest yield was obtained as a result of autumn ploughing, but its effect largely differs in the irrigated and the nonirrigated treatments. Based on our examinations, strip cultivation should be applied periodically (e.g. strip – strip – ploughing – loosening) in areas with favourable soil conditions free from compacted layers. 
In years with smaller, average precipitation supply or when the precipitation was higher than average, higher plant numbers were more favourable. Under drier conditions, but especially in several consecutively dry years, a lower plant number can be recommended which is not higher than 60 thousand per hectare. In the case of favourable water supply, 70-80 thousand plants per hectare can be  used. The yield increasing effect of fertilisation was significant in the case of both non-irrigated and irrigated conditions, but it was much more moderate in the non-irrigated treatment. The extent of weed coverage was significantly affected by the previous crop. In the case of a favourable previous crop (wheat), the weed coverage was significantly lower than after an unfavourable previous crop (maize). In the case of the same previous crop (maize), the extent of weed coverage was mostly determined by the crop year and the extent of precipitation supply. Irrigation is not enough in itself, because if it was not accompanied by intensive nutrient management, yields started to decline.
The results of researhc, development and innovation contributed to the technological method which makes it possible to apply locally adjusted sowing seed, fertiliser and pesticide in a differentiated way, as well as to change the method of operations within the given plot.

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Correlations of the growth indexes and yield of winter wheat in a long-term experiment
Published March 11, 2014

The experiments were carried out at the Látókép experimental station of the Centre for Agricultural Sciences of University of Debrecen on chernozem soil in a long term winter wheat experiment. As forecrop rotation, we set up two models: a biculture (wheat and corn) and a triculture (pea, wheat and corn). We applied three levels of nutrients ...during the fertilization process (control, N50P35K40 and N150P105K120). The third variable studied was irrigation in case of which we tested non-irrigated variables (Ö1) and irrigation variables complemented up to the optimum (Ö3).

The effect of pre-crops, irrigation and nutrient-supply levels on some growth-parameters (LAI, LAD), weight of dry matter, just as SPADvalues and yield amounts of winter wheat has been investigated in this experiment. We tried to find out the extent of relationship between the different parameters, and we used the correlation analysis. The correlation analyses have confirmed that all of the investigated parameters had almost in all cases close positive correlation to the yield amount. These results have confirmed that the leaf area, the leaf duration, the SPADvalues, the fertilization and the forecrop have altogether resulted in the production of maximum grain yields.

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Site and hybrid-specific agrotechnical models in sweet corn production
Published November 20, 2011

The effect of three agrotechnical factors (sowing time, fertilization, plant density) and two genotypes on the crop yield of sweet corn was examined on chernozem soil in the Hajdúság region in two different crop years. Compared to the 30-year average, the climate was dry and warm in 2009 and humid in 2010. The experiments were conducted at th...e Látókép Research Site of the University of Debrecen. In the experiments we applied two sowing times (end of April, end of May), six fertilization levels (control, N30+PK, N60+PK, N90+PK, N120+PK, N150+PK) and two crop density levels (45 thousand ha-1, 65 thousand ha-1). The hybrids we used were Jumbo and Enterprise. As regards the requirements of sweet corn production, the crop year of 2009 was dry and warm. The effect of moisture deficiency was more adverse on the crop yields with the second sowing time. On the contrary, the other examined year (2010) was significantly humid; the precipitation was 184 mm above the 30-year average and the temperature was average.
In the dry and hot crop year, the best yields were obtained with the hybrid Jumbo (25677 kg-1) at 65 thousand ha-1 plant density level on the average of the fertilization levels. The crop yields of Enterprise were also the highest at high plant density level (24444 kg ha-1). With the second sowing time the highest yields were obtained at the higher plant density level (65 thousand ha-1) with both hybrids (Jumbo 18978 kg ha-1, Enterprise 18991 kg ha-1), which confirmed the good adaptation capability of these hybrids at high plant density level. In humid crop year with early sowing time the highest yielding hybrid was Enterprise (at 45 thousand ha-1 crop density level 20757 kg-1), at the same time, Jumbo was best yielding at the higher plant density level (18781 kg-1). With the second sowing time the highest crop yield was obtained with Enterprise again (20628 kg ha-1 at 65 thousand ha-1 plant density level). With this sowing time the average yields of Jumbo, was 18914 kg ha-1 respectively. We found that dry crop year and early sowing time provided the best conditions for sweet corn production; the highest yields were obtained under these circumstances, which might be the results of the outstanding water management of chernozem  soils.

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Effects of water deficit on the growth and yield formation of maize (Zea mays L.)
Published May 16, 2017

Maize (Zea mays L.) is the most important consuming cereal crop in the world after rice and wheat. This requires an understanding of various management practices as well as conditions that affect maize crop performance. Water deficit stress during crop production is one of the most serious threats to crop production in most parts of the world a...nd drought stress or water deficit is an inevitable and recurring feature of global agriculture and it is against this background that field study of crops response to water deficit is very important to crop producer and researchers to maximize yield and improve crop production in this era of unpredicted climatic changes the world over.
A pot experiment was carried out to determine the effects of water deficit on growth and yield formation of maize. Two maize cultivars were used Xundan20 and Zhongdan5485. Three levels of soil water content were used in two stages of water control levels at two stages of the maize plant development
1. The JOINTING STAGE: A. CONTROL (CK) soil water content: from 70% to 80% of soil water holding capacity at the field, soil water content: from 55% to 65% of soil water holding capacity at the field, soil water content: from 40% to 50% of the Soil water holding capacity at the field.
2. The BIG FLARE PERIOD: A. CONTROL (CK) soil water content: from 75% to 85% of soil water holding capacity at the field, soil water content: from 58% to 68% of soil water holding capacity at the field, soil water content: from 45% to 55% of the soil water holding capacity at the field.
This research mainly studied the effects of water deficit on physiological, morphology and the agronomical characteristics of the maize plant at the different water stress levels.
The importance of these results in this experiment will enable plant producers to focus and have a fair idea as to which stage of the maize plant’s development that much attention must be given to in terms of water supply.

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Test Results of Winter Wheat Varieties in 2002/2003 in the Hajdusag
Published May 4, 2004

We examined 35 early, 32 mid-season and 12 mid-late winter wheat varieties on calciferous chernozem soil after sunflower green crop in 2003. We set-up the experiment on small-size parcels, with 4 repetitions. In addition to the favourable agrotechnical conditions, with this year’s extreme ecological conditions the varieties resulted in weaker... yields (2500-3200 kg/ha). Our findings have proven that there is a significant difference both between the maturity groups and between the yield potential of varieties with different genotypes, inside each group. Early varieties showed lower yield potentials according to the other two groups. The differences between the various variety’s yields was the smallest in the mid late group (893 kg/ha). Under given ecological and agrotechnical conditions, the following varieties showed the relatively best yields and best adaptability:
• early maturing varieties (3200-3700 kg/ha): Mv palotás, KG Magor, Mv Mambo, Mv Emese, GK Margit, GK Tündér, GK Csongrád, GK Attila, Mv Amanda, Ukrainka;
• mid season varieties (3300-3800 kg/ha): Győző, GK Marcal, Róna, GK Rába, Buzogány, MF Kazal, GK Mura, Hunor, GK Cipó, Mv Magvas, Mv Vilma, GK Zugoly, Jubilejnaja 50;
• mid-late varieties (3200-3600 kg/ha): Maximus, Complet, KG Kunhalom, GK Holló.

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Application of AquaCrop in processing tomato growing and calculation of irrigation water
Published June 30, 2018

The area and volume of processing tomato production is increasing in Hungary. Irrigation is crucial for processing tomato growing. To save water and energy, it is important to know exactly how much water is needed to reach the desirable quality and quantity. AquaCrop is a complex software, developed by FAO, which is able to calculate irrigation... water needs, several stress factors and to predict yields. A field experiment was conducted in Szarvas in processing tomato stands, under different irrigation treatments. These were the following: fully irrigated plot with 100% of evapotranspiration (ET) (calculated by AquaCrop), deficit irrigated plot with 50% of ET (D) and control (K) plot with basic water supply was also examined. Dry yield, crop water stress index and soil moisture were compared to modelled data. The yields in the plots with different access to water were not outstanding in the experiment. The model overestimated the yields in every case, but the actual and modelled yields showed good correlation. AquaCrop detected stomatal closure percentages only in the unirrigated plot. These values were compared to CWSI – computed from leaf surface temperature data, collected by a thermal cam in July – and showed moderately strong correlation. This result suggests that Aquacrop simulates water stress not precisely and it is only applicable in the case of water scarcity. Soil moisture data of the three plots were only compared by means. The measured and modeled data did not differ in the case of K and ET plots, but difference appeared in the D plot. The obtained results suggest that the use of AquaCrop for monitoring soil moisture and water stress has its limits when we apply the examined variables. In the case of dry yield prediction overestimation needs to be considered.

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Productivity of thinned black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) stands in Hungary: case studies
Published May 26, 2022

Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) is one of the most important introduced tree species in Hungary, covering more than 24% of the stocked area and providing approximately 20% of the country’s annual timber cut. Consequently, the research and development activities related to the improvement of the growing technology of black locust ar...e also important, especially in mitigating the negative effects of climate change. The aim of this study was to quantify growth and yield, responses of even-aged 12–31–year–old black locust stand to thinning in Hungary. The study has proved that irrespective of the yield class, age and thinning intensity, thinning could not increase effectively the cumulative volume production. As percentage of the control it has changed between +0.6 and -8.4%. On the other hand, it could increase the stand value based on stem quality index by 10–21%.

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Effect of net shading technology on the yield quality and quantity of chilli pepper under greenhouse cultivation
Published June 1, 2021

This study was undertaken to identify the effect of net shading technology on the total capsaicinoids, vitamin C and relative chlorophyll content expressed as SPAD (Soil Plant Analysis Development) values and total marketable fruit yield of ‘Star Flame’ chilli pepper (Capsicum annuum) for two harvesting times cultivated under m...odified atmosphere. ‘Star Flame’ pepper was grown under three (3) different net shading colours (white, red and green). Samples without net shading were used as control. Samples were subjected to chromatographic analyses using HPLC for the determination of total capsaicinoids and vitamin C. Interaction in shading technology and harvest times (p=0.010) had significant effect on total capsaicinoids as a result of green and white shading technologies showing higher differences when compared to control samples. Vitamin C content was observed to have increased in white and red shadings (p=0.001) after the first harvest and gradually decreased after the second harvesting time (p=0.002). Relative leaf chlorophyll content was significantly higher in white shading in the first and second harvest. Samples used as control had significantly higher marketable values when compared to white and green shadings with red recording low marketability of ‘Star Flame’ chilli peppers.

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Vegetative shoot growing and yield productivity of different plum cultivar and rootstocks combination
Published July 18, 2012

We planted containers plum rootstocks and cultivar combinations for irrigation and rootstocks experiment. We planted Cacanska lepo tica, Katinka, Jojo, Topfive, Toptaste, Topper plum cultivar on Mirobalan, St Julien A, St Julien GF 655/2, Wavit, Wangenheim, and Fereley rootstocks. Before budding we measured the trunk diameter on trees, than I c...ount the trunk cross area, we measured the high of trees, the high of crown, and the wide of crown, and counted the volume of crown from these data. We conclude the vigorous from the trunk cross area and the volume of crown. In the started growing less vigorous combinations look like Topfive/Wavit, Jojo/Mirobalan and Katinka/Mirobalan grafted on the basis trunk cross area and the volume of crown. In the vegetative period we measured the shoot growing on model branch every started of months. So we could determine the growing tendency. The smallest growing was Cacanska lepotika/Mirobalan. 
In the flowering the grafted flowered in rich, excepted the Topfive cultivar on St Julien A, St Julien GF 655/2, and Fereley rootstocks, these didn’t flowered. The Topfive/Wavit combinations there were a richest flower. 
In the harvest term we could pick up plum fruits from Topfive/Wavit combinations, and Cacanska lepotica, Jojo, Toptaste cultivar. And in addition the Topper cultivar was the highest yield on their all of rootstocks.

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Essential oil extraction from herbs and their use in the food industry
Published September 5, 2018

Essential oil extraction of wild caraway and thyme was performed using a classical (HD) and microwave hydro-distillation (MWHD) and a laboratory supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with a carbon dioxide as solvent. Our experiments demonstrated that the extraction yield of the essential oil performed in same conditions was influenced by the loc...ation of growth area; the maximum extraction yield of 10 ml 100 g-1 caraway was obtained from dried seeds collected from Csíkmadaras. This quantity far exceeded the yield of the Újtusnád samples. In the case of wild caraway (Carum carvi L.), the extraction method influenced thecomposition of the essential oil (carvone/limonene ratio), the highest limonene content being achieved by classical hydro-distillation. In the case of thyme, this effect was not detected, the thymol/carvacrol ratio was independent from the given extraction method. The obtained thyme essential oil possesses high antimicrobial activity demonstrated by agar diffusion test. The thyme extract provides a good protection against microorganisms collected on the surface of fresh vegetables following bacterial stains: Citrobacter portucalensis, Pseudomonas hunanensis, Pseudomonas baetica, Pseudomonas parafulva, Bacillus mojavensis and Enterobacter cloacae. Protective effect was also detected on the vegetable surface of by chitosan-based edible film coating during a 6-day-long storage period at a temperature of 4 °C. The caraway essential oil used as soft cheese seasoning with a direct, dilution-free method, proved to be unsuitable because the uneven distribution and confer a strong, unpleasant taste to the product in comparison with the ground wild caraway seed-dressed cheese.

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The Role of Cultivation Systems in Quality Sugar Beet Production
Published December 6, 2005

Producing sugar beet, as it is a demanding field crop, has contributed to the raising standard of plant production. It has an outstanding place among the plants that are cultivated in the intensive plant production system. Rentability of sugar manufacture is determined by the stability of yield and the quality (saccharose content) of sugar beet.... In this way, the fundamental interest both of the producers and the processing industry is high yield and quality, year by year. The yield and the quality of the sugar beet are mainly determined by the plant production system, so we studied the effect of fertilization, irrigation and plant protection.

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