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  • Correlations of the growth indexes and yield of winter wheat in a long-term experiment
    139-144
    Views:
    129

    The experiments were carried out at the Látókép experimental station of the Centre for Agricultural Sciences of University of Debrecen on chernozem soil in a long term winter wheat experiment. As forecrop rotation, we set up two models: a biculture (wheat and corn) and a triculture (pea, wheat and corn). We applied three levels of nutrients during the fertilization process (control, N50P35K40 and N150P105K120). The third variable studied was irrigation in case of which we tested non-irrigated variables (Ö1) and irrigation variables complemented up to the optimum (Ö3).

    The effect of pre-crops, irrigation and nutrient-supply levels on some growth-parameters (LAI, LAD), weight of dry matter, just as SPADvalues and yield amounts of winter wheat has been investigated in this experiment. We tried to find out the extent of relationship between the different parameters, and we used the correlation analysis. The correlation analyses have confirmed that all of the investigated parameters had almost in all cases close positive correlation to the yield amount. These results have confirmed that the leaf area, the leaf duration, the SPADvalues, the fertilization and the forecrop have altogether resulted in the production of maximum grain yields.

  • The Examination of the Year Effect Based on Cumulative Temperature and Rainfall Curve
    70-77
    Views:
    74

    In order to get to know the numerical differencies of favourable and unfavourable weather conditions, our research lean to 29-years-data (1961-1989) of maize yield of productive area of Hajdúság from which we chose two low (1964, 1976) and two high (1969, 1975) yield yerars. Choosing the years we fitted a linear trend to the time series and the valued data was divided by the realised crop. From the cumlative temperature- and rainfall data calculatd curve concern the period between 01. April and 01. September. The basis was the cumulative value of many years daily average value. The temperature- and rainfall curve of favourable and unfavourable yield with the many years average data was represented on the same scale. In order to numericate the differencies we count the differencies monthly frequency. Based on it became sunder the feature of years. The method used by us ensure possibility to separate the temporal types. It was found that informing the yield the rainfall has main role in this productive area and the temperature has only second role.

  • The effect Benefit PZ biostimulant on the fruit size and yield production of apricot varieties (Prunus Armeniaca)
    16-18
    Views:
    80

    Fruit size is determined by the genetic makings of varieties the pomology and enviromental factors. The climate and the previous year’s harvested yield have a great effect on yield volume. It is not easy to harmonize the qualitative and quantitave parameters of the fruit. High yield usually causes smaller fruits.
    The aim of our trials was to evalaute the effect of Benefit PZ biostimulant on fruit size. We examined two apricot varieties (Bergeron, Magyarkajszi C235) for the efficacy of the product. The three applications were made with 400 l/ha water with 2500 ppm. The optimal interval of application with Benefit PZ is during in the early phases of development. The size of the final fruits depends on the number of cells making up the fruits. The later application could not increase fruit size growth, there are no significant differences between the Benefit PZ sprayed and the control plots. The totally harvested fruit weight was 13.5% more on the trees of cv. Bergeron, it was caused by the higher fruit set. On the sprayed trees were 12.2% more fruit. Therefore were no differences between the average fruit weight. Fruit weights of the treated trees were 44.37 g on cv. Bergeron, 44.15 g on cv. Magyarkajszi C235 and on the no treated trees were 43.83 g as well as 45.33 g.

  • Stand evaluation, crop estimation and yield analysis of winter wheat for the optimization of yields
    103-109
    Views:
    121

    The authors have been carrying out stand evaluation, crop estimation and yield analysis in winter wheat since 2012. The sampling areas were assigned at the fields of the Training Farm of the Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences of Széchenyi István University Mosonmagyaróvár according to the structure of the cropping system. According to their observations the value of field emergence is always lower than the laboratory germination. The weak emergence is important because the lower plant density cannot be compensated by the increased tillering in spite of having larger plant growth space. It is proven by the fact that they detected strong productive tillering even at 5 and 10 mm plant spacing while there were single-spiked plants at 40-50 mm plant spacing as well. The analysis revealed that the total ear mass and grain mass of wheat plants bearing two or more ears is almost the double than that of the single-spiked plants. It was a further basic experience that the largest ear of ”multiple-spiked” plants is always heavier than the single ear of one-spiked plants. Plants with intense tillering and more ears demonstrate the importance of proper seedbed preparation and drilling and the significance of sowing good quality seeds. These are the factors that determine field germination and emergence, influence the speed and intensity of initial development and by all these factors the sufficient productive tillering. The authors emphasize the use of exact and objective methods at crop estimation, e.g. the relationship between the ear mass and the yield which is in strong correlation whilst ear length and grain mass are not suitable for a precise estimation. The authors conclude that crop estimation and yield analysis must be inevitable tools of modern crop production and will be particularly important in precision agriculture. These tools also qualify the job done by farmers and helps to identify the areas that require special attention.

  • Effects of soil cultivation and environmental changes on maize yield
    97-100
    Views:
    124

    We evaluated the relationships among soil cultivation and other agrotechnical factors (fertilization, number of plants and hybrid) within the framework of a multifactorial long-term experiment set at the Látókép Experimental Site of the Centre for Agricultural Sciences of the University of Debrecen in mid-heavy chalcareous chernozem soil based on a long-term experiment conducted for a 5-year period (2002–2006).

    Based on the evaluation of soil cultivation by the average of treatments, it may be assessed that spring ploughing (8.204 t ha-1) provides more favourable conditions to the stand compared to spring shallow cultivation; however, this did not result in a significant difference. Spring ploughing considerably increased the yield of hybrid FAO 300 in dry years, whereas it considerably increased the yield of hybrid FAO 400 in favourable crop years. A stand of 70 thousand stems/ha provided the higher yield result in both soil cultivation types. It was sufficient to use a fertilizer dose of 120 kg N ha-1 for economical production.

  • Comparative analysis of inoculated soybean in extinguishing soil
    113-116
    Views:
    190

    In order to achieve higher yields, better technological methods offered in the current market, which aims to help the producers in the realization. To guarantee good yield because more and more people try with a variety of products, but you have to make the expected impact falls short.In this experiment, the following results were obtained: the soil suspension closely related to the inoculum of seed or seed treatment,which affects the soybean nodule formation, core saturation, and yield and protein-oil indicators. The soil suspension composition may exert positive and negative effects, which depend on how bacterial strains inoculum combined on the soybean seed surface. It is shown in our experiment very well, that between inoculum and inoculum as well as inoculum and seed treatment materials may be antagonism which setback to the soybean nodules formation and the yield, but not worsen the protein-oil indicators.

  • Study of the Interaction Between Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and Silver Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus gibelio B.)
    16-19
    Views:
    80

    During the last few years, the spread of the silver crucian carp caused significant problems in pond fish culture. One of the main challenges of the successful fish production in fishponds, is to rid ponds of the silver crucian carp. In the course of the experiment, carp fry were stocked in 5 nursing ponds at the same stocking rate, with different (0-, 50-, 100-, 150-, 200%) stocking rates of silver crucian carp fry, respectively. During the breeding season, weekly test fishings were made to examine the growth of the fishes. At the end of the experiment, the yield/hectar and the growth rates were calculated. The experiment proved that the presence of the silver crucian carp in the fishponds causes lower productivity and growth rates in common carp. In the control pond (with no silver crucian carp), the average weight of the common carp was over 20 g and the yield/hectar was over 700 kg, while in the pond with the most silver crucian carp, the average weight of the common carp was 4.5 g and the yield/hectar was only 123 kg.

  • Effect of Irrigation on the Yield and Quantity of Potato Varieties
    53-61
    Views:
    85

    In Hungary, the growing area of potato area dropped dramatically in the last few decades. Additionally not only are we lagging behind Western European countries as regards yields, but the competitiveness of production is further decreased by the great alternation in yields from year to year, unpredictable market conditions, poor consumption habits and, often the lack of quality products.
    The experiment was carried out at the experimental site of the University of Debrecen, Farm and Regional Research Institute, at Látókép. In our experiment, we examined the yield and some quality parameters of 9 medium-early varieties in large parcels. Of the examined varieties, 3 are of Dutch, and 6 are of Hungarian breeding.
    The experiment was set up in 2003 and 2004, in two years of significantly different precipitation, on 50 m2 parcels on calcareous chernozem soil after winter wheat as a forecrop in both years. The 9 varieties were examined in 4 repetitions in randomized blocks, from which two repetitions were irrigated, and two were non-irrigated.
    We examined the yields of the varieties, the distribution of tubers according to size and their percentages, and the changes in specific parameters of quality and inner content due to irrigation. We studied the dry matter content, the starch content, the underwater mass, the amount of reducing sugars, and the colour index of frying of the tubers.
    In Summary, it can be stated that among the agrotechniques, year effect, variety and irrigation factors have considerable impact on potato yield quality and quantity. However the effect of irrigation depends on the crop year. In a draughty year, like in 2003, irrigation could increase the yield by 10%, while in a more favourable wet year, the improving effect of irrigation was low.

  • Examination of the impact of ecological and agrotechnical factors in a maize fertilisation experiment
    13-17
    Views:
    103

    The year 2013 was rather extreme breeding year because of the uneven distribution of precipitaion and the summer heat. The experiment was set on with eight different genetic characteristics maize hybrids in 2013. In our study were included different kind of breeding season hybrids. We studied the effect of NKP fertilization and row spacing on the yield. The fertilizer doses are based on 25-year long-term experiment. Compared to control, the N40+PK treatment has also achieved a significant yield increase, although some hybrid of increasing fertilizer doses yield response to loss. The majority of hybrids reached higher yields using the 50 cm row spacing. The water release of hybrids was measured between 21th August and 17th September weekly, at the same time points. The rainy September slowed ripening hybrids and water release, so the grain wet content at harvest showed higher values.

  • Test of the Plant Density Reaction of Genotype Sunflower Hybrids
    113-119
    Views:
    109

    In order to produce sunflower in Hungary today it is important to develop hybrid-specific cropping technologies. The ever widening number of hybrids makes the constant examination of genotypes necessary from the viewpoint of genotype-environment interactions and critical elements. Plant density as a complex factor puts strain on the pathological features, yield and quality of sunflower. The experiment’s main objective is to find the optimal plant density for both the genotype and external factors.
    As a result it can be stated that the optimal crop density is between 45,000-75,000 plant/ha. In 2001 the optimal density was 55,000 plant/ha. The Aréna PR and the Alexandra PR hybrids produced the greatest yields (3511 kgha-1; 3338 kgha-1). In the growing season of 2002, the yields were higher than in the previous year and the optimal crop density was 45,000-65,000 plant/ha. The best yields were produced by the Aréna PR and Alexandra PR hybrids in this year again (4102 kgha-1; 4267 kgha-1) and in 2003, 45,000-65,000 plant/ha proved to be the best crop density. The highest yield was produced by the Alexandra PR.
    Analyzing the growing seasons of 2001, 2002 and 2003 it can be declared that as a result of dry climate of the three years yields were higher. It can be stated that the yield is decreased by higher than average of precipitation in the growing season.

  • The role and impact of N-Lock (N-stabilizer) to the utilization of N in the main arable crops
    51-55
    Views:
    211

    The nitrogen stabilizer called N-Lock can be used primarily with solid and liquid urea, UAN and other liquid nitrogen, slurry and manure. In corn it can be applied incorporated before sowing or with row-cultivator or applied with postemergent timing in tank-mix. In postemergent timing need precipitation for long effect. In oil seed rape and autumn cereals the N-Lock should be applied with liquid nitrogen in tank mix late winter or early spring (February-March). The dose rate is 2.5 l/ha. N-Lock increases the yield of maize, winter oil seed rape, winter wheat and winter barley 5-20 %. The yield increasing can be given the thousand grain weight. In case of high doses of nitrogen it can be observed higher yield. The quality parameter also improved, especially the oil content of winter oil seed rape and protein and gluten contents of winter wheat. The use of N-Lock increases the nitrogen retention of soil and reduces nitrate leaching towards the groundwater and the greenhouse effect gas emissions into the atmosphere. The degradation of the applied nitrogen is slowing down and the plant can uptake more nitrogen in long period. The effect of N-Lock the nitrogen is located in the upper soil layer of 0-30 cm and increasing the ammonium nitrogen form. The product can be mixed with herbicide products in main arable crops.

  • Water relations composition among Egyptian cotton genotypes under water deficit
    5-15
    Views:
    152

    Background: water shortage is one of the major factor effects on growth characters and yield of most crops. Objective: this study was conducted to get to know the reactions of some Egyptian cotton genotypes to water deficit. Methods: The genetic materials used in this study included thirteen cotton genotypes belonging to Gossypium barbadense L., from the Cotton Research Institute (CRI), which was devoted to establishing the experimental materials for this investigation. Results: the ratio of GCA/SCA was less than unity for all studied indices, indicating predominance of non-additive gene action (dominance and epistasis), which is an important in exploitation of heterosis through hybrid breeding. Results: The data showed significant reduction in water relationship characters for all parental genotypes under stress conditions. The Egyptian variety Giza 68 gave high values for most water relationship characters. Data revealed that the greater the value of tolerance index is, the larger the yield reduction is under water deficit conditions and the higher the stress sensitivity is becoming. The parental genotypes Giza 96 showed the highest reduction in yield under water deficit conditions. At the same time, the cross combination Minufy x Australy showed higher values of yield reduction followed by the combinations Giza 67 x Australy. Of the male parents, the Russian genotype 10229 recorded the best GCA values for most water relationship characters. At the same time, the female parents, the old Egyptian genotype Giza 67 recorded the best values and exhibited good general combined for most water relationship characters. The cross combinations Giza 86 x Pima S6, Giza 77 x Pima S6, Giza 94 x Dandra and Giza 96 x Australy showed significant desirable SCA effect for most characters. Conclusion: relative water content %, osmotic pressure, chlorophyll and carotenoids content indicates better availability of water in the cell, which increases the photosynthetic rate. Also, the higher level of proline accumulation in the leaves which was recorded under deficit water suggests that the production of proline is probably a common response of plant under water deficit conditions.

  • The Effect of Utilization Systems on the Sward Composition, Yield and Sheep Carrying Capacity of Extensive Grasslands
    16-18
    Views:
    85

    We analysed the effect of the sheep grazing, the grass cutting and mixed utilization methods on plant composition, yield and live-stock keeping capacity of extensive Achilleo-Festucetum pseudovinae grassland in the 1996-2000 research period. Analysing the extensive utilizations effects on chanching of the plant composition of extensive grassland established that due to the cutting utilization method the area covering rates of gramineous and usefull weeds were the highest while the grazing utilization-method caused the briggest area covering rate for legumes and unusefull weeds. Analysing the utilized fibrin-fodder yield established that the single utilization methods could not produce the maximum yield and live-stock keeping capacity on the treathea grassland type. Because of things mentioned above we must use the mixed utilization methods to save the maximum phytomass.

  • Examination of Hybrid-specific nutrient supply at corn on chernozem soli
    91-95
    Views:
    119

    The effect of increasing fertilizer dosages on the yield of eight different maize hybrids (SY Ondina, NK Kansas, NK Lucius, NK Octet, NK Thermo, SY Flovita, SY Brillio, NX 47279) has been investigated in the crop-year of 2011. According to our results it can be stated that contrarily to the control treatment the application of different nutrient-levels has resulted a significant yield increment (2 000–5 800 kg ha-1).
    Based upon the results of this experiment we have drawn the conclusion that the nutrient level of 120 kg N+PK was the optimal for the investigated hybrids. The highest yield (14 475 kg ha-1–15 963 kg ha-1) of the hybrids with different genotypes has been produced in case of this fertilizer treatment. With the comparison of the control and the optimum-fertilizer treatments the yield-increasing effect of mineral fertilization and the different reaction of hybrids towards increasing fertilizer dosages have been proven. In case of the control treatments the best-yielding hybrids were NK Thermo (11 917 kg ha-1) and NX 47279 (11 617 kg ha-1). Contrarily on the optimal nutrient supply level the hybrids SY Brillio (15 876 kg ha-1) and NX 47279 (15 963 kg ha-1) have produced the highest yields. Summarizing, we can state that the hybrid NX 47279 has resulted stable and high yields in the fertilized treatments. Analysing the yield-increasing effect of 1 kg fertilizer active substance it was proven, that the hybrids SY Flovita (45.43 kg ha-1), SY Brillio (44.47 kg ha-1) and NX 47279 (42.33 kg ha-1) had a good reaction towards even lower nutrient supply levels as well. In case of the control treatment the average water utilization coefficient of the hybrids was significantly lower (35.2 kg mm-1), than in case of the optimal nutrient supply level (N120+PK) treatments (48.9 kg mm-1).
    Therefore the hybrid specific difference between the water utilization of genotypes could be revealed.

  • The effect of irrigation on the yield and quality of maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids
    143-147
    Views:
    147

    In this study, the effect of water supply on the quality and productivity of different maize hybrids was observed.

    Maize production is influenced by many agro-technical factors such as nutrient supply, plant density, environmental factors, water supply and temperature. Good soil quality and adequate technology significantly reduce the unfavourable effect of crop year. The impact of fertilization, crop rotation, irrigation and plant density on maize yield was greatly affected by crop year and crop rotation. The main constituent (69–75% dry matter concentration) of maize seed is starch, however, its increase can be achieved only to a limited extent, as increasing the starch content will reduce other parameters, especially protein content. Significant nutrient content improvements can be achieved by appropriate hybrid-site connection and the use of adequate technology. Protein content reduction with optimal water supply can be positively influenced by the appropriate nutrient supply for the hybrid.

    The experiments were carried out at the Látókép Experimental Site of Crop Production on calcareous chernozem soil. The weather of the examined year, which was partly favorable for maize and partly unfavourable in other respects, was also reflected in the development of maize and yields achieved.

    In 2019, we were examining the hybrids of Kamaria (FAO 370), P 9903 (FAO 390), DKC 4351 (FAO 370) and KWS Kamparis (FAO 350–400). Due to the dry soil condition, sowing was delayed, however, the hybrids emerged ideally because rain arrived soon after sowing, which facilitated initial development. Young plants evolved rapidly and dynamically in the case of all hybrids. In terms of heat-demanding bread, the month of May was unfavourable to temperatures below the annual average, but the higher amount rainfall helped the development. However, due to the drier period in early July, 25–25 mm of irrigation water was applied to half of the experimental areas on July 1 and 15.

    The aim of our research was to determine the best population density for hybrids under favourable soil conditions (calcareous chernozem soil). In both irrigated and dry conditions, a crop density of 75,000 crops were the most favourable for the Kamaria hybrid. The P9903 hybrid in the case of a crop density of 85 crops proved to be ideal and the DKC4351 had an optimal population density of 95,000.

    However, it should be taken into consideration that, in the case of soils with poor water management, the drought sensitivity of the crop stand may increase at a population density of 95,000.

    As a result of irrigation, yield increased and the difference between the examined plant numbers decreased. The yield growth was relatively moderate (341 kg ha-1 – 1053 kg ha-1), which makes the economicalness of irrigation doubtful in the given year.

  • The Effect of Plant Density on the Yield of Sunflower Hybrid’s in 2001-2002
    184-189
    Views:
    86

    Nowadays, for increasing efficiency of sunflower production treating hybrid-specific technologies was required. Increasing of hybrid choice gave reasons for trials in respects of critical factors, as well as in case of genotype-enviroment interactions. The effect of changing plant density show up as determinant factor which affects on yield as well as on plant hygienic conditions. Trials were established on calcareous chernozem soil (Hajdú-Bihar county), in 2001-2002. The field trials were randomized, in four repetition on small parcels. The plant density trials were established in 35.000-75.000 plant/hectar interval using a scale of 10.000 plant/hectar. 10 hybrids were used in both year.
    In 2001, 55.000 plant/hectar density was the optimal, in case of most of the hybrids. The yield of tested hybrids did not show significant difference. Yield decreasing effect of using less than optimal density was more significant than in case of using optimal plant density. In 2002, the optimal density was in 45.000-65.000 plant/hectar interval, there was no possibility to find narrower optimum.
    Presence of Diaporthe helianthi and the damage caused by the pathogen was significant in 1997-1999, whereas in 2001-2002 the large-scale appearance of the pathogen did not occur. In 2001, the affect of high plant density on disease caused by Diaporthe helianthi showed just tendency-like appearance, in 2002, the infection showed up just in the end of the vegetation period, without significant damage. In spite of the low infection level, the difference between the infection of the diverse plant density treatment was significant. Increasing plant density made increase the frequency of the Diaporthe helianthi infection. The rate of the flower diseases was around 3-16% in 2001, the highest infection level emerged in 65.000-75.000 plant/hectar density, whereas in 2002, the rate of infection level was less than 10%. The increasing plant density helped the development of flower diseases.

  • Utilization of the field experiment results of University of Debrecen in the development of maize-based bio-ethanol production
    55-57
    Views:
    130

    Maize is currently the single raw material of bio-ethanol production in Hungary. The aim of our examinations is the observation of yield and
    nutritional characteristics of commercial maize hybrids in Hungary from the aspect of efficient bio-ethanol production. We set up a 
    randomized block field trial. We determined the starch content and starch yield (t ha-1) of the 51 maize hybrids involved in the field trial.
    In laboratory conditions, we examined the amylose and amylopectin ratio and the amount of resistant starch of the selected 20 maize hybrids.
    According to our results, there is a significant difference between the starch yield the amylose component of the starch content and resistant starch of the examined maize hybrids. Our studies reveal that maize as a raw material must be selected based on the cultivation objectives. If the objective is bio-ethanol production, detailed knowledge of starch content is necessary. There is a significant difference among commercial maize hybrids in Hungary in terms of characteristics determining the producible amount of bio-ethanol.

  • The effect of water supply and crop year on the yield potential of sweet maize (Zea mays L. convar. saccharata Koern.) hybrids with different genotypes
    203-210
    Views:
    150

    The successfulness of crop production is significantly affected by not only the the average yields that provide cost effectiveness, but also the success of striving for yield safety, therefore, varieties and hybrids tolerant to environmental stress factors are worth being included into the sowing structure. Our aim was to further the decision making of producers in prepaering the right sowing structure by the evaluation of sweet maize hybrids’ tolerance to excess rainfall.
    We performed our examinations in an extremely wet year (2010) on chernozem soil on three sweet maize hybrids (GSS 8529, GSS 1477, Overland) in 12 replications. Comparing the yields of 2010 with those that can be expected under optimal rainfall conditions, we showed that the examined hybrids react to the amount of rainfall higher than their needs with yield depression. The excess rainfall tolerance of the examined hybrids is different in the case of each hybrid.

  • Effect of sowing time and planting space on change of yield and protein content of white lupine (Lupinus albus L.)
    85-89
    Views:
    150

    The hinge of the lupine crop cultivation technology is the sowing time and the determination of the breeding area. According to the literature the early sowing (as soon as possible to go to the soil) and larger growing area is recommended for seed production. Based on the results of our 2 years experiment, the effect of sowing time and different spacing is important on yield of white lupine, and the effect of the sowing time is more significant. A decrease in the yield was observed after later sowings. The yield and the rate of its decreasing was varied in one year and among different years depending on wheather condition and sowing time.

    The role of sowing time is significant for protein content of seeds. The average protein content decreased due to the later sowings in 2014, while 2015 the protein content of seeds in early sowing time and of plants sowed 4 weeks later was similar. We measured less protein content in the 2. sowing time sowed 2 weeks later than the first one. In the studied years the average protein content of seeds from different row spaces were not different.

  • Effect of sufficient and deficit irrigation with different salt inputs on the yield of cucumber
    19-25
    Views:
    45

    Soil salinisation is considered one of the major environmental hazards threatening agricultural productivity and can be accentuated by climate change as well as the use of low-quality water in irrigation. This is the case in our study area which is affected by secondary salinisation due to the use of saline irrigation water for horticultural production. Deficit irrigation technique is implemented especially in arid and semiarid regions due to its potential to optimise water productivity while maintaining or increasing crop yield. The main objective of this study was to compare the effect of irrigation with sufficient (SD) and deficit (DD) doses. This research was carried out in Karcag in 2020. Cucumber was grown on a meadow chernozem soil and was irrigated with SD and DD of two irrigation water qualities. Soil moisture was monitored and crop yields were recorded. Despite the differences in quality and quantity of water, the application of less water by DD maintained the same yield as SD. We found a non-significant difference between the average soil moisture contents under the treatments (15.5 v/v% for SD and 13.5 v/v% for DD). Deficit irrigation can be an efficient technique due to its potential for improving water use efficiency, maintaining sufficient soil moisture content favourable for proper crop development and yield.

  • Effect of Auxin-Synergistic Preparation and Fertilization on Fruit Setting and Fruit Quality ofApple
    21-26
    Views:
    110

    On seven apple cultivars (Gala Must, Gloster, Granny Smith, Idared, Jonagold, Jonathan Csány and Mutsu), the author studied the influence of N-phenyl-phthalamic acid (Nevirol 60 WP) and fertilization on fruit setting and fruit quality.
    The research results show that by using Nevirol 60 WP and applying fertilization, we can improve the fruit setting and number of fruit per tree. As a result of this process, the yield amount will increase.
    Nevirol 60 WP has a great effect on the improvement of yield amount, especially by good nutrient supply. There is a significant difference between the reactions of different cultivars. The most sensitive to these treatments were the cultivar Gala Must and Granny Smith. Before using Nevirol 60 WP we have to take into consideration that the increased yield needs a higher nutrient supply; otherwise, fruit mass, diameter and fruit height will decrease, and the yield will frittered away. In the study, the most favourable effect of Nevirol 60 WP was detected under additionally fertilized conditions by the author.

  • The changes of the purple coneflower’s (Echinacea purpurea L.) herb and radix drug yield under different fertilization conditions
    79-83
    Views:
    156

    In this research, the purple coneflower’s (Echinacea purpurea L.) nutrient requirement was examined under different fertilization conditions in a small plot experiment. We measured the medicinal plant’s raw and dry herb and root drug mass and drying loss under different fertilization settings and meteorological factors.

    From the drug’s raw and dry mass perspective, based on the results, in our opinion, the control setting exceeded all nutrient settings’ results in 2016. In 2017 and 2018, the N75P100K150 nutrient setting has the biggest herb yield. As for the root yield, it was also the N75P100K150 setting which produced the biggest yield.

    The Pearson's correlation test was performed to investigate the connection between the quantity of the raw, the dried herbs, the different nutrient settings and meteorological factors.

  • The Effect of Plant Density on the Yield of Sunflower Hybrids in 2000-2002
    96-99
    Views:
    112

    In order to ensure modern Hungarian sunflower production, the development of hybrid-specific techniques are highly important. The continual expansion in hybrid choice makes the examination of genotypes necessary in the relation of genotype and environment interactions and critical factors. The Plant density as a complex determinant factor has a strong effect on sunflower yield, quality and plant hygiene. As a result of the experiments, we can state that the optimal density was 45.000-65.000 plant/hectar. In 2001-2002, the optimal density was 45.000-55.000 plant/hectar; while in 2000, it was 65.000 plant/hectar.

  • Effect of year and irrigation on yield and quantity of different potato varieties
    7-14
    Views:
    75

    dramatically in the last few decades. We are lagging behind Western European countries as regards yields. The ecological conditions are not favourable for potato, but the low yields other causes: the use of non-suitable seed, the low level of irrigation and nutrient supply and out of date machinery. The competitiveness of production is further decreased by the great alternation in yields from year to year, unpredictable market conditions, poor consumption habit, and often the lack of quality products.
    The experiment was carried out at the experimental site of the University of Debrecen, Farm and Regional Research Institute, at Látókép. In our experiment, we examined the yield and selected quality parameters of 9 medium-early varieties in large parcels. Of the examined varieties, 3 are of Dutch, and 6 are of Hungarian breeding.
    The experiment was set up in 2004 and 2005, on 50 m2 parcels on calcareous chernozem soil after winter wheat (2004) and two rowed barley (2005) as a forecrop. The varieties were examined in 4 repetitions in randomized blocks, of which two repetitions were irrigated, and two were non-irrigated. We examined the yields of the varieties, the distribution of tubers according to size and their percentages and changes, and selected parameters of quality and chemical composition due to irrigation. We studied the dry matter content, the starch content, the underwater mass, the amount of reducing sugars, and the colour index of frying of the tubers.
    Summary, it can be stated that among the agrotechniques, year effect, variety and irrigation factors have considerable impact on potato yield quality and quantity. However, the impact of irrigation depends on the year effect.

  • The effect of sowing date and plant density of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus var. napus f. biennis L.) population
    213-215
    Views:
    158

    The experiment has been set up in the University of Debrecen Látókép Experimental Station in three different years (2014, 2015 and 2016), three different plant densities 200, 350 and 500 thousand ha-1, four replications of the same nutrient supply with using a line spacing of 45 cm. In the experiment, the fore crop was winter wheat in each year. The amount of weeds was observed five times in the last experimental year (2016/2017). In the three experimental years, the highest yield was harvested from the early sowing plot with the highest plant density. On the basis of the Pearson’s correlation analysis there was significant negative correlation (r=-0.583) between the effect of the annual year and yield of the hybrid.