We evaluated the relationships among soil cultivation and other agrotechnical factors (fertilization, number of plants and hybrid) within the framework of a multifactorial long-term experiment set at the Látókép Experimental Site of the Centre for Agricultural Sciences of the University of Debrecen in mid-heavy chalcareous chernozem soil bas...ed on a long-term experiment conducted for a 5-year period (2002–2006).
Based on the evaluation of soil cultivation by the average of treatments, it may be assessed that spring ploughing (8.204 t ha-1) provides more favourable conditions to the stand compared to spring shallow cultivation; however, this did not result in a significant difference. Spring ploughing considerably increased the yield of hybrid FAO 300 in dry years, whereas it considerably increased the yield of hybrid FAO 400 in favourable crop years. A stand of 70 thousand stems/ha provided the higher yield result in both soil cultivation types. It was sufficient to use a fertilizer dose of 120 kg N ha-1 for economical production.
We carried out the tests in the flood meadow soil formed on the alluvial cone of Nagykereki, Sebes-Körös belonging to the Bihar plane small region. The aim of the study was to analyse the effect of the different sowing date of maize on the yield trend based on a comprehensive study conducted for 6 years (2007–2012).
The sowing date ...of maize hybrids is a factor that significantly influences yield, however, its effect is not significant in each crop year. In the years when the date of sowing has a modifying effect, the reliable yield level can be reached with optimal sowing date management (24 April).
The advantage of early sowing (10 April) proved to be dominant in the year of 2012, the seeds were placed into the still wet soil therefore shooting was more balanced. Maize seeds sown at the time of optimal (24 April) and late (10 May) sowing dates were placed into the already dry soil, which deteriorated germination and the strength of early initial development that had an effect on the yield.
Three Debrecen maize hybrids of different genotypes (Debreceni 285, Debreceni 377 and Debreceni 382) were examined on chernozem soil in a field experiment. During the two years of the experiment (2009–2010), we wanted to get to know how the examined hybrids reach to different sowing dates and what impact early, optimal and late sowing has on ...yield.
In 2009, balanced soil and air temperature resulted in steady emergence. However, the low temperature in early April and the cooling down in mid-May 2010 caused a delayed emergence.
The grain moisture content at harvesting and the high yield showed a strong crop year effect. In 2010, yield was much lower (1.664 t ha-1) and grain moisture was significantly higher (34%)than in 2009.
In 2009, early sowing resulted in yield decrease (P<0.05), but it also significantly reduced grain moisture at harvesting (P<0.05). Although late sowing slightly increased yield (not significantly), but grain moisture at harvesting increased by 9.2%. In 2010, optimal sowing date was shown to be the best alternative from the aspect of yield, but there was no significant difference in comparison with early and late sowing. Grain moisture at harvesting greatly increased (13.3%).
The Debreceni 382 maize hybrid reacted to sowing dates flexibly, neither early, nor late sowing affected its yield significantly and the grain moisture at harvesting showed 12% increase in the case of the late sowing date. In 2009, maize hybrids Debreceni 285 and Debreceni 377 reached their highest yield in the case of the sowing date which was shown to be optimal (23rd April), while the different sowing dates had no effect on yield in 2010.
As seen on the above tables we can acknowledge the fact that the Hungarian corn seed market is very unique and, because of its size, indispensable for all multinational breeder companies. We can also assume that the main places in the market are taken by big companies as Pioneer, with its unbreakable first place, followed closely by Syngenta Se...eds and the fusionized Monsanto. Although the Hungarian breeders’ hibrids perform on field tests and trials similarly or better than other varieties developed by the above mentioned companies, we can’t find them even near to those leading few given mostly by Pioneer, Syngenta and Monsanto hibrids. This fact leaves us with a conclusion that the Hungarian companies should change the strategy of their marketing procedures to increase sales.Thus, they need better technology to keep up with their competitors, more advertisement, other marketing „hints”, which can only be fulfilled with a big economical background, unfortunately not yet available for our breeders.
According to the sales results of the past two years we can draw the conclusion that although the Hungarian hybrids have very good capabilities, they are still in a big disadvantage in the corn seed sales sector, considering other foreign varieties. These above mentioned disadvantages, as published in prior essays, are not because of the variet...y’s low quality, but the lack or little presence of marketing. In order to gain position and market on the seed sales sector in Hungary, a lot more has to be done in the area of advertisement.
Seed advertising is very particular and different from all other types of goods. To make growers familiar with your product, you have to be in continuous contact with them, through field days, exhibitions and presentations, besides the well known and in other areas also used quotidian advertisement methods.
Although Hungarian breeders reach better and better results each year, they still cannot catch up with the multinational companies spending millions of dollars on development and advertising, thanks to their financial position.
Finally we can state that choosing the appropriate variety for our needs and possibilities of land and machinery is of great importance in order to reach the best results we can.
The effect of production factors on maize yield was examined in the Látókép Experiment Site of the Centre of Agricultural and Applied Economic Sciences of the University of Debrecen on calcareous chernozem soil between 2001 and 2003. The impact of environmental factors (precipitation, temperature, number of sunny hours), cultivation methods ...(autumn ploughing, spring shallow cultivation) and fertilisation (non-fertilised, 120 kg N + 90 kg P2O5 + 106 kg K2O, and 240 kg N + 180 kg P2O5 + 212 kg K2O) on maize yield was examined. During the three years, autumin ploughing significantly increased yield by 2.91 t ha-1 in comparison with spring shallow cultivation. The yield increasing effect of fertilisation was observed in each year, although its extent depended on the given crop year and the applied cultivation method. The higher fertiliser dose (240 kg N ha-1) did not cause significantly higher yield in either year. After the evaluation of the observed correlations, it can be established that the yield increasing
effect of fertilisation was higher in the case of autumn ploughing in comparison with spring shallow cultivation. The environmental factors (especially the extent of precipitation) significantly affected the maize yield.