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Effects of Site on Winter Wheat Quality 2002/2003
Published October 3, 2019
100-107

The demand of modern societies for high food quality is evident. Thus, it is important for agriculture to produce row materials that are valuable for nutrition and have favourable characteristics for food processing. For this we need a knowledge about the factors which determine the quality of products. One of the main features of plant product...ion is the “immobility”. This way the characteristics of the field influence the quality of the product, like example winter wheat, which is the main cereal in Hungary and Europe.
The Concordia Co. has charged the Central Laboratory of Debrecen University, Agricultural Centre with laboratory testing of the 2002/2003 winter wheat crop. The samples consist of thirteen winter wheat varieties from six different sites under the same cultivating conditions. Therefore, the important wheat quality factors were analysed solely against site conditions with the use of Győri’s “Z” index, which contains these parameters.
Soils were tested first. In this experiment excepting the negligible differences between the sites, there were no linear relations found between quality factors, productivity and soil features. The case is the same with the relation between precipitation, temperature and quality parameters. However, it must be noted that additional soil analyses are required to interpret the extreme results obtained from Karcag.
The calculated Győri’s Z-index shows relative stability concerning certain varieties, although considerable deviation can be found in varieties related to the sites. According to these results, it can bestated that winter wheat quality was not linearly influenced by soil and weather in the 2002/2003 vegetation period. As the same cultivation technology was used in the experiment, the index was determined by genetic features. It must be noted that these findings are relevant only to this experiment.

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Economic questions of maize production on different soil types
Published November 13, 2012
289-292

The requirements and objective of cultivation are in constant change. For example, different cultivation systems are developed for the purpose of soil protection, the preservation of its moisture content and on soils with various precipitation supply or production site conditions. Traditionally, one of the most important cultivation aims is cro...p needs. Further cost saving in fertilisation and crop protection can only be achieved by reducing the quality and quantity of production or it cannot be achieved at all. Furthermore, the costs can be significantly reduced by means of the rationalisation of cultivation. Energy and working time demand can also be notably reduced if ploughing is left out from the conventional tillage method. The key requirement of economicalness is to perform the cultivation at the optimal date, moisture level and the lowest possible cost.
Within production costs, the cost of cultivation is between 3–17%, while they are between 8–36% within machinery costs. It is the vital condition the usability of each technological method to progressively reduce costs. Our evaluation work was carried out with the consideration of the yield data obtained from cooperating farms and the experiment database of the Institute for Land Utilisation, Regional Development and Technology of the Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economic Sciences of the University of Debrecen. Three technological methods (ploughing, heavy cultivator and loosening tillage) were used on several soil types which differ from in terms of cultivability (chernozem, sandy and sandy clay soils) from the economic/economical aspect. We examined the sectoral cost/income relation of maize production as an indicator plant. The maize price during the analytical period was 45 thousand HUF per t. On chernozem soils, the production of maize can be carried out on high income level, while maize production on sandy soils has a huge risk factor. The role of cultivation is the highest on high plasicity soils, since they have a huge energy
demand and the there is a short amount of time available for each procedure in most cases.

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Interaction of yield stability and year in major agricultural crops
Published September 7, 2001
41-46

The effect of hydro-meteorological extremities on plant cultivation is the result of the correlation of many factors. These may increase or decrease the effects of hydro-meteorological extremes. The degree of this variance depends on the professionality of treatments, on the quality of the applied technique and technology and also on the soil...s water management characteristics.
The water management characteristics of Hungary’s arable land are mainly unfavorable or medium. In the past two decades the conditions of originally good soils, from a water management aspect, have significantly deteriorated in the critical 0-60 cm soil layer. This is mainly due to unprofessional land use, a lack of deepening cultivation and neglected organic cultivation. At the same time, hydro-meteorological extremities occur more frequently and the sensibility of plant cultivation has increased.
The sensibility of plant cultivation is type and location specific, yet, it also effects both the quality and quantity of the result.
The stability analysis, which covered the period of four decades and incorporated 6-7 agro-ecological areas proves and highlights the following:
• Winter wheat only reacted to extensive cultivation and unfavorable environmental conditions to a small degree. On the other hand, the effect of hydro-meteorological extremities increases.
• The stability analysis of maize, which is sensitive to cultivation technology and the location of cultivation, proved just the opposite. Good soil and adequate technology significantly reduces the effect of any particular year.
• From the years examined, the most favorable proved to be the one with average precipitation. Maize reacted to both extremities in a similar way. Winter wheat reacted to more precipitation with less yield.
• The yield quality of winter wheat was negatively effected by drought. The negative effect of precipitation is limited to the period of ripening and harvest, so the likelihood of such an effect is not significant.
• The yield of sunflower – due to pests – significantly reduces in years with high precipitation, while a difference between dry and average years cannot be pinpointed out. The oil content in both dry years and in years with high precipitation is evident, compared to years with average precipitation.
• The root yield of sugar beet is reduced by drought while the sugar content depends on soil characteristics and climatic extremities. A difference could also be noted by location, whether in Western Hungary and on the Great Plain. Great sugar content can be achieved in years with high precipitation in Western Hungary, while the same result occurred with average precipitation on the Great Plain. Drought did not have a positive effect on sugar content in either location.

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N-fertilization using „Biofert” in Sustainable Maize Production
Published December 4, 2001
30-33

In synthetic fermentation of lysine (amino-acid) a by-product (Biofert) originates which can be characterized by 6% N-content and other ingredients (vitamins, enzymes, micro-elements etc). In small and large plot experiments Biofert was studied in different agroecological (cropyear, soil), biological (genotypes) and agrotechnical (non-irrigated... and irrigated; N-splitting etc) conditions in order to obtain information about agronomic efficiency and environmental effects of its applications.
Our results proved that Biofert has the same agronomic efficiency as traditional N-fertilizers (applied in equal doses and splitting), but Biofert has economic and environmental advantages (less N-leaching in soils) for maize production. We found a special interaction between N-supply and irrigation. In maize production (irrigation) with the optimum application of nutrient- (N-fertilization, Biofert) and water- supply we could stabilize maize yields at a high level (11.0-14.0 t/ha) fairly independently of agroecological factors. When applying Biofert in autumn, NO3-N leaching was less in 100-200 cm chernozem soil-layers than for applications of traditional N-fertilizer. There were no differences between different maize genotypes concerning the agronomic efficiency of Biofert. In maize production 120-190 kg/ha N (chernozem soil) and 165 kg/ha N (meadow soil) doses of Biofert were the optimum doses in splitting applications (autumn + spring).

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Water infiltration into the soil – what do measurements indicate?
Published September 5, 2018
343-351

Physical properties of top-soil organic materials significantly influence initiation processes of infiltration and runoff generation. This paper deals with the specifics of water infiltration through the top surface organic layer of the forest soil. Three field methods (Guelph permeameter, Tension disk permeameter, Single-ring method) and one l...aboratory method (Falling head) of hydraulic conductivity (KS) determination are compared and interpreted in the context of their applicability and limitations. The Falling head method provides far different values of KS if sample cylinders are or are not sealed with grease against the wall effect. The Guelf permeameter is very significant to the position of different horizons’ interface, while Tension disc permeameter results are dependent on antecedent soil moisture. The single ring method is applicable with acceptable results only when there is no abrupt interface between horizons in the vicinity of the ring bottom edge.

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Comparative analysis of inoculated soybean in extinguishing soil
Published May 16, 2017
113-116

In order to achieve higher yields, better technological methods offered in the current market, which aims to help the producers in the realization. To guarantee good yield because more and more people try with a variety of products, but you have to make the expected impact falls short.In this experiment, the following results were obtained: the... soil suspension closely related to the inoculum of seed or seed treatment,which affects the soybean nodule formation, core saturation, and yield and protein-oil indicators. The soil suspension composition may exert positive and negative effects, which depend on how bacterial strains inoculum combined on the soybean seed surface. It is shown in our experiment very well, that between inoculum and inoculum as well as inoculum and seed treatment materials may be antagonism which setback to the soybean nodules formation and the yield, but not worsen the protein-oil indicators.

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The impact of fertilisation on a few microbiological parameters of the carbon cycle
Published March 5, 2015
45-50

The 30 years old long-term experiment of Látókép is continued in our experiments. The long-term fertilization experiment was set in 1983, and our sample was taken in spring 2014. The examinations of soil respiration processes and factors that influence soil respiration are required in optimal management. In our study, we interested to know h...ow the growing levels of fertilization influence the microbial processes under nonirrigated and irrigated conditions in maize mono, bi, and triculture. The experimental results and those statistics suggest that the bi and triculture influenced higher microbial activity which was reflected in number of fungus, soil respiration, and microbial biomass carbon (MBC).

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The Effect of Forecrop and Plant Protection on the Pathology Parameters and Yields of Winter Wheat
Published December 6, 2005
84-89

We carried out our experiment in the cropyears of 2000/2001, 2001/2002 and 2002/2003, on calcareous chernozem soil, at the experimental site of the Debrecen University Farm and Regional Research Institute, at Látókép. We examined the disease resistance and the yield quantity of Mv Magvas variety by adopting different forecrops and plant prot...ection technologies, at 30+30 N level and at normal cereal row spacing. We applied two forecrops (wheat and pea) and two plant protection technologies (extensive and intensive). We measured the rate of infection by population survey in the first ten days of June.
In the course of our examinations, we found, that the rate of powdery mildew infection was higher in the thicker population sown after pea forecrop in all three years, as powdery mildew is not a typical cereal disease.
The infection rate of leaf mildew and DTR (Dreschlera tritici-repentis) was higher after wheat forecrop in all examined years, because these are typical wheat diseases and infection centres in the soil promote the spreading of these diseases. However, it was possible to parry the adverse effect of forecrops by intensive plant protection.
Due to the chernozem soil, wich has good water management features, and due to the good preparation of the seedbed, the effect of forecrops on yield quantity did not appear in the examined years. The quantity of the yield was only slightly larger after pea forecrop in the cropyears of 2000/2001 and 2002/2003 than after wheat. Nonetheless, the data of technical literatures state that the yield quantity can be larger, even by 15-20%, after pea forecrop.
In the course of intensive plant protection technology, we applied systemic pesticides, while in the course of environmentally sound technology, we used contact pesticides of sulphur content. In those populations that were treated with environmentally sound plant protection technology, infection rate was higher in all three years.
Yield quantities were somewhat lower in the course of applying extensive, environmentally sound technology, because diseases appeared in these populations to the higher degree. Powdery mildew does not, but leaf mildew and Dreschlera tritici-repentis have a significant yield decreasing effect. With appropriate, well-selected fungicides, we were able to keep every leaf diseases well in hand, and the rate of infection was almost independent of the influence of the breeding year.

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Examination and statistical evaluation of physico-chemical parameters of windrow composting
Published May 20, 2020
33-38

 

The treatment and utilization of plant and animal waste and by-products from agriculture is very diverse. Traditional environmental management practices for waste management have been retained through soil conservation and the applied of recycle degradable organic substances in soil. The management o...f by-products from agriculture (animal husbandry) is important because a closed loop can be created to utilize by-products (manure, feathers) from the production of the main product (eggs, meat, milk) and to form a raw material for a new product. It is important to treat the resulting by-products, especially deep-litter manure, as it has served as a basis for compost-treated manure to develop an organic-based, soil-conditioning product line. Poultry manure by itself is not suitable as a substrate for aerobic decomposition, so it has to be mixed with other substances (zeolite, bentonite, soil), because of its high nutrient capacity, it is an acidifying substance.

The aim of this study was to compost the mixture of poultry manure and hen manure by the addition of zeolite and to monitor the composting process. It was also our aim to statistically determine the effect of the zeolite on parameters describing the composting process.

The windrow composting experiments were set up in the composting area of the University of Debrecen, Institute of Water and Environmental Management. The composting experiment was 62 days long, during which the main parameters describing the composting process were continuously monitored: temperature (°C), moisture content (w/w%), electrical conductivity (mS/cm), organic matter content (w/w%), examination of nitrogen forms (w/w%). In this study, three factors were investigated: temperature, humidity, and pH. For statistical evaluation, R software and RStudio user interface were used. We developed a repeated measurement model, in which the fixed and random effects were determined for our parameters under study, and the resulting relationships were shown on interaction plots.

Based on our results, the temperature of the prisms has become independent of the ambient temperature and the composting stages can be separated in both the control and the zeolite treated prisms. In the repeated measurement model, we proved that treatment, time and treatment: time interaction were significant at both temperature and pH.

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Effect of N, P and K fertilisers and their interactions in a long-term experiment on winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)
Published October 24, 2016
87-92

The aim of this work was to analyse the effect of K, P and N supplies on the yield of winter barley in a long-term mineral fertilisation experiment with clearly distinct soil nutrient supply levels in order to develop fertilisation guidelines for winter barley growers. The experiment was set up in 1989 on a chernozem meadow soil calcareous in t...he deeper layers, applying all possible combinations of 4 levels each of N, P and K fertiliser, giving a total of 64 treatments.

The results of analyses performed in 2011 and 2012 can be summarised as follows:

  1. In 2011, when rainfall supplies were deficient in the shooting phase, improved K supplies (324 mg kg-1 AL-K2O) increased the grain yield, but in 2012, when rainfall supplies were more evenly distributed, K supply levels in the range 210–335 mg kg-1 AL-K2O had no significant influence on the yield of winter barley.
  2. An analysis of the P treatments revealed that, compared to the 119–133 mg kg-1 AL-P2O5 level (P0), better P supplies (186–251 mg kg-1) led to a significant increase in the grain yield.
  3. In both years rising N rates significantly increased the yield up to an annual N rate of 160 kg ha-1.

      4. A K×N interaction could only be detected in the nutrient supplies of winter barley in 2011. The yield-increasing effect of N fertiliser was more    pronounced at better K supply levels, while K fertiliser led to higher yields in the case of better N supplies.

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The Impact of Water Supply on the Quality and Health of Potato
Published May 11, 2003
144-147

Besides its effect on potato yield, water also has a significant impact on yield quality. Excess water (too much precipitation, over-irrigation) and the lack of water (lack of precipitation or irrigation) both trigger stress in the plant and can significantly worsen the quality of the yield (seed potato) and deteriorate the health of the plant ...and the seed potato. Excess precipitaton or irrigation water leaches nitrate-nitrogen under the rhizosphere, consequently, the amount of available nitrogen decreases leading to the deficiency of N in potato. If water cover (the maximally saturated state of soil) exceeds 8-12 hours, it can cause root destruction (because of the lack of oxygen), which leads to the wilting and later to the death of the plant. Abundance of water caused by excess precipitation or irrigation is a major problem primarily on sandy loam, loam and clay loam soils with bad structure and water management qualities, but also on any soils, which are over-irrigated or irrigated at an improper time. Symptoms of the lack of water are detectable mostly when the available water content of the soil (disponible water) decreases under 60-65%.
In the present year, there was a lack of precipitation on the Great Plain, which can be compensated by proper irrigation. Unfortunately, this problem is further intensified by the high temperature, which results in faster ripening and accompanied with fluctuating soil moisture content, in the formation of secondary tubers.

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The effect of long-term fertilization on phosphorus content determined in different soil extractants on meadow chernozem soil
Published December 15, 2010
7-11

The 0.01 M CaCl2 universal extractant is known all over Europe since the 90’s. During my research, I exam the phosphorus content determined in 0.01 M CaCl2 of the samples originated from the B 17 National Uniformed Long Term Fertilisation Trials in the experimental site Karcag, in the 40th year of the experime...nt. Relationships between the CaCl2-P and the AL-P content of the soil, the average yields, and the phosphorus balance of the
2006/2007 year were studied. From the results of the study it was concluded as follows:
– Correlation was close (r=0.68-0.7) between the AL-P and CaCl2-P. This is in accordance with the results of previous experiments in Hungary and other countries.
– My studies confirmed that the calcium-chloride method indicates well the deficiency and the surplus of plant available phosphorus. In case of different degrees of negative balance, the amount of CaCl2 extractable phosphorus showed no changes, or decreased, and in case of positive balance it increased exponentially by the long-term effect of P rates.
– The 120 and 180 kg ha-1 rates resulted in significant increases in the amount of CaCl2-P according to the control and treatments that are not fertilized with phosphorus. The 60 kg ha-1 rate didn’t result any increase as it didn’t meet the phosphorus requirement of winter wheat, and presumably the P-balance was negative in the earlier years as well.
– It can be stated that the 0.01 M CaCl2 was able to assess the deficiency and the excess of phosphorus causing negative impacts on environment as well.

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Agricultural relations of the increasing carbon dioxide emissions
Published May 16, 2017
197-201

Emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) have deserved more and more attention of humanity since decades, but inspite of theme asures already taken there are no substantial results. CO2 is a very important chemical, one of the greenhouse gases, which on the one hand offsets the cooling of the Earth, but on the other hand the too high CO2 emission lead...s to the global warming. The emission from the soil contributes substantially to the global cycle. This type of emission is influenced by the soil moisture, temperature, the soil quality and the cultivation. Through our measurements we have studied the relationships between the type of cultivation and the emissions of carbon dioxide.

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Yield components of hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth.) in different sowing technologies on acidic sandy soil
Published December 15, 2019
83-88

Nearly a quarter of the agricultural utilized area of our country is made up of sandy soils. Sandy soils are poor in nutrients, and, therefore, the effectiveness of farming is basically determined by the method of maintaining soil fertility and the fertilization practice.

The hairy vetch called Vicia villosa Roth (Sandy Roth.), also kno...wn as a sand pioneer, plays a significant role in the exploitation of sandy soils. Its cultivation was started in Hungary in the late 1800s. It is primarily used as green fodder, most recently as a green manure and as a soil protection plant. The lupine is grown mainly as a supportive plant, which was previously rye, and today it is triticale. The ratio of the two plants to each other and the spatial location of plants depend on the method of sowing.

The aim of our work was to present the yields of some of the grain grown in different sowing methods and some of its crops.

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Usage of Different Spectral Bands in Agricultural Environmental Protection
Published May 4, 2004
123-126

Hyper and multispectral imaging systems are widely used in agricultural and environmental protection. Remote sensing techniques are suitable for evaluating environmental protection hazarsd, as well as for agriculture resource exploration. In our research we compared aerial hyper and multispectral images, as well as multispectral digital camera ...images with the background data from the test site. Hyperspectral records were obtained using a new 80-channeled aerial spectrometer (Digital Airborne Imaging Spectrometer /DAIS 7915/. We have chosen two farms where intensive crop cultivation takes place, as test sites, so soil degradation and spreading of weeds can be intensive as a result of land use and irrigation. We took additional images of air and ground with a TETRACAM ADC wide band multispectral camera, which can sense blue, green and near infrared bands. We had detailed GIS database about the test site. Weed and vegetation map of the area in the spring and the summer was made in 2002. For soil salt content analysis, we gathered detailed data frome an 80x100 m area. When analyzing the images, we evaluated image reliability, and the connection between the bands and the soil type, pH and salt content, and weed mapping. In the case of hyperspectral images, our aim was to choose and analyze the appropriate band combinations. With a TETRACAM ADC camera, we made images at different times, and we calculated canopy, NDVI and SAVI indexes. Using the background data mentioned above, the aim of our study was to develop a spectral library, which can be used to analyze the environmental effects of agricultural land use.

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The dynamics of biodiversity structure of soil microorganisms under the impact of biopreparations during potato growing season
Published October 24, 2016
67-74

The use of biological preparations such as Phytotsid and Planryz contributes the increase of the general number of soil bacteria population by 13.0–36.1% in the case of potato variety Scarbnytsya and by 4.5–24.6% for potato variety Oberig compared with control. It also increases the number of saprophyte microflora, which compete with plant ...pathogens, micromycetes, and causes 1.2–1.8 times reduction in the number of soil fungi – Fusarium and Alternaria. During the application of Rovral Akvaflo the Shannon ecological index of species biodiversity is lower than during the biopreparation use. The decrease of species biodiversity was observed as well as strengthening the dominance of some species (dark pigmentation in fungi).

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Evaluation of the microbial soil quality indicators in agricultural soils from Crisurilor Plain
Published May 6, 2013
79-80

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The researches were carried out in 2010 and 2011 on the haplic luvisol cultivated in three variant such as: pasture, cropland, and orchards. Based on the total number of microorganisms monitored in the haplic luvisol (aerobic mesophilic heterotrophs, yeast and mould, Actinomycetes, nitrogen fixing bacteria and nitrifying bacteria) was calculated the bacterial indicators of soil quality (BISQ) and was appreciate the bacterial potential of the haplic luvisol. Seasonal analyses were carried out, and annual BISQs have been calculated too. The values of the bacterial indicators of the haplic luvisol in different cultivation conditions (pasture, cropland and orchards) indicate a high density of the bacterial groups in 2010 and 2011. In 2010 the values of the BISQs are included between 3.617 (minimum in autumn, in pasture) and 5.458 (maximum, in spring, in pasture). In 2011, the minimum value (3.622) was registered in pasture, in autumn, and the maximum value (4.851) in the haplic luvisol cultivated with maize, in spring. In 2010 and 2011, based on the bacterial indicators of the soil quality values, on the first position is the cropland (4.750, 4.721) followed by orchards (4.615, 3.985) and pasture (4.537, 3.758).

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Application of AquaCrop in processing tomato growing and calculation of irrigation water
Published June 30, 2018
183-187

The area and volume of processing tomato production is increasing in Hungary. Irrigation is crucial for processing tomato growing. To save water and energy, it is important to know exactly how much water is needed to reach the desirable quality and quantity. AquaCrop is a complex software, developed by FAO, which is able to calculate irrigation... water needs, several stress factors and to predict yields. A field experiment was conducted in Szarvas in processing tomato stands, under different irrigation treatments. These were the following: fully irrigated plot with 100% of evapotranspiration (ET) (calculated by AquaCrop), deficit irrigated plot with 50% of ET (D) and control (K) plot with basic water supply was also examined. Dry yield, crop water stress index and soil moisture were compared to modelled data. The yields in the plots with different access to water were not outstanding in the experiment. The model overestimated the yields in every case, but the actual and modelled yields showed good correlation. AquaCrop detected stomatal closure percentages only in the unirrigated plot. These values were compared to CWSI – computed from leaf surface temperature data, collected by a thermal cam in July – and showed moderately strong correlation. This result suggests that Aquacrop simulates water stress not precisely and it is only applicable in the case of water scarcity. Soil moisture data of the three plots were only compared by means. The measured and modeled data did not differ in the case of K and ET plots, but difference appeared in the D plot. The obtained results suggest that the use of AquaCrop for monitoring soil moisture and water stress has its limits when we apply the examined variables. In the case of dry yield prediction overestimation needs to be considered.

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The relationship between the nutrient supply and the yield of maize hybrids with different genetic traits on chernozem soil in variant years
Published March 5, 2015
27-31

The experiments were set on lime-coated chernozem soil in 2013 and in 2014, in our study four hybrids were included with different FAO number. We studied the effect of NPK fertilization and row spacing on the yield. The fertilizer doses were based on a 25-year longterm experiment. Compared to control, the N40 +PK treatment has also achieved a s...ignificant yield increase, although some hybrids responsed with yield loss to the increasing fertilizer doses; this effect was observed especially in 2014. The majority of hybrids reached higher yields in both years using the 50 cm row spacing. The water release of hybrids was measured weekly during the maturation, at the same time points. The rainy September slowed ripening and the water release of the hybrids in 2013, so the grain wet content at harvest showed higher values. The moisture contents were increased for some hybrids, in spite of the positive and favorable dynamic of water loss.

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Agronomical and Economic Evaluation of Different Soil Cultivation Systems
Published March 4, 2006
17-22

In the interest of profitable plant production and environmental protection we have to make an effort to protect and improve the productivity of our soils while moderating production limiting factors. Due to different soil cultivation methods, the quantity of yield and required expenses also differ.
We examined the production costs in four d...ifferent production technology systems. Overall, it can be said that farming standards are good, since cost prices were low (2001: 14-15 HUF/kg, 2002: 15-21 HUF/kg, 2003: 39-49 HUF/kg) in the case of all main products per 1 kg. Cost prices were lowest in the case of direct sowing, probably due to low machinery costs.
All economic indicators have to be compared when choosing the most suitable production technology in a specific farming environment.

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Agronomic bases of precision barley production
Published November 13, 2012
217-220

To ascertain the importance of individual preciosion factors in achieving yield and quality of malting barley, we established a multifactor 
experiment at the research station of the Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra in 2009 and 2010. Four variants of fertilization, 2 ways of soil cultivation and four varieties 'Bojos’, 'Kango...o’, 'Marthe’ and 'Xanadu’ were observed. From the quality indicators the nitrogen content (%) was observed. The results were statistically analyzed by using a multifactor analysis of variance by using Statistica 8, the program Statgraphics. The difference between years was statistically significant (1.87 t ha-1) in favour of 2010. The difference was also significant between the varieties 'Bojos’ and ’Kangoo’(1.07 t ha-1), respectively. 'Martha’ and 'Xanadu’ as well as 'Kangoo’ (0.56 resp. 0.33 t ha-1). Conventional soil cultivation in
comparison with a minimalization technology, demonstrated a  tatistically insignificant increase of yield. Significant differences were obtained between the variants of fertilization. Treatment by using Condit (b-var.) showed a very positive impact in climatic favorable year (2010) with a yield result of 7.42 t ha-1. In comparison with an untreated control, the difference in yield was 0.89 t ha-1. A significant increase of yield was achieved by using the combination of solid fertilizer with foliar fertilizer (LAV + Hakofyt, var.c) 0.47 t ha-1. The crude protein content was statistically influenced by a variety and year. In 2009, the crude protein content was above average (12.38%). Significantly lower attributes were achieved in 2010 (9.90%). From the studied/observed varieties the lowest crude protein content was showed by a variety 'Kangoo’ (1.68%).

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The impact of production methods and row orientation on carrot quality in the case of various cultivars
Published February 25, 2014
65-69

Carrot is a wellknown and favoured, really important vegetable. Carrot’s cultivation is important, although its growing field has been reduced in last few years. The suitable cultivar and landstructure are essential to produce good quality carrot. The ridge cultivation is widely spread on plasted soils. At this type of cultivation relationshi...p between line orientations and carrot quality is less studied. That is the reason we tried to examine in our experiment the relationship between ridge highness and line orientation (N-S and E-W) and carrot’s morphological features at different genotipes. The experimental was settled in the Experimental Garden of the University of Debrecen on limy chernozem soil by plain, raised bed and ridge cultivation in 2013. In the experiment we examined four longgrowing cultivars (Danvers 126, Fertődi vörös, Rekord, Chantenay). The sowing was at 24th April. The harvest was at 15th October, 2013. In the multi factorial (type of cultivation, line orientation, cultivar) experimental we explained the effect of treatments on carrot root shoulder diameter and root weight.

In our experiment we stated that line orientation had no significant effect on shoulder diameter at different cultivations. The only exception is Fertődi vörös which has reached the biggest shoulder diameter (5 cm <) at N-S direction on raised bed. By examining the carrot rootweight we stated that they were higher in raised bed and ridge cultivation than in plain cultivation with the exception of one cultivar (Chantenay). This carrot had found ideal environment for growing between each cultivation conditions. That is why we can state that if you grow carrot on plasted soil and there is no possibility to make a ridge, use short, tapered and rounded ending root type for successful growing.

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Measurement of the degradation of abandoned turf
Published December 15, 2019
145-149

With the decreasing number of grazing livestock in Hungary, the role of the turf cultivation is also significantly decreasing. The proportion of the under- and non-utilized turf is increasing. In the research conduced at the University of Debrecen, IAREF Research Institute Karcag, we studied four types of turf utilization in three replicates on... a salt field with timothy grass. We determined the flora composition of the experimental area, measured the soil moisture and the carbon-dioxide content of the soil.

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Alternatives of sewage sludge use in the crop production
Published May 16, 2012
83-87

The produced plants reduce the greenhouse effect because they fix CO2 that contributes to the causing of the greenhouse effect with about 50%. The production of fertilizers is not only a costly process but it needs a considerable energy at the same time. Nowadays, the reduction of the proportion of the fertilizer is significant. One ...of the reasons of this is that during the production such by-products are produced in a big quantity in which the necessary vegetal nutrients can be found in a considerable measure these enrich the organic matter of soil. The latter is essential condition for the microorganisms in the soil, without which the sustainable plant cultivation can not be achieved. Besides high prices of artificial fertilizers the utilization of the wastes is economically justified. Finally the other reason for the reduction of a usage of artificial fertilizer is that the wrong use of the fertilizer may cause environmental pollutions. I examined the cultivation application of the sewage sludge in laboratory circumstances during my work.

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Evaluation of long term experiments from a new aspect
Published September 8, 2020
55-60

During our work, we developed a new, simple method to show the effects of fertilization on yield, which can both be applied over the long term as well as in series of independent experiments.
During the testing of this method, at the experimental farm of the Debrecen University Center for Agricultural Sciences at Látókép on a chernozem so...il with lime deposits, we examined the fertilizer reaction of maize hybrids between 1989 and 1994. The treatments were: winter tillage, plant density of 70-80 thousand, unfertilized, N 120, N 240 kg/ha fertilized treatments, long term experiments using Dekalb 524 and Volga SC hybrids in long term experiments.
Four parameters are shown in the model. In the examined period TRmax represents the greatest yield in the fertilized treatments, NT the yield in unfertilized treatment, k the „efficiency of fertilizer” to NT and b the depression-coefficient, where the expected value is zero. The expected grain yield of the fertilized treatments (Y), in the function of the unfertilized grain yield (x) is the following:

The parameters were determined using the Monte Carlo method, in the optimizing process the sum of deviation square was minimized. The correct conformation of the functions was determined by the greatness of the R-value and the standard error. We found that during six years of testing, the tendency of fertilization efficiency was similar in the case of both hybrids. There was an unfavorable weather interval and, in these years, the yields were low, fertilization did not have an effect and moreover, in extremely bad conditions resulted in an obvious yield decrease. With the  improvement of conditions, which in the case of our country means an increase in precipitation, the efficiency of fertilization increases and reaches its peak at 13-14 t/ha. At this point, the yield increasing effect of fertilization is 4-4,5 t/ha. If the yield of the unfertilized treatments increases from 8-9 t/ha, then the efficiency of the applied fertilizer decreases.
Most likely, the k and b parameters depend on the soil of the experimental location (nutrient and water management) and on the amount of  pplied fertilizer and the characteristics of the  hybrid. With the increase of fertilizer dosage the k-parameter also increases. The greater value though does not obviously mean a more favorable situation. It is true that in medium and good years this means great fertilizer efficiency, but in low or extreme precipitation conditions it also means greater risk. With the increase of the k-parameter, the yield deviation also increases which, from a cultivation point of view, is quite unfavorable. If the value of the b-parameter is other than, zero then the effect is clearly unfavorable, because with the increase of this value, the yield decrease is also greater. The fertilizer reaction of the two examined hybrids can be well characterized by these two hybrids.
Examining the six years, our created model estimated the effect of fertilization on the yield accurately and with a high degree of safety. Both in highly unfavorable and extremely good years, it gave an exact estimate. In our opinion, it can be used well to evaluate the effects of fertilization on yield in the future.

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