No 53 (2013)

Published May 6, 2013

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Articles

Researches regarding the influence of the some technological elements on water use efficiency in maize from Crisurilor Plain
5-9

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Plain and the influence of the hybrid, plant density, crop rotation, nutrient supply, weeds and irrigation on water use efficiency were studied.

Choosing of the hybrid with the best water use efficiency is very important because a hybrid from 500–600 FAO group (Fundulea 376) in unirrigated conditions and a hybrid from FAO group over 600 (Fundulea 365) obtained the biggest water use efficiency; the hybrid Fundulea 365 obtained the highest irrigation water use efficiency, 20.1 kg yield gain 1 mm-1 irrigation water.

One of the most known hybrid in the area is Turda super and the highest water use efficiency was obtained using the plant density of 55 000 plants/ha in unirrigated variant and 70 000 plants/ha in irrigated variant. The highest irrigation water use efficiency, 20.7 kg yield gain 1 mm-1, was obtained at 70 000 plants ha-1.

In maize monoculture was obtained the lowest values of the water use efficiency in unirrigated and irrigated variant: in the wheat-maize crop rotation the values were higher than in maize monoculture and in the wheat-maize-soybean were registered the highest values. The same situation was registered regarding the irrigation water use efficiency.

Farm manure (30 t ha-1) and especially manure (30 t ha-1) +chemical fertilizers (N90P45) determined a higher values of the water use efficiency in comparison with the control. In the variant with organic + mineral fertilization was registered the higher value (19.4 kg yield gain mm-1) of the irrigation water use efficiency.

Water use efficiency was much lower in the variant with weeds in comparison with the variant without the weeds; the differences were of 69% in unirrigated variant and of 64% in irrigated variant, very significant statistically. Irrigation water use efficiency from variant with weeds was lower than the value registered in the variant without weeds; the difference (68%) was very significant statistically.

In average in period 1976–2012, the irrigation determined the increasing in water use efficiency with 22%, 19.4 kg mm-1 vs. 15.8 kg mm-1, but not in all the years caused the irrigation increasing in water use efficiency in comparison with unirrigated maize.

The results research emphasized the need of the optimization for technology elements studied and a better water use efficiency will be obtained.

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Long term researches regarding the irrigation influence on sugarbeet crop inthe Crisurilor Plain
11-15

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The paper is based on the researches carried out in the long term trial placed on the preluvosoil from Agricultural Research and Development Station Oradea, Crisurilor Plain in during 1976–2012.

The soil water reserve in 0–75 cm depth decreased bellow easily available water content every year and in 32% of years the soil water reserve decreased bellow wilting point. For optimum water supply an irrigation rate of 2665 m3 ha-1 (variation interval 500–5090 m3 ha-1) was needed.

The irrigation determined improving of water/temperature + light report (Domuta climate index) with 47.4% in average in the period May–September. A statistically very significant connection was quantified between this indicator and the yield.

Daily water consumption increased in the irrigated variant, the biggest difference in comparison with unirrigated variant was registered in August, 86% in comparison with unirrigated variant. As consequence, the value of the total water consumption increased with 50%, variation interval was 11–154%. The irrigation covered 37.8% of total water consumption, the variation interval was 8.3%–67.9%.

The yield level of the sugarbeet increased in average with 61%, the variation interval was 9–227%. Standard deviation was lower in the irrigated variant and this emphasizes an improve of the yield stability with 25.1%. The sugar content of the sugarbeet roots from irrigated variant increased statistically very significantly in the droughty years and differs significantly in the rainy years.

Water use efficiency increased in the irrigated variant with 7% and irrigation water use efficiency was between 7.9 kg yield gain 1 m-3 irrigation water and 17.4 kg yield gain 1 m-3 irrigation water.

The positive influence of the irrigation on microclimate, water consumption, yield level, stability and quality and on water use efficiency sustain the need of the irrigation in sugarbeet from Crisurilor Plain.

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Seasonal variations in somereproductive parameters of Dorper Rams in Hungary
17-20

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that season has an affect on semen quality and scrotal circumference of Dorper rams. The experiment was carried out with six Dorper rams aged between 15 and 18 month. Semen samples were collected with artificial vagina and volume, concentration (x 109/ml), total sperm number/ejaculate (x 109), mass motility (0–5), progressive motility (%), scrotal circumference (cm) was observed. Significant differences (P<0.05) were observed in concentration, total sperm number/ejaculate, scrotal circumference in different seasons. Volume was the highest in autumn (1.4±0.5 ml) and the lowest in the spring (1.3±0.4 ml). Concentration of semen was lower in spring (2.6±1.5 x 109) and summer (3.3±1.5 x 109) as compared to fall (4.1±1.1 x 109) (P<0.05). Regarding total sperm number/ejaculate (x 109), scrotal circumference (cm) all the seasons differed significantly (P<0.05), although the season had no effect on mass motility and progressive individual motility (P<0.05). In conclusion the present study showed that semen quality parameters and scrotal circumference of Dorper rams were better in autumn than in the other sea- sons.

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The hydric stress influence on quantityand quality of the maize yield in the Crisurilor Plainconditions
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...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The paper is based on the researches carried out in an experiment placed on the preluvosoil from Agricultural Research and Development Station Oradea, Crisurilor Plain during 2008–2011in the following variants: V1=Irrigated, without irrigation suspending; V2=Irrigated, irrigation suspending in May; V3=Irrigated, irrigation suspending in June; V4=Irrigated, irrigation suspending in July; V5=Irrigated, irrigation suspending in August; V6=Unirrigated. The hybrid used: Fundulea 376. In the variant with optimum irrigation, water reserve on 0–75 cm depth was maintained between easily available water content and field capacity. Pedological drought was determined every year and the irrigation was also needed. The irrigation determined the increase of the total water consumption and yield gain in comparison with unirrigated variant. Irrigation suspending in different months determined the yield losses very significant statistically. The biggest protein content was registered in the variant without irrigation suspending; the values registered in the variants with irrigation suspending in May, June, July and August and in the unirrigated variant are smaller, with differences statistically assured. There was a direct link between de Martonne aridity index values and water consumption, yield and protein content and an inverse link between pedological drought and yield quantity and protein content. These are the arguments for irrigation opportunity in maize from Criurilor Plain.

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Cohesion and competitiveness of the European Union at strategic level
29-33

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">After the relaunchment of the Lisbon strategy, the cohesion policy of the EU concentrates even stronger on the establishment of the knowledge based economy, on R&D activities and innovations. In the first chapter I demonstrate the funds division of the convergence and regional competitiveness targets in the financial perspective between 2007–2013. The first sheet shows unambiguously that the new member states from Middle-Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean countries spend their funds on convergence and cohesion issues. The situation is contrary in the highly developed Western-European countries, in the core regions, where decisive part of the funds are spent on competitiveness issues. In the second chapter of the study I present the Europe 2020 strategy of the EU, that is a crucial paradigm change in the European strategy-making. While the Lisbon strategy focused on the social cohesion of the European Union, the Europe 2020 strategy strives the fostering of the European competitiveness. In the third part of the study I make a comparison how the funds-allocation altered during the two financial perspectives.

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External governance and economic patriotism in European policies
35-39

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The concept of external governance tries to define the expanding scope of EU rules beyond EU borders. This article presents the theoretical foundations of the concept, differentiating the various institutional modes according to which external governance may take place. Due to the financial and economic crisis the European Union is forced to strengthen its competitiveness opposite to cohesion. In the second part of the study I present the five mechanisms by which the European Union may foster its position in the global competition. The five mechanisms are as follows: extension of the political space of the EU, expansion of the regulation mechanisms of the EU, active coaching of international organisations, territorial extension of the EU’s influence, division of the costs of globalization. After that I deal with the different forms of economic patriotism. Economic patriotism plays crucial role in maintaining the performance and strengthening the position of some preferred domestic industries, ‘national champions’. Tools of economic patriotism differ due to ideological affinities.

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Vegetable production based on waste heat in closed greenhouses considering economic usage and competitiveness of the European Union
41-44

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The study investigates two professional fields; the questions of vegetable production in greenhouses, the necessary steam supply and heat regulations. The actuality of this investigation is provided by the planning of a combined cycle power plant of 2400 MW in Hungary. According to the plans the steam developing by generating electricity in the power plant can be used to intensify the vegetable production. In my current study I present the experiences and results gathered as member of the research and development team led by Mr. Dr. Sinórós-Szabó.

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Daily behaviour of Hungarian Grey Cattle under range grazing conditions
45-48

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Cattle behaviour on rangeland depends on external factors, such as grass allowance and quality, temperature, net solar radiation, distance from water-source, wind speed and direction, air pressure changes and the applied breeding technology. Our research is based on previous empirical observations and modern methods to analyze the behaviour of the Hungarian Grey Cattle. Today it is crucial to use cost-effective solutions in modern beef cattle farming therefore we introduce a cost-efficient method to study and follow cattle herds. We are studying relation between traveled daily distance and air pressure. The various weather fronts influence behavioural characteristics and traveled daily distance. According to our hypothesis, the pressure-change and the wind direction has significant effect on cattle activity on pasture. As the different air masses alter the barometric conditions and unbalance the neuroendocrine system, indirectly cause relaxed or agitated behaviour

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The past and present of Érmellék wine region
49-52

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Érmellék is an area of the Partium. It is situated between Szilágy and Bihar counties and between River Kraszna and Berettyó. Its name is from Ér, the small brook, which crosses the area. Érmellék is famous for its wine production, because its climate is favourable for this kind of trade. Only a few information sheets of the small Partium-belonging micro-region, Érmellék are published nowadays. Érmellék has extremely picturesque architectural wine cellar rows, of which ”szalacsi” wine cellar row (wine cellar row system) with its unique structure consists of about a thousand cellars.

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History of origin and development of replacement of plants crop rotations is in world agriculture
53-56

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">In practice of world agriculture a long ago the known problem of decline of harvests of agricultural cultures at their permanent growing, scientific explanation of this phenomenon became possible only with appearance of natural sciences. At first the declines of harvests bound to the toxic action of root excretions cultures on her repeated sowing, with development of humus theory of feed of plants of diminishing of harvests at the permanent sowing began to explain impoverishment of soil on a humus.

During a few centuries the known farmers development the looks in relation to forming of scientific bases of construction of replacement of plants crop rotations in the world systems of agriculture, set history of their development and improvement. The analysis of influence of possibility of optimal satiation of replacement of plants crop rotations is conducted by agricultural cultures on the level of fertility of soil, water and nourishing modes and their productivity. For the terms of the insufficient moistening a positive action is marked black pair on the improvement of the water mode of soil in crop rotations.

In historiography the problem of introduction and mastering of replacement of plants crop rotations for the decision of scientific and practical tasks of agricultural production is represented in many-sided aspects, worked out and the recommended replacement of plants crop rotations that are base on zonal principle of development of world agriculture that passed the protracted term of test and counted on various specialization of economies. But for today development of scientific and technical progress requires intensification of agricultural production with the use of intensive crop rotations and growing of high-performance cultures.

Hereupon there was a necessity of realization of analysis of the systems of historical value of scientifically-practical knowledge about development and improvement of replacement of plants crop rotations, as it gives an opportunity to work out to recommending a production with the use of the most effective elements of the past on modern agrarian business and allows to forecast them on the future.

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Agrarian sector of Ukraine in the global world
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...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Characterization of Ukraine as a “bread basket” for the world have been done. In our study using database of State statistical service of Ukraine and FAO we showed changes of harvest areas and volume of production of cereals and protein-oil crops during this century.

As a result we showed that Ukraine has increased its share in the world gross harvest of cereals up to 2.17% and protein-oil crops up to 3.4%. Each economically active agrarian produced 22.6 tons of cereals and 3.5 tons of protein-oil crops, increasing this index in comparing to 2000 in 11 and 12 times accordingly.

Ukraine has a great potential for increasing crop production because of use genetic potential of varieties only for 60–70%. Here are shown changes in cattle, poultry breeding and dynamic of livestock production. We also included export of cereals and livestock production.

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Autumn and winter kidney fat indexes of roe deer does and their correlation with reproductive parameters
61-65

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">I studied the variations of kidney fat indexes (KFI) in two game management units of the Great Hungarian Plain between 2002 and 2004 in the autumn and winter months. I was looking for correlation between the autumn and winter KFI as well as between the autumn KFI and reproductive parameters (number of corpora lutea, recruitment rate).

There was a significant positive correlation between the average winter and the average next autumn KFI (r=0.991, p<0.1). The average winter KFI showed strong positive correlation with the average number of corpora lutea (CL) in the next rutting season (r=0.978, p<0.05). The average autumn KFI and the average grown up offspring showed positive but not significant correlation (r=0.725, p=0.275).

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The R&D and innovation activity of agribusiness enterprises in Hajdú-Bihar County
67-71

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Economic changes have significantly accelarated in the 21th century. In this turbulent market environment enterprises are forced to adapt continously as they must be flexible in order to meet changing market needs. To achieve flexibility companies require innovation. The economic relevance of innovations is significant in every market sector and agriculture is no exception. Re-dynamizing agricultural innovations is a possibility for the outburst of the Hungarian agriculture. Agricultural enterprises have to face competitors as well and they should give priority to efficiency, sustainability and competitiveness in order to preserve their position in BOTH global and domestic markets. This study examines the innovation potential of the agricultural enterprises in the North Great Plain region based on own databases and case studies.

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Study of the microbiological activity in the agrocenosis from Crisurilor Plain
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...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The seasonal variations of soil microorganisms depend on changes in the soil chemical properties and the microbiological processes of soil are determined in main by different cropping systems, soil management and season. Investigation of the microbiological properties of a haplic luvisol, under different cultivation conditions showed that anthropogenic factors such as fertilization and treatments with pesticides was favourable for certain microorganisms while others were inhibited by these factors. In order the quantitative occurence of microorganism was aerobic mesophilic heterotrophs (105–107 cellsxg-1 dry matter soil) were followed by Actinomycetes, yeast and mould (103–106 cellsxg-1 dry matter soil), nitrogen fixing bacteria (102–105 cellsxg-1 dry matter soil) and nitrifying bacteria (10-1–103 cellsxg-1 dry matter soil). The highest values of aerobic mesophilic heterotrophs were found in cropland and undisturbed meadow of haplic luvisol. Actinomycetes are more developed in undisturbed soils than in the cultivated soils. The number of yeast and mould was high in the apricot tree orchard, and Azotobacter and nitrifying bacteria were identified in a small number in all the soil variants studied. Among the total number of aerobic microorganisms, pH and humus content statistically proved relationship was established. Total number of yeast and mould depends on the proportion of 10.89% by moisture content and pH. The numerical presence of Azotobacter depends in a proportion of 9.6% by the ammonia nitrogen content and pH variations. The numerical presence of nitrifying bacteria depends in a proportion of 1.69% by the nitric nitrogen content and humus content variation.

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Evaluation of the microbial soil quality indicators in agricultural soils from Crisurilor Plain
79-80

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The researches were carried out in 2010 and 2011 on the haplic luvisol cultivated in three variant such as: pasture, cropland, and orchards. Based on the total number of microorganisms monitored in the haplic luvisol (aerobic mesophilic heterotrophs, yeast and mould, Actinomycetes, nitrogen fixing bacteria and nitrifying bacteria) was calculated the bacterial indicators of soil quality (BISQ) and was appreciate the bacterial potential of the haplic luvisol. Seasonal analyses were carried out, and annual BISQs have been calculated too. The values of the bacterial indicators of the haplic luvisol in different cultivation conditions (pasture, cropland and orchards) indicate a high density of the bacterial groups in 2010 and 2011. In 2010 the values of the BISQs are included between 3.617 (minimum in autumn, in pasture) and 5.458 (maximum, in spring, in pasture). In 2011, the minimum value (3.622) was registered in pasture, in autumn, and the maximum value (4.851) in the haplic luvisol cultivated with maize, in spring. In 2010 and 2011, based on the bacterial indicators of the soil quality values, on the first position is the cropland (4.750, 4.721) followed by orchards (4.615, 3.985) and pasture (4.537, 3.758).

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Evaluation of Hungarian show-jumping results using different measurement variables
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...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The aim of the study was to compare different fitted models for show-jumping results of sporthorses and to estimate heritability and repeatability value. Show-jumping competition results collected between 1996 and 2011 were analyzed. The database contained 358 342 starts of 10 199 horses. Identity number, name and gender of the horse, rider, competition year, the level and location of the competition and placing were recorded in the database. To measure performance of horses, placing, number of starters and competition level were used. Competitions were categorized into five groups based on their difficulty level. The used repeatability animal model included fixed effects for age, gender, competition place, year of competition (and competition level in case of non-weighted measurement variables), and random effects for rider, animal and permanent environment effect. Variance components were estimated with VCE-6 software package. The goodness-of-fit of the models was low and moderate. Heritability and repeatability values were low for each measurement variables. The best goodness-of-fit model the weighted square root of placing resulted the highest heritability and repeatability value h2=0.074 and R=0.296.

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Periphery formation and economic-social conflict
87-90

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The timeliness, significance and importance of the study is sensitively shown by the fact that a large part of the Tisza region is slowly being moved to the periphery in the slowly modernising and changing economic and settlement spatial structure of the Great Plain. This situation is also deepened by the fact that the social and economic backlog increases in the majority of the region, as one third of the 33 most disadvantaged small regions in Hungary can be found here. This study basically contributes to the establishment of the development of the Tisza river’s spatial environment and the development of new solutions.

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Application of different compost doses in Pinova and Golden Delicious apple orchards
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...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Nowadays the success vegetable and fruit production are unimaginable without regular nutrient management. The animal husbandry is getting decrease, thereby there is the lack of organic fertilizer and it is suggested to find alternative nutrient supply methods. One of the ways to supply the required nutrients in an environmentally friendly way is the application of composts, which is less widespread so far, which is appropriate for the requirement of organic farming.

From the year of 2010 in each year, compost doses were applied in biological apple orchards in cooperation with the Institute of Horticultural Science. In the function of the years different changes were resulted by the compost treatments in the examined parameters in case of both apple species (Golden Delicious and Pinova). It was concluded that the dry matter, ash, total acids, sugar content and the vitamin C changed versus time and species. It is supposed that the effect of compost treatments is getting visible.

According to the data higher dry matter, total acids and sugar content, (in some cases) ash were measured in case of the apple species Pinova, while the measurements showed higher vitamin C content in case of the species Golden Delicious.

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Evaluation of the yield and baking quality of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties in different cropyears
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...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">We have investigated the effect of the cropyear, the genotype, the nutrient supply and their interactions on the yield and the quality parameters of three different winter wheat genotypes in three different cropyears. The most disadvantageous influence on the yield averages was caused by the moist weather of 2010, when yield results fell behind the mean of the two other examined years and the nutrient optimum was around low doses. The optimal cropyear turned out to be the ordinary 2011, the best yield results were experienced during this cropyear. Although the drier periods in 2012 decreased the yield values, the varieties could realize high yield maximum values. Considering the yield results, Genius turned out to be the best variety. In respect of the quality traits, 2010 turned out to be the best cropyear in case of all the three varieties. Despite the dry weather of the spring of 2012, the precipitation fell during flowering and ripening phases had positive impact on the grain-filling processes and contributed to the development of better quality. As a consequence of the significantly lower amount of precipitation during the generative phenological phases, the worst quality parameters were realized by the varieties in 2011.

 

In respect of crop year effect, 2010 was unfavourable for the amount of yield, but the most beneficial for the quality. 2011 was the most advantageous for the yield amounts but disadvantageous for the quality parameters. Although in 2012 extreme crop year effects were experienced after each other (dry and warm spring, moist and warm summer), the yield average and quality trait values were close to the yield averages of 2011 and quality parameters of 2010. Analyzing our results we can state that the average crop year was favourable rather for the yield. The appropriate amount of precipitation during the whole 2010 and that during the generative phenophases in 2012 favoured the development of good quality.

Consequently, the appropriate amount of precipitation is essential for the development of good quality during the grain-filling period. The negative crop year effects were only compensated but not eliminated by the good nutrient supply. Genius achieved excellent yield averages but performed worse quality parameters than Mv Toldi, whose quality parameters were outstanding but the yield averages fell slightly behind those of Genius. Considering the yield results, the variety Genius turned out to be the best, while Mv Toldi was the best in quality.

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Growth and clorophyll content dynamics of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in different cropyear
101-105

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The experiments were carried out at the Látókép experimental station of the University of Debrecen on chernozem soil in a long term winter wheat experiment in the season of 2011 and 2012 in triculture (pea-wheat-maize) and biculture (wheat-maize) at three fertilisation levels (control, N50+P35K40, N150+P105K120). Two different cropyears were compared (2011 and 2012).

The research focused on the effects of forecrop and fertilisation on the Leaf Area Index, SPAD values and the amount of yield in two different cropyears. We wanted to find out how the examined parameters were affected by the cropyear and what the relationship was between these two parameters and the changes of the amount of yield.

Examining the effects of growing doses of fertilizers applied, results showed that yields increased significantly in both rotations until the N150+PK level in 2011 and 2012. By comparing the two years, results show that in 2011 there was a greater difference in yields between the rotations (7742 kg ha-1 at N150+PK in the biculture and 9830 kg ha-1 at N150+PK in the triculture). Though wheat yields following peas were greater in 2012, results equalized later on at N150+PK levels (8109–8203 kg ha-1).

Due to the favorable agrotechnical factors, the leaf and the effects of the treatments grown to a great extent in 2011, while in 2012 the differences between treatments were moderate. Until the N150+PK level, nitrogen fertilisation had a notable effect on the maximum amount of SPAD values (59.1 in the case of the biculture and 54.0 in the triculture). The highest SPAD values were measured at the end of May (during the time of flowering and grain filling) in the biculture. In the triculture, showed high SPAD values from the beginning. The same tendency could be observed in the 2012 cropyear, although increasing doses of fertilizers resulted in higher SPAD values until N150+PK level only from the second measurement. Maximum SPAD values were reached at the end of May in both crop rotation system

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Study regarding the influence of the nPK fertilizers use in long term trial on heavy metals concentration in wheat grains
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...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The paper presents research results obtained in stationary experiments, carried out at Agricultural Research and Development Station Oradea, regarding the influence of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers, on Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn and Ni concentration on wheat grains.

The minimum concentration of cadmium in wheat grains was recorded in the case of the unfertilized plot N0P0K0, 0.12 mg kg-1, and maximum value 0.22 mg kg-1, was registered at the fertilized plot with N160P80K120, relative difference relative to control was 84.2%.

Lead concentration had the lowest value in the unfertilized plot, the value (0.4 mg kg-1) being under the maximum allowed (1.0 mg kg-1). In case of the fertilized plot with N160P80K120, the lead concentration had the highest value, 0.47 mg kg-1, but even in this case it was located beneath the maximum limit allowed.

In all four systems of fertilization, copper has not exceeded the maximum allowed limit (5 mg kg-1), the values have been comprised between 1.68 mg kg-1 at the unfertilized plot and 2.81 mg kg-1 at the fertilized plot with N160P80K120. In other plots of fertilization copper had concentrations of 1.97 mg kg-1, at the fertilized plot with N80P40K40, and 2.78 at the fertilized plot with N80P80K80.

The lowest concentration of zinc, 26.47 mg kg-1, has been registered in the control N0P0K0. In the other fertilization plots studied, the zinc concentrations had the following values: 27.66 mg kg-1 (N80P40K40), (N80P80K80) 29.87 mg kg-1 and 33.62 mg kg-1 (N160P80K120).

Nickel has registered the lowest value in the unfertilized plot, 3.47 mg kg-1. The fertilized plot with N160P80K120 had the highest value 4.94 mg kg-1, with 42.39% higher compared to the control N0P0K0.

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