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29-32.
Vol 17No 1-22011

Our investigation was carried out at an micro-irrigated intensive apple orchard in Debrecen-Pallag in 2010. The aims of the study were to monitor the effect of a compacted layer on soil water regime by tensiometers and supporting the water management of the orchard. The results suggest that the physical characteristic of the examined soil is sa...ndy soil with low capillarity and total available water content. The soil water tensions were varied between pF 0 and 2.5 due to the extreme precipitation circumstances in 2010. Tensiometers in 40 cm depth resulted fast (few hours) and significant respond to precipitation than in the 70 cm soil layer. Based on daily measurements, the soils possess a daily fluctuation of soil moisture, however the changes become more moderate in deeper layers. In accordance with all of the results, the amount of drainable water regime was about 20.6 V/V% at 40 cm depth and 18.6 V/V% at 70 cm mainly. The harmful surplus water can be infiltrated by loosening of the compacted soil layer in 50–70 cm depth or led off by vertical drainage.

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75
83
17-19.
Vol 17No 1-22011

Our investigation was carried out in several orchards in Hungary. This study reviews applicability of the different spatial analytical techniques in orchard especially models based on surface relief, such as digital elevation model, digital terrain model, slope and aspect maps. In recent time, the generation of digital elevation model has becom...e a popular examination method. However, the elevation models generated from contour lines or elevation points could be applied to evaluate agro- ecological potential of fruit orchards to some extent. The highest deficiency of these models is the fact that these show the altitude of soil surface only and do not demonstrate landmarks on the surface. Consequently, the calculation of the radiation value results data relating to soil surface. The terrain model generated and applied by our team demonstrates fine surface texture and the landmarks in the orchard, so it is suitable for further examination.

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68
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11-14.
Vol 18No 12012

The research field was at Siófok, in Hungary, which is situated in the South East side of Lake Balaton. The physical characteristic of the soil is sandy loam and loam and the peach orchard is irrigated. The detailed goals were mapping and analyzing of physical properties of the soil in water management point of view, mapping the acidity and Ca...CO3content of soil for precision liming, measurement of humus the element content. Sites with different physical characteristics (from sandy loam to loamy clay) could be distinguished. The reason for this is that besides the possible increase of clayminerals, the increasing rate of colloidal humus content contributes to larger soil plasticity. Statistics also proved positive and strong correlation (r=0.822) between the soil plasticity and humus content. In the case of pH, only a small part of the orchard is has to be limed, since most of the orchard has neutral pH, which is advantageous for nuts and stone fruits. It has to be mentioned, that the CaCO3 supply is also appropriate for the stone fruits. Based on the results hyperspectral imagery can be a good solution for detecting calciferous soils, although these measurements are still need validation.

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74
84
leaf area index, evapotranspiration, water stress
Vol 18No 22012

In this study the transpiration properties and response to heat stress of Granny Smith and Jonagold apple species were measured. The examinations were set at an orchard near to Debrecen. The chosen trees were two years old, without fruits, in 20l container, placed in the mixture of mulch matrix, wood chips and sawdust and grown at the same clim...atic conditions. One of the most important goals was to determine the leaf area of the trees which is a basic data for transpiration modeling. Leaf area was larger (signifi cance level p<0.05) in the upper part of the canopy to achieve larger photosynthetic surface. Jonagold species with less leaf number (–18% compared to Granny Smith) reached almost the same canopy area, than Granny Smith, due to larger leaf area of Jonagold. Another aim was to measure the transpiration rate of the apple trees. The transpiration measurements were carried out by sap fl ow meter. Only a small transpiration difference can be found between species. During the investigation time there were wet and cool as well as dry and extremely hot periods. In the case of dry and extreme hot periods the transpiration is decreased, which causes decrease in transpiration and enhanced the water stress of trees.

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72
81
61-67.
Vol 16No 32010

Worldwide research goals and concerns are to soil conservation and improve. This conception is mostly actual in horticulture where the numbers of high-density plantings are continuously increasing. High-density orchards cause more intensive nutrient and water uptake. So that the preservation of soil moisture and nutrient level are key factors i...n qualified fruit growing. On the other hand due to the climatic changes the water supply of trees will be satisfied among worse conditions than some decades ago. Appearance of water supply problems and water stress is increased in organic growing, where the number of corrections is limited anyway. Furthermore, floor management is a successful tool in weed management which causes many problems for organic growers due to the prohibition of synthetic herbicides. This paper will mainly focus on the nutritional aspects of methods of orchard floor management for growers adopting organic fruit management to make their production profitable.

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43-50.
Vol 18No 12012

The principle task of the sustainable development is the preservation of the genetic variety, which is similar challenge in the horticulture regarding the sublimation of fruit species. The breeders of the traditional fruit strains give stock to the sustenance diversity of the agro-environment on the species and landscape level. In 2009, hypersp...ectral images have been taken by AISA Dual sensors from the pear gene pool in Újfehértó, Hungary. The hyperspectral data cube (in the wavelength range of 400-2500 nm, with 1.5 m ground resolution) ensured possibility to make the spectral library of pear species. In the course of the simultaneously field work the spatial position and individual extent of all pear trees was defined to set up a detailed GIS data base. The water stress sensitivity of single species and the descriptive spectral curves were determined with common evaluation of the spectral and spatial data. Based on the unique methodology processing and the hyperspectral data base suitable strains can be chosen for agro-environment and let take adaptive stocks regarding climate change into the genetic grafting work. Furthermore we could determine and map the sparsely species in the region with the help of the hyperspectral data.

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71
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19-24.
Vol 18No 12012

The research field was at Siófok, in Hungary, which is situated in the South East side of Lake Balaton. The physical characteristic of the soil is sandy loam and loam and the peach orchard is irrigated. Mainly Sweet Lady (early ripening), Red Heaven (medium ripening) and Weinberger (early ripening) species were installed. In order to achieve t...he optimal developement level of trees and maximal yield amount and fruit diameter (Sweet Lady 60–75 mm, Red Heaven 60–70 mm, Veinberger 50–60 mm) continous water and nutrient supply is required. The irrigation modeling was set by CROPWAT 8.0 based on the climatic, crop and soil data inputs of the last 10 years. Based on the results, large amount of water is needed for optimal growth of fruit trees, particularly in the summer months, in case of active ground cover (+) and bare soil (–) as well. The irrigation requirement of a tree was found maximum 4 l/hour in certain cases. This irrigation intensity can be achieved – calculated with 12-hour operating time – by using continuous water NAAN Tif drip tube with 2 l/h flux on 3 atm pressure with 16 mm pipe diameter. If lower irrigation intensity is required irrigation can be controlled by the decreased the operation time.

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68
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69-74.
Vol 16No 32010

Recent interest to avoid use of agrochemicals in fruit growing to safeguard environmental and human health has stimulated interest in organic fruit production (OFP) all over the world. Organic production requires a holistic approach to agricultural ecosystem management. Because of the perennial nature of orchards, this is not a great departure ...from conventional orchard management, except that corrective techniques are limited primarily to naturally derived materials. Organic mineral nutrition management hinges on two principles: 1) practices that lead to the build up and maintenance of soil that is biologically active and high in organic matter; 2) supplementing the mineral nutrients provided by the soil with fertilizers from approved sources. Organic orchards should be sited on land with superior soils and preplant soil preparation to increase organic matter and correct any sub-optimal soil characteristics. For successful organic fruit growing the following statement should be considered:Weed management is critical to reduce competition for nutrients and water. Soil and leaf analysis provide the basis for correcting mineral nutrient deficiencies or imbalances in organic production. It may be necessary to use a number of strategies to supply mineral nutrients over the life of the orchard. The slower, natural methods applied require a management approach that is simultaneously patient and dynamic.

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68
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43-49.
Vol 13No 32007

The elements of orchard management have a determining role in the success of organic fruit production, therefore, it is essential that they are applied properly. The present review gives describes some aspects of the orchard management such as site selection, orchard soil, rootstocks and cultivars, planting materials and plant density, crown sh...ape. Then, one of the most important elements, pruning is discussed with special emphasis on winter pruning, condition and apical dominance, degree and method of pruning, summer pruning. After pruning, an overview of fruit thinning, irrigation, soil cultivation, soil protection (cover plants and mulching) and fertilization is given.

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67
71
11-14.
Vol 25No 3-42019

The aim of this work was to report preliminary results on some features of two new resistant apple cultivars (cvs. ‘Galiwa’ and ‘Story Inored’) in multi-row system in the early bearing years of the orchard. Trees were planted in spring of 2015 in double row design (3.5 m+1.4 m x 1.0 m) with planting density of 5357 tree/ha. According to... our results cv. ‘Story Inored’ presented more vigorous growth, than cv. ‘Galiwa’. Trees of cv. ‘Story Inored’ reached 2.7 m in the third year, but cv. ‘Galiwa’ could reach only 1.95 meter. Due to late spring frost 100% yield loss was observed in the second year. In 2017 cv. ‘Galiwa’ produced 5.3 kg/tree (25 fruit/tree), while cv. ‘Story Inored’ presented 7.7 kg/tree (50 fruit/tree). Average yield was 28.4 t/ha for cv. ‘Galiwa’, as ‘Story Inored’ reached 41.3 t/ha in the third year. Cultivar ‘Galiwa’ reached the required fruit size (79.1 mm), but its coloration was weaker (43% fruit surface color). Cultivar ‘Story Inored’ can be described with smaller fruit size (69 mm) and higher percentage of surface color (93%).

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58
50
7-10
Vol 19No 3-42013

Remote sensing instruments and methods have become widespread in all segments of agriculture and horticulture. Among the innovative development of remote sensing instruments, the 3D laser scanner is one of the newest technique, which overtop in the spatial data collection. Terrestrial laser scanning is an appropriate tool for identifying such b...iophysical parameters like the structure of trees and branches, growth of volume. Determination of these parameters are time consuming and complicated with traditional methods. The examination was carried out in the Study and Regional Research Farm of the University of Debrecen near Pallag. We used Leica ScanStation C10 terrestrial laser scanner to estimate volumetric properties of the intensive apple orchard. Two rows of the study area were surveyed, where the height and stem diameter of apple trees were measured with Geomagic Studio 12 GIS Demo Software. Based on the built-in algorithms, the volume of each tree were defined by the software. The measured and calculated data was correlated, and middle correlations were detected. Estimated volume results could be useful for further investigation such as CO2 fi xing, which is an important factor for ecological service of the plantation.

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57-60.
Vol 15No 42009

The aim our study was to establish whether significant differences in nutrients uptake and quality of soil and leaf exist between organic and integrated grown apples. The study was performed at the orchard Fruit Research Station, University of Debrecen, at Debrecen-Pallag during 2002–2004. Macro and micro elements were measured in soil and pl...ant samples. Analyses of variance of soil nitrogen data indicated highly significant differences between the two management systems (P < 0.001) for each examined nitrogen fraction. Analyses of variance of soil phosphate data indicated significant differences (P < 0.05) between the two management systems for orto-PO4 3– contents. Our data indicated that highly significant differences between the two management systems (P < 0.001) for magnesium, copper, and zinc; while significant differences between the two management systems was at P = 0.007 for calcium. Three year’s data of leaf phosphorus, sulphur and zinc were not shown significant differences between production systems. Nevertheless manganese and copper contents of leaves were higher in the organic orchard compared to the integrated one.

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76
86
7-9.
Vol 20No 1-22014

An orchard can be examined on the basis of spectral data, using such methods with which the reflected radiation can be divided into a large number of (several hundreds) small spectral channel (some nm). Based on the spectral characteristics of the canopy, or the different index numbers calculated from hyperspectral data the water supply conditi...ons of foliage can be well characterized. The research site is an intensive apple orchard, which located in Debrecen University, Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economic Sciences, Farm and Regional Research Institute at Pallag. During our experiments the evaluation of spectral, non-invasive measurement method are carried out for detecting stress symptoms caused by drought. Furthermore, MODIS NDVI time series data were analyzed for orchards situated in North-Eastern part of Hungary in drought effected and wet years in order to detect differences. Significant differences in NDVI values were detected after the end of June.

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75
86
15-18.
Vol 18No 12012

One of the most difficult challenge in the everyday practice to describe the canopy growing of fruit trees in an orchard. The photosynthetic activity is the basic of the primer production of plants. The measurement of leaf area and determination of the photosynthetic activity could be occurred with some elaborated methods between experimental c...onditions. In this article we present such an integrated methodology, which is ideal to determine the geometric and spectral characteristic of fruit trees between field conditions.We have carried out laser scanning technology to investigate the geometric-topological characteristics and parallel the active infra-red sensor to collect spectral data about an apple orchard. The surveys were worked out in an intensive apple orchard with drip irrigation system, protected by hail net in Study and Regional Research Farm of the University of Debrecen near Pallag. This study shows the filtering and interpretation methods of created data. The produced high accuracy data can be directly used in the precision horticulture. It could serve as a guiding data to implementation a future “virtual horticulture”. Higher spatial and temporal resolution could help for a better recognition of water balance of orchards.

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72
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76-86.
Vol 13No 32007

High density central leader systems, the so called "spindle trees" are spreading in intensive stone fruit orchards established for hand picking in Hungary. Results of Brunner (1972, 1990) and Zahn (1967, 1996) inspired the researchers to implement their theories into practice under our climate and special soil conditions. For ...sweet cherry it is essential to apply an orchard system appropriate for hand picking because of the European market requirements. In intensive sweet cherry orchards two new training and orchard systems are developed and adapted to environmental conditions in Hungary based on previous inventions. The first step of the development is represented by modified Brunner-spindle, which applies the delayed heading of the central leader and the sectorial-double-pruning system from Brunner (1972), resulting intensive orchard of 600-800 trees/ha density, planted on standard vigour rootstocks. Modified Brunner-spindle trees are developed with a central leader and wide-angled branches on it. Light bearing wood is positioned on the central leader and wide-angled branches. During training, shoots for branches are bent or a sectorial double pruning is used. The growth of central leader is reduced by delayed heading, and the strong upright shoots are pinched in summer. Based upon tree size spacing of 5 m between row and 2.5-3 m between trees is recommended, tree height is around 3.5-4 m. This training system is useful for hand-picking; 60-70% of the crop can be harvested from ground. Modified Brunner-spindle is suitable for either standard or moderate vigorous rootstocks. The cherry spindle is an intensive orchard planted with 1250-2300 trees per hectare and it is recommended for sweet and sour cherries on semi dwarf to vigorous rootstocks, depending on soil fertility and quality. Trees are 2.5-3.5 m high, 75-80% of the crop can be harvested from the ground. Permanent basal scaffolds are developed on the basis of the canopy to counteract the stronger terminal growth. The tree is headed only once, after planting, from the following year the central leader grows from the terminal bud. The central leader developed from the terminal bud results moderated growth in the upper parts of the tree head. The strong upright shoots that may develop below the terminal bud are pinched to 3-4 leaves in the summer or removed entirely. The weaker, almost horizontal shoots growing from the central leader form fruiting twigs in the following year if their terminal bud is not removed. Brunner's double pruning is used only once or twice on the permanent basal branches because of its good branching effect. Trials on various rootstocks are running to find optimum spacing and fruiting wood management. The training and pruning guidelines are discussed in the paper. The average crop of bearing years is around 20-30 t/ha depending on site and cultivars. This new system is spreading in Hungary, around 70 ha sweet and sour cherry orchards are trained according to our guidelines.

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108
84
23-27.
Vol 11No 22005

Planting of new high density apple orchards showed an increasing tendency over the last ten years. Growers use in those orchards mainly dwarfing or semi dwarfing rootstocks. The spacing for those orchards is recommended based on Dutch and German experiences; however, the optimization of orchard planting density as a key factor for successful or...chard management should consider the local climate conditions. An experimental orchard was planted in 2000 to investigate the effect of spacing on three dwarfing rootstocks with two apple cultivars `Jonica' and 'Gala Must'. We compared 8 planting densities (1270-3704 tree/ha) and two tree shapes (slender spindle and vertical axis). In this paper the data of the first five years' growth and bearing are presented. After 4 years, the decreasing tree densities caused reduced trunk cross sectional area. Tree density had a significant positive effect on cumulative yield per hectare. From the examined rootstocks, M.9 Burgmer 984 gave the smallest canopy for both cultivars. The trees on M.9 T.337 and on Jork 9 rootstocks have stronger growth. The light interception was measured under the canopy by AccuPAR (Decagon Devices Inc.'s).

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67
77
11-15.
Vol 21No 3-42015

Sour cherry can be considered as a special fruit species regarding the growing characteristics, as most of the cultivars are characterized by strong balding. With the aging of the tree the inactive (passive) parts of the canopy are increasing steadily, so the productive cropping surface and the yielding capacity decrease  significantly. In... our experiments partial rejuvenation pruning was carried out in a 12 years old orchard, and total rejuvenation pruning was performed in a 21 years old plantation to regenerate the cropping surface of the trees. Thanks to the latter one the canopy of the sour cherry trees were regenerated during only two years. The yields of the rejuvenated trees in cv. ‘Debreceni bőtermő’ exceeded the yields of the control trees, as in the case of the cvs. ‘Érdi bőtermő’ and ‘Újfehértói fürtös’ approached it. At the same time the total rejuvenation pruning has a positive effect on the fruit size.

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128
82
81-84.
Vol 16No 32010

Our investigation was carried out in the area of Fruit growing Research and Consultant non-profit company, at Újfehértó. The pear requires large water quantity, but this pear plantation hasn’t irrigation system not yet. This study reviews the drainage conditions of the area based on digital elevation model, and examined the canopy cover of... pear trees by evaluating of the hyperspectral image. Our aims were to determine the exact watershed based irrigation modelling and determining of the canopy% of the pear orchard to facilitate a precision irrigation decision support system.

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72
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75-79.
Vol 16No 32010

The pear has large water requirement, therefore the planting of high density and grass covered pear orchards are needed irrigation
conditions in Hungary. Drip irrigation spread in the orchards is due to the 90–95% of water use efficiency. One of the key role of irrigation is the
proper determination of evapotranspiration and crop coeffi...cients. As there is a considerable lack of information for different crops or fruits the
Penman-Monteith method is used for the estimation of evapotranspiration, using CROPWAT 8.0. The research field was the genetic collection of
pear at Újfehértó, in Hungary, which is situated in Nyírség meso-region. Our aim was to establish drip irrigation at this site. Based on the results
of CROPWAT irrigation model the mean amount of the total gross irrigation is between 230–270 mm, within 3 irrigation interval regarding
climatic and rainfall data of the last 10 years. In 2009, due to heavy drought, the total gross irrigation was 355,4mm/year on sandy soil calculating
with 45% total available water depletion in 5 irrigation interval. The sizing of the irrigation system was set to the maximum 0.55 l/s/ha, which is
6.3 l/tree/h. 6.3 l/tree/h can be carried out with a drip emitter having 16 mm wing lines diameter, 4 l/h water flow at 3 atm pressure.

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72
97
15-17.
Vol 14No 42008

Despite of its importance there is no exact information on water use of new scion/rootstock composite trees, which would be needed to optimized irrigation. Our research purpose is to define exact water-demand of different rootstock/scion composite trees, calculating seasonal weather changes and by using the results decrease irrigation costs. Th...e investigations are carried out in Soroksár, at the Experimental Farm of Corvinus University of Budapest in May 2008. From among the investigated trees two are budded onto Prunus mahuleb `Érdi V' seedlings, two on "Korponay' seedlings. The sapflow measurements are carried out using Dynamax Flow 32 equipment with Dynagage trunk sensors. The first daily maximum of sapflow was around 10:00 a.m. (2.5 kghour I), the second maximum was always between 14:00-15:00 p.m. (2 kgday- I). Comparing to the very intensive morning water uptake by 20:00 p.m. the water flow slowly reached the minimal level. Significant differences can be seen on rootstocks: trees on `Korponay' rootstock always showed more intensive sapflow and a higher morning peak than trees on `Árdi V'. But later during the day they have the same run.Based on our results the water quantity transpired only by the trees reached in May 86-104 mm, while the precipitation was only 42.4 mm. This means a 40-60 mm deficit in the orchard, which should have been supplied by irrigation despite of the satisfying horticultural performance of the orchard. In the first half of the month beside the steady vapor pressure deficit the shoot and leaf surface growth could cause the increased sapflow.

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75
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53-56.
Vol 15No 42009

Remote sensing of fruit tree micro environment plays a major role in both horticultural and soil mapping applications. In frame this study presented a novel method to survey the spatial distribution of physical and water management properties of soils. The examinations were carried out at an intensive experimental apple orchard in Debrecen-Pall...ag. The examination site is the part of the Experimental Pomology plantation of the University of Debrecen, Faculty of Agronomy. Particle-size distribution, plasticity according to Arany, metal content by XRF spectrometry, soil physical parameters, acidity, electric conductivity of soils, were measured to obtain appropriate information on the physical properties of the soil. Based on the results, the accurate spatial positions of those sites were characterized where soil loosening should be implemented in 0,3–0,4 m depth. Spatially precise soil physical barriers were determined for applied micro-irrigation system. Based on the micro-element content and pH, the accurate spatial positions of those sites were selected where melioration and micronutrient fertilization is needed. These detailed data sources also applied to calibrate the applied airborne hyperspectral images to extend spatially these point based information.

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67
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93-97.
Vol 17No 4-52011

Similarly to 2007, 2011 was also critical year for fruit growers in Eastern-Hungary. Serious frost damage was observed at late blooming period (6 May (T=-1.6°C)) in this region, which caused approximately 60-65% of fruit loss. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of a spring frost event on nutrient uptake and status of the ...trees of a sour cherry plantation at Újfehértó. The symptoms of frost were observed visually. This visual observation was confirmed by SPAD readings. The frost affected the macroand micronutrient contents of leaves. It was found that the frost affected the nutrient uptake negatively, but the effect of it was not significantly sometimes. It can be stated that the nutrient demand of trees can be supplied only under even worse conditions.

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73
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37-40.
Vol 16No 12010

Nowadays airborne remote sensing data are increasingly used in precision agriculture. The fast space-time dependent localization of stresses in orchards, which allows for a more efficient application of horticultural technologies, could lead to improved sustainable precise management. The disadvantage of the near field multi and hyper spectrosc...opy is the spot sample taking, which can apply independently only for experimental survey in plantations. The traditional satellite images is optionally suitable for precision investigation because of the low spectral and ground resolution on field condition. The presented airborne hyperspectral image spectroscopy reduces above mentioned disadvantages and at the same time provides newer analyzing possibility to the user. In this paper we demonstrate the conditions of data base collection and some informative examination possibility. The estimating of the board band vegetation indices calculated from reflectance is well known in practice of the biomass stress examinations. In this method the N-dimension spectral data cube enables to calculate numerous special narrow band indexes and to evaluate maps. This paper aims at investigating the applied hyperspectral analysis for fruit tree stress detection. In our study, hyperspectral data were collected by an AISADUAL hyperspectral image spectroscopy system, with high (0,5-1,5 m) ground resolution. The research focused on determining of leaves condition in different fruit plantations in the peach orchard near Siófok. Moreover the spectral reflectance analyses could provide more information about plant condition due to changes in the absorption of incident light in the visible and near infrared range of the spectrum.

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66
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77-80.
Vol 9No 12003

In this study we carried out experiments with soil samples originated from the Haschberg variety elderberry orchard and wild-growing plants from Szigetcsép Experimental Farm.

During the examinations we wanted to know how the black polyethene foliar soil coverage influences the quality of soil and the distribution of different nitrogen ...forms.

We studied the individual covered (foliar soil coverage for every plant), the full covered (foliar soil coverage was laid in the rows) and the uncovered threatments.

During the experiments we pointed out that the foliar coverage influences the condition of the soil unfavourably. Because of the coverage there is less air flow in soils, the lack of oxygen leads to degradating of soil life and results humus materials of poor quality.

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97-100.
Vol 9No 3-42003

In a two-year study, yield loss and temporal dynamics of brown rot development caused by Monilinia fructigena (Aderh. & Ruhl.) Honey were quantified and analysed in two organic apple orchards (Debrecen—Pallag and Debrecen—Józsa). The first infected fruits were observed at the beginning of August in both years and both location...s, except for one occasion when the first infected fruit was found at the end of July. Temporal disease development was continuous up to harvest time in both years and locations. In the two years, pre-harvest yield loss on the trees amounted between 8.9% and 9.3% at Debrecen-Pallag and between 9.7% and 10.8% at Debrecen—Jozsa by fruit harvest. Incidence of infected fruits on the orchard floor ranged from 32.4% to 43.2% and from 53.3% to 61.9%, at Debrecen—Pallag and Debrecen—Józsa, respectively, by fruit harvest. Analyses of temporal disease progress showed that the best-fitted mathematical function was the power function in both orchards and years. Both parameters of the power function clearly demonstrated that incidence of brown rot on fruit increased faster on the orchard floor than on the tree. Moreover, the disease increase was faster at Debrecen—Józsa in most cases than at Debrecen—Pallag. Our results indicated that the strategy of disease management, the ripeness of the fruit and the presence of a wounding agent played an important role in the yield loss and in the temporal development of fruit disease incidence caused by M. fructigena in organic apple orchards. Biological and practical implications of the results are discussed.

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