In the recent studies two Foeniculum vulgare Mill. populations (Hungarian and Korean) had been studied in open field trials in 1997-98 in Budapest for the identification of their essential oil characteristics. The essential oil accumulation level as well as the composition of the oil were studied during ontogenesis and at 6 phases of the umbel...development from budding to overripening.
In the vegetative phases, the accumulation level of the essential oil was higher in the Hungarian genotype. In the leaf rosette stage, anethole is the main compound in both genotypes (40-96%), except the root of the Korean populations which contains 54% dillapiol. The accumulation level of anethole is slightly decreasing, while dillapiol is slightly increasing during the ontogeny. a- and [3-pinenes are characteristic compounds of the leaves, especially in the Korean genotype (10-11%). Before seed setting, fenchone was present in a considerable amount (7.5%) only in the umbels of the Hungarian genotype.
During the generative development, the maximum values of essential oil content are reached at the milky fruit stage (10,11%) in the Hungarian. and at the green fruit stage (7.1% ) in the Korean type, while the composition of the essential oil changed only slightly. The ratio of fenchone is increasing after flowering and being stable during ripening. Anethole varies to a smaller extent in the umbels, only.
We proved, that the dinamics of essential oil accumulation and the oil composition may vary according to genotype. Based on our results, the Korean population is characterized in the system of Bernáth et al. (2) as a high anethol-low methyl chavicol chemoform of the anethol chemovariety (fenchone<15%; anethole>68%; methyl chavicol< 3,2%).
The effectiveness of drug plant and of essential oil of oregano (Origanum vulgare L. ssp. hirtum Ietswaart) against the adults and egg hatching of bean weevil (Acanthoscelides obtectus Say) was studied in laboratory trials in order to screen for a new potential insecticide in the control of this granary pest...of beans. The adult mortality as well as oviposition and hatching capabilities were evaluated after 6 days of treatment of beans cv. `Berggold' (55 g) in Petri dishes by powdered drug (0.33 g, 0.66 g, 1.0 g and 2.0 g) and by equivalent amounts of essential oil (5 ill, 10 15 ill and 30 ill). Oregano essential oil showed both fumigant and contact toxicities to bean weevil, the later being more potent. When considering fumigant toxicity, insecticidal effect (mortality rate 82.5%) was observed 6 days after application of high concentrations of oregano essential oil (150 Al per 55 g of beans). When considering contact toxicity, both oregano drug plant and essential oil at all tested concentrations significantly increased the bean weevils' mortality rates with comparison to the controls. Also, egg laying and hatching were inhibited after treatment of bean weevil with powdered drug plant or with essential oil at all tested concentrations. Insecticidal effect of drug plants issuing from two different stocks depended on their essential oil contents. Essential oils (5 pi, 15 pi and 30 IA per 55 g of beans) induced 100% mortality of bean weevil population when applied directly to the surface of beans (55 g) in Petri dishes. The content of essential oil in oregano and oregano-based preparations for insecticidal use is proposed as a parameter for quality control purposes.
The influence of nitrogen-fertilizer applied in 0, 50, 100 and 150 kg/ha dosages, as well as the time of the harvest carried out in full flowering and early fruit set stages were studied on the herb and essential oil production of garden thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.). The small plot experiment was installed in the Experimental Field of Ta...rbiat Modarres University near Teheran, under sandy loam soil conditions. On the basis of the results the nitrogen-fertilizer had a significant effect on the dry-matter production of the species: the herb yield, calculated on one hectare, increased from 671.88 kg up to 1021.00 kg value as a result of 150 kg nitrogen dosage. The essential oil yield proved to have a similar tendency because neither the accumulation level of essential oil, nor the ratio of thymol were effected by the nutrient supply. Analyzing the effect of harvest time changes in both dry-mass production and essential oil accumulation were observed. The highest herb yield (1238.20 kg/hectare) was obtained in early fruit set, when about.50 per cent of fruits reached their full size in the inflorescence. The accumulation level of essential oil also reached its maximum at the sane development stage, showing 0.75 per cent value, which is about two fold higher comparing to the accumulation level was measured at the time of full flowering (0.41 %).
The chemical quality of the essential oils is determined by their composition as well as by the complex aroma features. For the evaluation of odour and aroma, sensory tests are practised, especially for applications such as aromatherapy, food industry or perfumery. In the recent studies we investigated eight Mentha origins (populations... of Mentha iperita, M. spicata and M. arvensis) of our genebank collection using a new and effective instrumental sensory evaluation method parallelly with the usual GC analysis.
The results show that the examined mint clones possess different essential oil accumulation levels and special flavour characteristics, too. The GC analysis of the essential oil revealed characteristic differences at both inter- and intraspecific level in the proportion of mentol, menthon, carvon, limonene, menthyl acetate and in two not identified monoterpenes.
In the sensory tests the special complex aroma enables a reliable distinction with a single exception among the populations by the help of the "electronic nose" equipment. The distinction among the samples based on the sensor signals of the instrument — evaluated by multivariate methods — shows a close relation with the detected monoterpene components of the essential oil.
In our research project under cultivation we examined 4 cultivars ('Soroksári 40', 'Lutea , 'Goral', 'Bona') and 28 wild populations of chamomile assuring all of them the same environmental conditions. Plant height, flower-diameter, essential-oil content, and the main terpenoid and flavonoid composition were analysed. The aim of our study was...to establish the genetic background of breeding a new cultivar as well as encircle those natural habitats that give chamomile drug with the best quality.
In the case of plant height populations from the Great Hungarian Plain were lower than plants from Transdanubia and the control cultivars. Between the wild and the standard individuals we found significant differences with relevance to the flower-diameter. With regard to the essential oil content the populations were very heterogeneous even those, which came from the same habitat. Populations form Transdanubia and Nagyiván reached the essential oil level of the cultivars (0.721-0.931 gi100g), and 75% of the examined plants exceeded the minimum requirement of the PhHg VIII.
According to the essential oil composition our previous statement was confirmed that in the populations of Transdanubia and Northern part of Danube—Tisza Mid Region the main component is bisabolol-oxide A (30-41.2%), while plants native to the territory cast of the river Tisza are mainly characterised by a-bisabolol (32.3-48.4). In some samples the ratio of bisabolol-oxide B was more than 10%. The chamazulene content was higher in the cultivars selected to this component (above 20%), than in the wild populations (varied between 1.22 and 17.2%). Populations originated from the central part of Hortobágy region had extremely high apigenin content (10-13 mg/g), but in the case of chlorogenic acid, hyperoside and quercitrin we did not find any differences affected by the origin.
Investigating colouring components it was found that the p carotene being the most important from the point of view of nutrition constitutes about 60-70% of the total colouring material, whereas the ratio of a carotene is 18-34%.
Among the varieties having a short growing season the common incidence rate of the a and 13 carotene is very... high (92.49 %), even a lower total colouring material content (178.02 ppm) results in bright orange red carrot roots.
The incidence of a and carotene represents, however, only 84.24% of the similar total colouring material value (171.74 ppm) measured in Nantais.
Among the storage varieties Fertődi vörös has the highest value of total colouring substance (213.04 ppm) from which the common proportion of the two carotene (a and (3) compounds amounts to 93.77%.
When testing the essential oil components the cariophyllen shows the highest incidence rate, which has a negative influence on the flavour materials of the carrot. Among the early varieties in Nantais Forto this quantity amounts to 24.08 ppm which is almost twice as much as the amount measured in Nantais. We found a similarly unfavourable quantity in %lords &ids (25.47 ppm).
Looking at the beta-pinen and 1-limonen of a bactericidal effect the quantity of l-limonen is higher (1.36 ppm on the average of the varieties). Among the varieties that have a longer growing season and which are suitable for processing Fertődi vörös is the best in terms of essential oil and colour content. Its beta-pinen content was above the average of this variety (1.12 ppm) while its 1-limonen content was considerably high (1.26 ppm).
The growth rate of three rosemary clones, `Harmat', 'Salem' and `Horvát', their essential oil content and its components as well as the total phenol content and total antioxidant capacity in their aqueous and ethanolic extracts were compaired. Total phenol content (determined by Folin-Ciocalteau reagent) and antioxidant power (FRAP-value) of a...queous and ethanolic rosemary extracts were measured by spectrophotometric method. The essential oil content was determined from drug by water-steam distillation. `Harmat' showed the most intensive growth through the vegetation period. The total antioxidant power of the ethanolic extracts from all the three clones was similar: a decrease was observed at the end of the season. In most cases more antioxidant compounds were dissolved in the aqueous extracts. The total quantity of phenolic compounds shows a good correlation with the potential extent of stress effects. The difference among the phenol contents of the various clones can be derived from the difference in their tolerance, because phenols have antioxidant effects contributing to protection against harmful impacts. Difference between the two extraction methods (aqueous and ethanolic) is due to the distinct solubility of compounds. Some other components, like essential oil compounds also possess antioxidant effect and in this way they may influence the antioxidant power of extracts.
In the temperate zone live about 150 species of the Nepeta genus. Our investigations covered the examinations of the volatile oil containing species of the genus endemic in Hungary, Nepeta cataria and Nepeta parviflora. Latter is a relict of the ancient steppe-flora and endemic in Hungary as well. Phytochemical examin...ation of the volatile oil containing plant material has also been carried out. Catnip growing in the Botanical Garden of PTE Department of Botany contained 0,67% volatile oil in May and 0,14% in November. Chemical character of the volatile oils were measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and citronellol, citral-A, citral-B and geraniol components were identified. The composition of the oil of November samples shifted towards citronellol (65%). In both samples insecticide and repellent activity bearing compounds (+)-cis-p-menthane-3,8-diol, and (—)-trans-p-menthane-3,8-diol in 2-2.5 and 4-4.5% amount have been found. The catnip sample deriving from Germany contained a small amount of anetol, citronellol, neral, geraniol and geranial (6-13%), and possibly two isomers of nepetalactone in 23-31%.
The Nepeta parviflora endemic in the Nagyvolgy valley near Nagykaracsony consisted of the same compounds in the investigated years (1998-2000). Its limonene, methyl chavicol, b-cariophyllene, b-selinene, b-cubebene, davanone, germacrene-D constituents have been identified. In the year 2000 different GC % of these compounds were detected in the different organs of the plants.
The closely related species Nepeta cataria var. citriodora contained 83% citral, and the N. glechoma (= Glechoma hederacea) contained 41% a-cubebene, 20% patchoulenol, 7,7% spathulenol respectively. These compounds were identified by gas chromatography and gas chromatography / mass spectrometry.
In this study the changes of the characteristics of Satureja hortensis herb were investigated during flowering period, in case of savories of 4 different origins. The change of drying ratio, leaf/stem ratio, essential oil content, the ratio of several essential oil components (carvacrol, y-terpinene, p-cymol, a-pinene, p-pinene and fi-...caryophyllene) were studied from bud formation till seed ripening.
Lavandula species are worldwide grown essential oil producing medicinal plants with considerable economic value. Beside volatile oil, lavender also contains different phenolic compounds which have been less widely studied till now. Cultivation of lavender has become widespread in Hungary in the recent years, however, growers have limit...ed knowledge on the productivity of cultivars available. In our research we were aimed to studying the antioxidant capacity and total polyphenol content of samples collected in two growing areas (Dörgicse and Szomód) from flowers of two L. angustifolia (‘Hidcote’, ‘Munstead’) and two L. × intermedia (‘Grosso’, Grappenhall’) varieties, during the full blooming period of 2017. Antioxidant capacity of the samples was determined by FRAP assay (Benzie and Strain, 1996), while total polyphenol content (TPC) was measured by a modified method of Singleton and Rossi (1965). According to our results, varieties of L. × intermedia showed higher values of antioxidant capacity and of total polyphenol content, than those of L. angustifolia cultivars. Among them, both the antioxidant capacity (179.6 mg AAE/g DW) and total polyphenol content values (152.4 mg GAE/g DW) of ’Grosso’ from Dörgicse were the highest. Concerning FRAP values of all the cultivars investigated, larger variability were found in Dörgicse, than in Szomód. Regarding the effect of growing area, each cultivar represented similar FRAP values in Dörgicse and in Szomód, except for ’Grosso’. However, in the case of TPC values, higher variability was observed between the growing areas, especially in the case of ’Grosso’. In the future our studies on lavender polyphenols will be completed with qualitative evaluation of the values obtained by HPLC analysis.
In ecological farming systems farmers can't use chemicals against pests. In ecological plant protection the aim is to prevent diseases; if it is not possible the use of allowed materials are permitted. Until now there haven't been enough effective and environmental friendly materials for seed treatment in organic farming. Seed borne diseases of... tomato and pepper can cause serious losses in yield, so finding appropriate inhibitors has a great importance. Different materials were tested against these bacterial strains for seed treatment in this study. In vitro trials have shown that vinegar, cider vinegar, red wine vinegar and white wine vinegar have inhibiting effect against the causative agent of bacterial canker (Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis), bacterial speck (Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato) of tomato. These materials also have inhibiting impact on the causative agent of bacterial spot of pepper (Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria). Seed treatment with (natural alkaline material) sodium hydrogen carbonate (NaHCO3) had no effect on the examined bacterial strains. Among examined essential oils cinnamon oil seemed to be the most effective, but all oils decreased the germination ability. Thyme and savory teas were effective against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. Other examined materials had insufficient bactericide impact (sucrose, NaCI, ethanol, valerian extract, peppermint tea). The germination test has shown that examined vinegar types don't decrease germination ability.
In our work the effectiveness of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction was studied on volatile components of Lamiaceae herbs. The aim of our investigations was to determine the optimal extraction parameters yielding high amount of volatiles in a desirable composition. As plant materials, dried and powdered cude drugs of Thymus vu...lgaris, Thymus pannonicus, Satureja hortensis, Ocimum basilicum, Rosmarinus officnalis and Salvia officinalis were chosen. Pressure (8-30 MPa), temperature (35-60 °C) and time (5-60 min) of extraction were regulated. Results obtained by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) were compared to that of the conventional extraction procedur, hydrodistillation (HD). In the case of Thymus vulgaris, Thymus pannonicus and Salvia officnalis, extract yield of SFE was comparable to the essential oil amount obtained by hydrodistillation from the same drug. Essential oil rich thyme extracts were analysed by GC-FID. We have found that yield and quality of SFE extracts highly depend on the conditions of extraction.
Authors dealt more than ten years with the analysis of supercritical extracts. For extraction (SFE) carbon dioxide was used as supercritical solvent. Fractionation of extracts was carried out by releasing the separations pressure at two stages. The extracts were collected as separate samples successively in time.
The traditional extract...ions were carried out with steam distillation or by using n-hexane and ethanol in Soxhlet apparatus. For the analysis of volatile compounds GC, GC-MS; of non volatile compounds TLC-densitometry and spectroscopic methods were used.
The following general characteristics were established comparing the composition of steam distillated oils with that of volatile SFE fractions. The SFE fractions were richer in monoterpene-esters and poorer in alcohols than the essential oils prepared by traditional way (clary sage, lavandel). Regarding the distributi,n of the monoterpene and sesquiterpene compounds, the SFE fractions contained sesquiterpene hydrocarbon in higher percentage than the distillated oils (e.g. 13-caryophyllene in Salvia fruticosa, (3-caryophyllene, ymuurolene, y-cadinene in Ochnum basilicum). Further the proportion of sesquiterpenes increased in SFE fractions collected successively in time.Significant difference was remarkable in respect of the optical rotationability of lovage oil and SFE fraction which was probably caused by the different ratio between the two ligustilid enantiomers. It was verified in some cases that a part of mono- and sesquiterpenes were present originally in a bounded form (glycosides) in plants. Therefore they appeared in essential oil fractions only after previous acidic treatment (Thymus, Origanum species). During the supercritical extraction the azulenogene sesquiterpene lactones did not transform to azulenes (in chamomile, yarrow), but the non volatile SFE fractions of some Asteraceae plant contained sesquiterpene--lacton of unchanged structure in high quantity (e.g. cnicin in blessed thistle, parthenolide in feverfew). Authors obtained also SFE fractions which were rich in triterpenoids and phytosterols (marigold, common dandelion).
Marjoram is one of the most important spices in Hungary, which is utilized both in phytotherapy as well as in alimentary industry. Organoleptic quality of the drugs of two Hungarian varieties of Majorana hortensis /'Francia' and 'Magyar'/ were investigated by two different methods of sensory analysis. The chemical composition of the ma...terial was checked by GC analysis of the distilled essential oil. Although their main compounds and proportions showed similar patterns, both the human and instrumental sensory tests based on the complex odour and aroma of the drug, proved a significant differentiation of the two varieties.
On the basis of our results, sensory evaluation may be a useful tool in the practice in determination of complex aromatic values of marjoram, as a spice. At the same time it seems to be a suitable method in promotion of breeding efforts.
For the wide implementation of Levisticum officinalе C. Koch in Transcarpathia into production it is necessary to widen its sort composition, as it is rather poor in Ukraine. Solving this problem is possible by enriching the source material with the samples of different ecological and/or geographical origin, by studying the influence...of abiotic factors on the formation of green mass and seed productivity, separating the specimens best adapted to the conditions of growing, involving them into the selection process and creating new, highly productive sorts on this basis. The scientists of the Transcarpathian State Agricultural Experimental Station (TSAES) conducted researches (during 2011-2016) on the adaptive potential of the source material of the type of Levisticum officinalе C. Koch, which counts seven samples (Ukraine – 5 samples, Poland – 1, and Romania – 1), the selection work on creating new varieties for the given region is being done. The investigations were made on soddy podzolic gleyed low-humus soils with low content of nutrients. The results were obtained on the basis of generally accepted methods of investigation, i.e.: laboratory, field, visual, measuring-weighing, biochemical, mathematically statistic, and comparative-calculating. In the conditions of Transcarpathia the spicy greens of the high quality L. officinalе C. Koch are being gathered on days 25-30, the output of the essential oil makes up from 0.72 tо 1.89% on c.d.s., depending on the climate conditions of growing. The plants pass through all the stages of development, the bush is 55.4 to 92.7 сm in height, the plants form a big amount of rosette-shaped stems (11-34 pieces), the productivity of spicy greens is between 9.9 and 42.1 t hа1. The scientists of TSAES created the following sorts – Mriya (А. с. 06131 Ukraine, first registered in the State register of plant varieties of Ukraine) and Coral (Pat. on the variety № 140830). Economic effect from growing of the Coral variety in the conditions of Transcarpathia is 10230 UAH/ha and the level of profitability is 28.4%. The geographic position and agroclimatic conditions of Transcarpathia, as well as the unpretentiousness of L. officinalе C. Koch. tо the conditions of growing contribute to the enrichment of the local flora with useful plants; and the rich chemical composition contributes to the spread of this culture in the given region.
The flowering dynamics of Ocimum basilicum L., (a common population maintained at the UHFI) was studied with the aim to create an exact and practically applicable method for definition of phenological phases.
According to our observation the development of individual flowers of the basil can be characterized by 8 distinguishabl...e phases, which must be considered for description of the actual phenological stage of a spike.
An accurate model was created for the unambiguous description of flowering process of different flowers within the spike and for the individual plant as a whole. The new flowering index formula is calculated from the number of flowers weighed by their phenological phases.
The time dependence of flowering is presented by functions fitted to values of the flowering index. The results reflected different patterns of the main inflorescence, the inflorescences formed on the side shoots in the first or in the second half of the flowering period. However, for description of the flowering process of the whole plant, a sigmoid function proved to be the appropriate model.
The accumulation process of the essential oil could be characterized by the flowering index values. They showed close correlation (r=0.964) at high probability.
The new method assures an exact definition of phenological phases in basil. Its application seems to be optimal during breeding procedures, seed production and even in production of high quality drugs, according to the requirements of the Good Agricultural Practice (Guidelines for GAP, 1998).
In our work the effectiveness of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction was studied on volatile and nonvolatile components of Lamiaceae herbs. The aim of our investigations was to determine the optimal extraction parameters yielding high amount of volatiles and nonvolatiles in a desirable composition. As plant materials, dried and pow...dered cude drugs of Satureja hortensis, Ocimum basilicum and Melissa officinalis were chosen. Pressure (8-50 MPa), temperature (35-60 °C), time (5-60 min) and the ratio of modifier (5-50% methanol) of extraction were regulated. Results obtained by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) were compared to that of the conventional extraction procedure, hydrodistillation (HD). In the case of Satureja hortensis, Ocimum basilicum and Melissa officinalis extract yield of SFE was comparable to the essential oil amount obtained by hydrodistillation from the same drug. Essential oil rich extracts were analysed by GC-FID, while extracts rich in nonvolatile compounds were analysed by HPLC. We have found that yield and quality of SFE extracts highly depend on the conditions of extraction.
Differences were demonstrated in esterasei coenzyme pattern of some essential oil producing plants belonging to the Apiaceae family — fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.), angelica (Angelica archangelica L.), lovage (Levisticum officinale Koch.), dill (Anethum graveolens L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), anise (Pimpinella anisum L.), caraw...ay (Carum carvi L.) — as well as differences between two varieties of fennel seed by using isoelectric focusing. That method provides quality control in essential oil plants and is suitable to describe isoenzyme pattern characteristic for taxons.
Based on our findings, isoelectric focusing seems to be suitable for identification and differentiation of different plant samples, providing an easy tool for further processing as well as for breeding.
Our further aim is to apply that method to differentiate among samples belonging to the same species according to their value of inner content.
Matricaria recutita L. is a traditional medicinal plant in Hungary and its drug is known as „Hungaricum", world-wide. Plant samples and seeds were collected from 12 different habitats of three significant geographical regions of Hungary in 2001. Morphological, production biological and chemical properties of samples were examined. In... relation to the morphological characteristics, a negative correlation (r= -0.75) could be observed between the average height of the plants (height of flowering shoots) and the pH value of the soil. According to the composition of the essential oil, the populations accumulating typically chamasulene (10-20%), a-bisabolol (30-50%) or bisabolol-oxid (30-50%) could be completely distinguished. Concerning the flavonoid composition the quantity of apigenin-7-glucoside was outstanding in the populations originating from the Great Hungarian Plain, it has reached the concentration of 1.8-2.8 mg/g, while the samples collected in Transdanubia could be characterised by much lower level of apigenin-7-glucoside (around 1.5 mg/g).
Taxonomical evaluation of six taxa of the Achillea aggregate was carried out to determine their potential for breeding and cultivation. We used complex morphological, cytological and chemical aspects of characterisation. Three taxa of tetraploid genom and high chamazulene contents (33-40% ess.oil) proved to be A. collina Becke...r. A strain of wild origin had also high -bisabolol content and high oil level, comparable with the selected cultivars. A population was identified as new chemotype of A. pannonica Scheele with typical morphological and cytological traits, a wide sesquiterpene spectrum but lacking of 1.8 cineole and -pinene. We found a mixed population which consisted of both A. collina and A. pannonica plants. A tetraploid, azuleneless taxon could be concluded as A. pratensis Saukel and Langer not described before in Hungary. The diverse performance of the populations calls the attention to the significance of controlled plant raw in phytopharmaceutical products.