An apple breeding program has been carried out at the Department of Fruit Science for more than a decade. Several apple selections have been released from the progenies of crosses in 1992 and 1993. Six candidates were submitted for national recognition out of the hybrids examined for more than a decade. The six selections are resistant against...all the three most important apple diseases (apple scab, powdery mildew and fire blight). Scab resistance is controlled by the Vf gene originating from the species Malus floribunda 821 and transmitted by cultivar Prima. Heterozygote Vfvf genotype of the six cultivar candidates was proved by molecular genetic examinations of Dept. Genetics and Plant Breeding. Characteristics of these selections from 'Prima' progenies are shown on the base of our own observations.
The morphological and chemical changes in the leaves of eight apple varieties grafted on M4, M26 and MM 106 rootstocks were examined during fruit development in non-irrigated plantation. The aim of the experiment was to examine the defensive mechanisms in apple trees under the mild and serious dryness occurring during fruit development. The con...tent of a relative chlorophyll (SPA D value) of the apple leaves on eastern side of the trees was lower than western and southern sides under drought occurring du ring fruit devclop111ent Under sustained drought from first of July to August the SPAD value, the weight of leaves were larger and the stomata density was significantly larger than in the previous periods. There was a close positive significant correlations bet ween SPAD and stoma density both in the group with less sensitive to drought (r=0,8429) and in the large water demanded group (r=0,9209) equally. The rate of increase in SPAD values and the stoma density was slower in the group with drought tolerant, than in the group required good water supply. The varieties being sensitive to water deficite such as Akane. Pink Lady and Red Rome van Well have a l ready responded intensively to short time of drought by the increasing of carbohydrate and antioxidants product ions. At 42 days of sustained drought as soon as the level of carbohydrate in the leaves decreased, the antioxidant s contents of the leaves rised suddenly in the apple varieties with moderate water requirement s as Greensleeves and ldared. Gala apple variety seemed to be able to defend the drought for longer time because there was no change in relatively high level of carbohydrates and antioxidants of their leaves under severe drought during fruit development.
In the recent years, several disease-resistant apple varieties appeared through the modern breeding technologies. These varieties can be grown with low usage of pesticides, which mean not only environment friendly fruit growing, but the production costs are also lower. In Eastern-Hungary — it is one of the main apple growing regions — a new... apple growing structure started to form by the investment of the German Wink Ltd. — several resistant apple varieties were brought from Germany. 'Resistant' refers genetic resistance that usually transferred from the genome of wild apple species. But the fruit of these apple species is not only resistant to diseases, but its quality is poorer, too. In Germany the Re-apples are grown only for the processing industry. Due to climatic circumstances in Eastern Hungary, the first experiences showed better parameters during laboratory measurement, the fruits have more beautiful view, shape and inner characters than usual industrial apples.
In our paper we discuss the results of sensory (consumer) tests, carried out in Eastern Hungary and in the Budapest-region the data analysis of systematic storing experiments (refraction, flesh firmness, weight loss, etc.) and profile analysis of fresh and stored Re-apples. (In the profile analysis the ProfiSens software [4,5] has been used.)
The aim of the Hungarian apple breeding program started in the Department of Fruit Science was to find resistant apple cultivars against major diseases (scab, powdery mildew, fire blight). The outbreak of fire blight (Erwinia amylovora) in 1996 motivated us to search new resistant sources principally from old traditional apple cultivar...s. First of all, cultivars have been gathered since 1997 from Carpathia (Visk) and evaluated between 2001 and 2003. In this recent study evaluation of resistance of old Hungarian genotypes to fire blight collected from the English National Fruit Collection (Brogdale, Faversham) is presented.
13 old Hungarian apple cultivars in 2002, and 38 genotypes in 2005 have been evaluated. We used `Idared' and 'Jonathan M41' as susceptible controls and 'Liberty' and 'Remo' as resistant ones. Shoots of two-year-old potted plants were inoculated with a mixture of virulent E. amylovora isolates (Ea2, Ea60, Ea67) at a concentration of 5 x 108 cells/ml. Resistance of apple cultivars was evaluated weekly, four times after inoculation by disease severity of symptoms. Numbers of bacterial colonies in 1 cm length shoot were determined in the fourth week after infection.
8 cultivars in 2002 and 9 cultivars in 2005 displayed notable resistance to fire blight based on one-year data. Based on the coincident data of both years, out of the cultivars collected also from Carpathia ‘Pónyik', and `Sikulai' were found to be resistant and gene sources additional old Hungarian valuable apple genotypes could be selected: `Szabadkai szercsika' and `Tordai piros !davit'. The cultivar `Szemes alma' originated from Visk has proved to be recurrently resistant.
The number of bacterial cells in shoots of the investigated cultivars correlated with the severity of symptoms. With this method, which was introduced by us earlier, we can screen cultivars displaying weak visible symptoms, which cannot be proposed as a source of resistance because of their latent infection.
Dianthus chinensis and Dianthus caryophyllus varieties were tested for shoot regeneration from leaf and petal explants and transformed with Agrobacterium tuniefaciens strains (EHA 105 and LBA 4404) harbouring an apple derived ACS cDNA in antisense orientation in order to reduce ethylene production and influence the et...hylene dependant traits in carnation. After transformation regenerating shoots were selected on MS medium containing 50-75-100-125-150 mg/1 kanamycin and supplemented with 1 mg/1 BA, 0.2 mg/1 NAA. Transgene integration was proved by PCR analysis with npt II spcific primers followed by Southern hybridisation of DNA isolated from green shoots on medium containing 150 mg/1 kanamycin. Several putative transformants were subjected to RT-PCR in order to examine the npt 11 expression at mRNA level. Both the transformant and the non-transformant plants were potted into glasshouse to observe the effect of changed ethylene production on flowering time, petal senescence and vase life.
Transgenic carnations were produced with an apple derived antisense ACC-synthase cDNA. Transgenic carnation regenerants were potted in glasshouse. All transformed plants showed normal growth and were true-to-type. Ethylene production — measured at full opening stage — lowered by 30-60 %, no plant with 100 % decrease was identified. The vase...-life has been observed for 5 years. 38 % of the transformant carnations showed a higher a relative value in days by more than 2 days to 6 days. Twenty six plants were found exhibiting the most marked alterations in the tested trait. In these plants ethylene production decreased by 37-67 %, they have longer vase-life (by 4 days or more). Since the fragrance variety 'Bíbor' was the plant material for genetic modification of vase-life, this trait has been conserved after transformation in spite of the fact that the position of transgene integration cannot be directed.
One of our objectives in the apple breeding program of the Department of Fruit Science, beside creating new varieties, is to search for new gene sources. After evaluating the disease resistance of Malus taxa available in Hungary, we put the promising selected individuals through further examinations. Their habit and growth vigor was ob...served, as well as productivity and fruit characteristics were evaluated. Malus fusca seems to be a new, promising gene source in Hungary among the examined taxa. Beside its optimal canopy, growth vigor and fruit characteristics, it has the advantage to be in distant relationship to Malus x domestica, therefore its resistance is based on a different genetic basis. SBG 1 selection of Malus spectabilis can be recommended as a new gene source for resistance breeding. The range of gene sources can further be widened by selected clones of Malus floriblunda (BA I), Malus x zumi (BA) and Malus baccata (SBG 6). An additional value of Malus taxa chosen by us is that they show resistance not only to apple scab, but to powdery mildew as well, and according to our results, they have optimal habit, acceptable productivity and good fruit quality. Nine hybrids were selected from first Malus progenies which proved to be resistant to apple scab and powdery mildew. These are valuable not only as gene sources of breeding, but as pollenizers or ornamental trees, while their decorative fruits can be used in inside decorations and flower arrangements.
In the frame of the apple breeding program at the Department of Fruit Science old cultivars found in the Carpathian basin were involved in examination as well. Beside testing susceptibility to fire blight (Erwinia amylovora of old genotypes (historical, local and regional cultivars) originating from scattered orchards of Visk (foot of...the Carpathian Mountains), fruit quality was also evaluated and other open-field observations were made.
According to the results of inner content examinations, 'Szemes alma' and 'Sikulai alma', chosen as gene sources for breeding to resistance against fire blight, had inner content values worthy to mention in some aspects, and competing with those of the control cultivar 'Jonathan'. The quality of 'Pónyik alma', also recommended as a gene source is confirmed by the data of earlier literature. Further three cultivars ('Batul', 'Vilmos renet', 'Zöld sóvári') also proved to be good based on resistance against Erwinia amylovora, the first two cultivars are suitable from the point of view of fruit quality, too.
In our field observations, susceptibility to apple scab and powdery mildew was evaluated. Among cultivars selected from the foot of the Carpathian Mountains on the base of resistance against Erwinia amylovora, the production value of 'Szemes alma' is worsened by its high susceptibility to apple scab. Further selected cultivars ('Sikulai', 'Pónyik alma', 'Batul', 'Vilmos renet') are not too susceptible to fungal diseases and their fruit quality is also suitable, therefore they can be recommended for direct planting in ecological farming or in restoring scattered orchards.
The aim of the first Hungarian apple breeding program for multiple resistance started in the beginning of the nineties is to widen Hungarian apple assortment by good quality, resistant apple cultivars with excellent productivity and ecological capability to the most important fruit growing areas in Hungary. In the first years of seedling produc...tion we made early selection for susceptibility to apple scab in greenhouse. Alter this, field observation of susceptibility to powdery mildew, scab and canker and a yearly negative selection was carried on. From 1997, fruit quality was evaluated as well, and from 2001 the resistance of shoots to Erwinia ainylovora (Burrill/Winslow et al.) was examined using inoculations in greenhouse conditions. From the progenies of crosses in 1992 and 1993, six candidates were announced to national recognition out of hybrids examined for more than a decade. Descriptions of these selections from 'Prima' progenies and the most important data of their resistance, growing habit, morphological characteristics and fruit quality are shown in this article.
In a few scattered orchards of the Carpathian basin one can still find our most common historical apple cultivars and certain traces of traditional cultivation. We consider it an important part of the Department's breeding work to explore old apple cultivars which can be used as parent partners and sources of resistance, to identify them pomolo...gically as well as to examine the production and marketing value of old cultivars recommended for cultivation in ecological production and in gardens. This paper documents the results of expedition and collecting work carried out in three regions of the Carpathian basin (foot of the Carpathian Mountains, Transylvania, Aggtelek karst area), and also the saving of old Hungarian apple cultivars preserved until present in the English National Fruit Collection. A total of more than 100 old apple cultivars and variations, as well as 13 valuable genotypes were collected during our explorations in the above mentioned four areas. A further aim of our work is to contribute to the protection of still savable archaic fruit production relict= areas and to the preservation of cultivars in the certain regions, and also to promote the recognition of the aesthetic landscape value of old apple trees and endemic orchards of old cultivars. Our good co-operating partners in this work are Aggtelek National Park, Farmer Club of Visk and the consultation centre of Hungarian horticulturist training beyond the border in Nyárádszereda.
A detailed examination of the production of ethylene and other ripening parameters during storage period has been undertaken in transgenic apple fruits, where the ethylene biosynthesis was inhibited by antisense ACS (l-aminocyclopropane-l-carboxylate synthase) gene. Data indicate down regulation of ethylene production, softening and spoilage in... some transgenic lines. In some cases ethylene production was inhibited for over 90 percent, considerable reduction of softening and spoilage was observed probably due to the reduced activity of cell wall degradable enzymes. ACS activity was also monitored during ripening. The fruits of the best transgenic lines could be stored for minimum 4-5 months longer under 5 °C cold room storage conditions and one month longer at normal room temperature. This molecular approach can provide an alternative way to replace the commonly used and costly atmospheric storage of fruits.
Quince (Cydonia oblongaMill.) is a minor fruit crop, which is primarily used for marmalade, jam and sauce.Very few quince cultivars are known all over the world and in many cases similar names are used for presumably different cultivars. The aim of the present study was to evaluate and characterize the genetic diversity of 36 quince cultivars a...nd selections with SSR markers. Seven out of 8 SSR markers designed from apple sequences could successfully yield amplification also in quince cultivars. Number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 3 alleles. These allele numbers are quite low when compared to apple. It is supposed to be the consequence of a genetic bottleneck. In spite of the low allele number per locus, the 36 quince cultivars formed 30 different genotypes. The ratio of homozygosity was low, which might be coupled with the self-(in)compatibility phenotype of quinces. SSR markers proved unable to differentiate putatively closely related cultivars (e.g. ‘Bereczki’ and ‘Bereczki bôtermő’). In general, the level of polymorphism among the tested quince genotypes was much restricted due to the low allele number detected. However, it must be considered that the number of analysed SSR loci is not enough high to estimate the overall heterozygosity of the quince genome. Further experiments are needed and the SSR markers proved to be a reliable and useful tool for such analyses.
The invasive bacterial disease fire blight, caused by Erwinia amylovora has the potential to destroy fruit tree orchards all over Europe. Effective plant protection methods are lacking in many countries, highlighting the increasing importance placed on identification of germplasm with heritable disease resistance. Recent l y. a promisi...ng QTL (quantitative trait locus) was identified on linkage group 7 in the apple cultivar 'Fiesta· which is derived from ·cox's Orange Pippin' . I n the present study, 144 Swedish and foreign apple cultivars were analysed with the SCAR markers AE I 0-375 and GE-8019. which flank-. this QTL. Twenty-nine of the analysed cultivars had both markers. 78 had either AE I 0-375 or GE-8019, and 37 cultivars did not carry an) of the two markers. Seventeen cultivars. 7 with both markers and I 0 not having either of the two markers, were then inocoluted with the bacterium in a 4uaran1i ne greenhouse test. Cultivars carrying both DNA markers were significantly less susceptible than cultivars lacking the markers, P<0.001. Cultivars that were most resistant had both markers and had 'Cox· in their pedigree. Unrelated cultivars with the markers may still lack the QTL.
Following the first outbreak of fire blight caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora (Burrill) Winslow et al. in Hungary, we have started research with the aim to screen domestic gene sources, mostly historical Hungarian apple cultivars, for disease resistance as part of an apple breeding program for multiple resistance. The present s...tudy was conducted with the aim to choose the most tolerant historical apple cultivars among 25 selected cultivars by screening their behavior towards fire blight under controlled conditions. Six cultivars were shown to be the most disease tolerant: `Batul', 'London pepin', Nemes Sóvári Alma', `Sikulai', `Szemes alma', Wilmos renet'. We evaluated these cultivars by investigating both morphological- characteristics under original environmental circumstances and fruit quality. The cultivars had a remarkable degree of fire blight resistance compared to the control cultivars. These were not competitive with the commercially grown 'Jonathan M40' during cultivar tests but on the basis of certain characteristics they could serve as genetic sources for breeding new varieties.
As a part of an apple breeding program, we have examined the pollen effect on the fruit appearance and inner quality of different apple cultivars in the Corvinus University of Budapest Department of Fruit Science. Five apple cultivars ('Golden Reinders', 'Regal Prince', 'Rewena', 'Renora', 'Idared') have been crossed by the pollen of some new a...nd some traditional cultivars in our experiment. The measurements were carried out in the analytic and fruit examining laboratory of the Department of Fruit Science. The diameter, height and stem length were measured by digital caliper. We have also examined the squash ratio, soluble solid- and acidic content. Sugar content was calculated by a schedule released by the International Sugar Committee (ISC). From the sugar- and acidic content, we could also count the Pomona-value.
We have observed interesting effects according to some attributes in some crossing combinations with the help of statistical analysis. Crossing 'Golden Delicious' with 'Freedom', 'Prima', and 'Baujade' have resulted in smaller fruit size than other combinations. No significant differences could be observed on `Golden Reinders' fruits according to metaxenic coloration in the year of the examination. On the other hand the color modifying effect of pollen donating cultivars have manifested on the red fruits of 'Regal Prince' (Gala Must). `Freedom' as a pollen donating cultivar has resulted outstanding value in our consistency measurements. Squash ratio was the highest in combinations pollinated by 'Prima' and `Reglindis'. We have noticed balanced values when measuring inner qualities, only `Reka' has caused lower acidic content. Significant differences have been found in combinations according to the number of frivolous seeds. No frivolous seeds were found in the combinations 'Golden Reinders' x 'Freedom' and 'Idared' x 'Prima'. Almost two frivolous seeds were found in the fruits of the combination 'Renora' x 'Sóvári' in average.
Apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) is one of the most important fruit crops showing ribonuclease-mediated self-incompatibility, and no self-compatible apple cultivars are known. Twenty-nine S-alleles were identified in apple and many more incompatibility groups are present compared to sweet cherry. Results from a Belgian, Englis...h and a Japanese research group are combined and the S-genotypes of the most important world cultivars are collected. Two different allele labelling system are reconciled and detection methods used in case of the specific alleles are shown. Effects of the resistance breeding programmes are discussed; and scientific efforts involving transgenic technology to create self-compatible genotypes are shown. This review covers the most interesting issues regarding self-incompatibility in apple.
Altogether 40, mainly old Hungarian apple varieties were screened with six previously described microsatellite markers. A total of 71 polymorphic alleles were detected (average 11.8 alleles/locus) and the heterozygosity of markers averaged very high (0.8). The genetic variability among the genotypes proved to be so remarkable that as few as thr...ee markers from the applied six were enough to distinguish between the 40 varieties. This was also confirmed by the cumulative probability of obtaining identical allele patterns for two randomly chosen apple genotypes for all loci, which value was quite low: 2.53 x 10-5. The molecular identification of these genetically very different old apple genotypes could be very useful in future breeding programs.
For adequate yields in apple plantations, during the long growing period of the fruit primordia, one of the decisive factors is water supply. Indicators of stress are valuable signs for the diagnosis of drought and necessity of watering, i.e. planning the irrigation of plantations. The aim of the present study was to find reliable signs of wate...r stress on apple trees and at the same time conclude on the drought tolerance of different varieties. The plantation of apple varieties grafted on various stocks and cultivated according to different systems (irrigated, non irrigated, integrate and biological) has been examined continuously by leaf analysis. Along the period of growing fruits, measurements were made in the field, then the leaf samples were analysed in the laboratory for composition of pigments, carbohydrates and antioxidants, as well as the histology of the tissues checked. Without irrigation, the mean leaf mass and the relative chlorophyll content (SPAD) of the variety Idared on M4 stocks increases beyond the values of 50 SPAD, whereas on M26 stock and integrated system, it declines. In the collection of varieties, grown according to the „integrated” system, during the development of fruits, ‘Gála’ and ‘Remo’ varieties have been affiliated to the “less susceptible” group regarding drought tolerance because of the leaf morphology, structure and content of SPAD and antioxidants. However, ‘Idared’ and ‘Jonagold’ belong to the “susceptible” group. To the same group are ranged the ‘Akane, Red Rome vanWell, Pink Lady’ varieties. Those varieties reacted to a short period of drought by increased production (content) of carbohydrates. Regarding changes of carbohydrate content ‘Greensleeves’ and ‘Ozark Gold’ varieties belong to the moderately water dependent (requiring) group. In the field, SPAD-tests facilitated the measurement of nutrient-uptake and incorporation, which is proved by the tight correlation between the data of SPAD and the increment of leaf weight (r=0.76–r=0.88), however, this depends on the variety too. SPAD is an indicator of water supply and is related with the density of stomata, cannot used for the selection of water-exigent varieties but for (drought) tolerant ones. In integrated culture, the (drought) susceptible varieties display (water-soluble) hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidants (ACWand ACL resp.) the quantity of which may have some role in drought tolerance.
A collection of 151 apple cultivars was investigated with 7 RAPD primers generating 71 informative bands, to evaluate genetic variability and relatedness. All cultivars presumably derived through genetic recombination were distinguished whereas identical DNA profiles indicated that some cultivars had arisen as sports. A cluster analysis and a P...CO did not reveal any distinct geographic patterns, but there was a weak tendency for Swedish and foreign cultivars to differentiate.. Many cultivars however clustered together with either one of their parents or with siblings. Overall genetic diversity among the 151 cultivars was estimated with Nei's diversity index (H), 0.269, and with Shannon's index (H'), 0.594. The cultivars were also analysed in six groups, according to time of origination and country of origin, with an average H = 0.262 and H' = 0.546. No major differences in genetic diversity were observed over time or space, although the group with recent, foreign cultivars had the lowest diversity (FL = 0.235, H' = 0.493). Comparison between the entire material and a subset with 94 mandate cultivars chosen for preservation in Sweden, showed similar genetic diversity: HFN.rj1E = 0.268, frE,NTIRE, = 0.593 and HMANDATE = 0.263, WMANDATE = 0.575. No major differences in band frequencies were observed between these two sets, but 5 RAPD bands were missing in the set with mandate cultivars.
Hungary is traditionally a food producer country. 63% of its total land area can be cultivated. Horticulture is one of the fundamental agricultural branches. The country has a moderate continental climate, with a mean temperature of 10 °C. The average hours of sunshine ranges 1,700 to 2,100 hours. Under the geographical condition in the Carpat...hian Basin the chemical composition of the fruits has a good harmony. The total fruit acreage is 97,000 ha with a crop of 800,000 to 900,000 tons yearly. In 1982 1,934,000 tons of fruit crop were produced since then it has decreased. The most important fruits are apple, European plum, sour cherry and raspberry. The percentage of apple reaches almost up to 60%. In the new plantings sour cherry, apple and black elderberry is popular. The most important fruit-producing region is situated at the North-eastern part of the country. More than 40% of Hungary's fruit production is concentrated there. In ranking the 2nd place is taken by fruit growing area in the middle of Hungary, where the production of stone fruits and small fruits has a considerable proportion.
In the 70s and 80s of last century there was a developed research structure and wide range of research activity in Hungary. From that time the research capacity has considerably decreased first of all in the field of technological development. The main research area is fruit breeding and variety evaluation.
Fruit scientists and fruit grower specialists are held together by the Hungarian. Society for Horticultural Sciences which has a membership in ISHS. Fruit researches and scientists having academic degree are belonged to the Horticultural Board of Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
A DNA marker-based study was undertaken to identify the occurrence of major scab resistance genes in some apple cultivars and selections of importance for apple breeding. Unfortunately none of the RAPD-based markers previously reported to detect the Va, Vb, Vr and Vx genes produced unambiguous results.... By contrast, the CAPS marker MI8 produced the expected three bands in all cultivars and selections already known or suspected to have the Vf gene, as well as in the Russian cultivar 'Antonovka Polotora Funtovaja' suspected to have Va resistance which however may be allelic to Vf. Vf-carrying selections and newly named cultivars 'Frida' and 'Fredrik' are grown successfully in Sweden without fungicides, suggesting that the Vr resistance breaking scab races 6 and 7 have not yet become a problem. The SCAR marker B12 detected the Vm gene in 'Prairifire', 'Rouville', clones 'OR45T132' and 'OR48T70', and selection '16-36-193'. The SSR locus 0102b10 detected one band at 118 by in 'Reka'. This is presumed to be identical to the Vr gene marker previously reported.
In order to select the appropriate parent cultivars and maintain the durability of resistance, it is important to clarify the mechanisms of inheritance of scab resistance depending on the parents. It has been known that the progeny segregation ratios based on scab-resistance do not depend only on the genotype of the resistance locus but also on... the genetical makeup of the donor and recipient parents as well as on the susceptible parent.
The aim of this study has been to demonstrate what factors in the Vf, Vr and VA scab-resistant cultivars — combined with susceptible and resistant parents — affect the inheritance and durability of resistance in seedlings in their first 4 year's growing four years' growth. After inoculating apple seedlings sown in 2001 with the suspension of Venturia inaequalis (Cke.) Wint. in the greenhouse, we studied the segregation ratios of the progenies into reaction classes. Seedlings showing resistance in the greenhouse were also evaluated for scab-resistance after they had been moved to the field and had naturally been infected with the pathogen in 2002 and 2004.
The majority of our results obtained in the greenhouse test, similarly to earlier experiences, have not justified monogenic inheritance at the phenotypic level. The effect of susceptible parent cultivars on the segregation ratio of progenies have become apparent again. The high infection rate of seedlings in the field trials, which had previously exhibited varying degrees of resistance in the greenhouse test, has raised concern. Our data has raised further doubts, concerning the durability of Vf resistance in Hungary. It is assumed that the composition of natural field populations of Venturia inaequalis in Szigetcsép has changed. The complexity of Vf resistance has been confirmed. The high infection rate in the progenies derived from Vf resistant cultivars draws the attention to the importance of utilizing additional sources of resistance.
Development in apple production in the Czech Republic has been adversely effected during a few recent years by escape of capital investment from the agrifood industry (due to privatisation, restitution and transformation). On the other way round the competition on the domestic market is much higher than it was before because of unlimited import... of subtropical and tropical fruit and some import of traditional fruit species as well. Therefore fruit growers are very much concerned in any possible means (which are not economically feasible) to be more competitive. One of the most common approach is the use of new cultivars bred in the country which are resistant or tolerant to diseases and offer better quality both for fresh market and processing. Another way for increasing competition ability for fruit growers is the join and mastering of integrated production which also considerably improve the quality of fruit as far as aspects of health are meant.
Several parameters influencing the antioxidant capacity were measured in our experiments to compare strawberry and raspberry cultivars. The analysed cultivars were: 'Honeoye', 'Elsanta', 'Onebor (strawberries) and 'Glen Ample', Fertődi zamatos', 'Mailing Expoit' (raspberries). Besides the determination of dry matter content the content of gluc...ose, fructose, total phenol and anthocyanine, the reducing power, H-donating activity and total scavenger capacity were measured as well as the compound of mineral nutrients. Among the species and the cultivars, differences were obtained. These results call the attention to the features of cultivars and to count on the antioxidant-capacity describing values in case of consuming these fruits. In early spring and summer the consumption of strawberry and raspberry has a beneficial contribution to the antioxidant status of our body. In this respect these are more valuable than the year-long consumable apple. Accordingly, our measurements showed higher amount of sucrose, phenolic compounds and anthocyanine in raspberries, but strawberries contained more glucose and fructose and had stronger H-donating activity. It is worth to keep in mind that e.g. which cultivar contains more of certain compounds because of the strictly determined allowable dose in some diseases (e.g. diabetes).
In the Carpathian basin there are still maintained the main historical fruit varieties and traces of traditional farming. The Department of Fruit Science considered the utilisation of obsolete varieties in breeding as source of resistance to local adversities, moreover, the practice of traditional .farming using those varieties shoul...d be also explored. In the present study, the farming methods and variety structure of two substantially different growing sites are described. One is an alluvial plain along a river were an ancient form of farming based on the control of sluices. The second is practised by clearing the forest on the slopes of the central range and of the Carpathian chain. During the course of our research we succeeded to find 8 pear, 29 apple and a few quince as well as medlar varieties. Further endeavour would be the conservation of those varieties, preferably on the spot together with their growing techniques as relicts, also as aesthetic components of that particular landscape. Our committed partners in this work are the National Parks.