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117-120.
Vol 12No 22006
Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) is an allotetraploid species derived from hybridisation of the diploid sweet cherry (P avium L.) and the tetraploid ground cherry (P. fruticosa Pall.). Although numerous self-incompatible cultivars exist, the most sour cherry cultivars are self-compatible, which might be due to their tetraploid nature. This review i...s dedicated to show the limited information on the genetics of self-incompatibility in sour cherry accumulated during the last five years. Two different hypotheses (genomic arrangement of the alleles or the accumulation of non-functional S-haplotypes) are discussed. Heteroallelic sour cherry pollen was shown to be self-incompatible, which is counter to the Solanaceae where heteroallelic pollen frequently self-compatible due to a kind of competitive interaction between the two different alleles. This review highlights some inconsistencies in the hope that clarification will be achieved in the near future.
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66
72
45-54.
Vol 20No 1-22014
The rain induced fruit cracking is a big, serious problem especially for sweet cherry growers but in some year growers of other stone fruit species had also problem with fruit cracking caused by too much and heavy rainfalls in the ripening and harvesting season. Cracked stone fruits can be easily infected by different diseases like Monillinia sp. ...Cracked and infected fruits can not be transported for long distance and using for preservation, they lost their market value by the destroyed fruit quality. It was decided to make a research work to determine the rain fruit cracking susceptibility of few stone fruit species (sour cherries, sweet cherries and European plums). Fruit cracking tests were occurred under laboratory conditions on the most common cultivars grown in Hungary. Furthermore we tried to find correlation between the fruit cracking and some fruit quality parameters (fruit size; total sugar content, fruit flesh firmness). Our conclusions are the followings:Sour cherries: There were found differences in the cracking ratio and the cracking dynamics of the tested sour cherry varieties when they were immersed in distillated water for 24 hours. Based on cracking test results under laboratory condition (immersing in distillated water) we made the grouping by cracking susceptibility of sour cherry varieties. Tested cultivars were divided three groups: very susceptible; susceptible; moderately susceptible (tolerant). Groups with varieties are: Very susceptible - ’Maliga emléke’, ’Piramis’, ’Érdi jubileum’,’Érdi nagygyümölcsû’ and ’Meteor korai; Susceptible (Sensitive) – ’Érdi bôtermô’, ’Pándy’ and Cigány 59. Moderately susceptible (tolerant) – ‘Éva’ and ‘Petri’as new rereleases. The most of tested sour cherry varieties are in agreement with the literature (Apostol, 2003) and four of them (’Maliga emléke’, ’Pándy 279’, ‘Éva’ and ‘Petri’) had higher average fruit weight than was mentioned in the literature (Apostol, 2003). Our fruit cracking results are in agreement with Zelinski’s (1964) and Christensen’s (1975) conclusions that there is no close relationship between fruit size and rain induced fruit cracking tendency. We found significant differences between the sugar content of tested cultivars. In contrast of Verner & Blodget (1931) our results confirm Tucker’s opinion that the sugar content is not correlation with the cracking tendency of cherry fruits (Tucker, 1934). Fruits firmness (elasticity) was measured by destructive method when juice was coming out from fruits. There were found big differences of fruit firmness and skin strength of observed cultivars. Our results are only partly agreement with Christensen’s (1996) opinion that cherry cultivars with firmer fruits are more prone to fruit cracking than softer ones. By this was seemingly we did not found close relationship between the fruit firmness and the cracking tendency of sour cherry fruits. We found that during fruits immersing in distillated water the fruit weight was increasing due to the absorbed water. Our opinion is that there is no close relationship between the scale of fruit cracking and the quantity of absorbed water. By results presented above we our opinion is that no very close relationship between the fruit cracking of sour cherries and the observed parameters (fruit size, fruit firmness, sugar content, amount of absorbed water) maybe other varietal effects and physiological characters (fruit skin structural parameters) play more important role in the fruit cracking mechanism of cherries. Sweet cherries: Similarly to sour cherries in the case of sweet cherries we also did not find close relationship between observed fruit parameters and cracking index. It was differences in the cracking ratio and the cracking dynamics of the tested sweet cherry cultivars when they were immersed in distillated water for 24 hours. It was found that the cracking ratio of very cracking susceptible sour cherry varieties had the same or higher cracking index than observed sweet cherries. It is in contrast with the general opinion (Chistensen, 1996) that sour cherries are less prone to rain induced fruit cracking than sweet cherries. We found differences between the cracking ration and cracking dynamic of the same cultivar in different years (2006 and 2013). It is in agreement Christensen’s (1996) opinion that the year effect cause big differences in the fruit cracking of cherries.European plums: We found differences in the cracking ratio and the cracking dynamics of the tested plum varieties when they were immersed in distillated water for 24 hours. A shorter term (6 hours) immersing in water caused three groups by their cracking susceptibility: „Very susceptible”: ’Révfülöpi’ and ’Szarvasi’; „Susceptible”: ’Besztercei’; „Less sensitive”: ’Bluefre’ and ’Cacanska rodna’. A longer term (24 hours) immersing in water resulted only two groups with significant differences: „Susceptible group”: ’Révfülöpi’, ’Szarvasi’ and ’Besztercei’; „Less sensitive”: ’Bluefre’ and ’Cacanska rodna’ Similarly the cherries we did not find correlation between the fruit size and cracking susceptibility of European plum cultivars. It was based on: the big fruit sized ‘Bluefre’ and middle sized ‘Cacanska rodna’ cracked in the lowest scale, during the small sized ’Révfülöpi’, ’Szarvasi’ and ’Besztercei’ cultivars cracked in higher scale We found positive correlations between the cracking susceptibility and total sugar content of tested plum cultivars. Cultivars with significantly lower sugar content (‘Bluefre’ and ‘C. rodna’) showed lower fruit cracking susceptibility than cultivars (’Révfülöpi’, ’Szarvasi’ and ’Besztercei’) with higher sugar content). We found close relationship between the relative (%) absorbed water amount and the fruit cracking susceptibility. Cultivars with higher absorbed water amount (’Szarvasi’-’Révfülöpi’-’Besztercei’) had higher cracking susceptibility.
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79
86
119-124.
Vol 13No 32007
The aim of our drying trials was to determine the drying suitability of stone fruits. The tested species were sour and sweet cherries and European plums too. Data and results of sweet cherry drying were published earlier (Klincsek et. al. 2005, 2006).This article containing results of twenty sour cherry and six European plum varieties. Laboratory ...tests, drying processes and sensory testing were done at Fruit Quality Testing Laboratory of Fruit Science Department of Corvinus University of Budapest. The sensory tests and their valuations were done by the instruction of National Institute for Agricultural Quality Control. In the case of sour cherries by one year data in 2004 we divided fruits to five categories by suitability for making dried fruit. Varieties in the first two groups are the followings: most suggested for making dried, fruits: 'Meteor korai' and `Érdi jubileum'; suggested: 'IV-3-48' and `Piramis'.In the case of European plums three varieties can be suggested for making dried fruits from the six tested cultivars: ‘Révfülöpi’, Althann gage' and `Besztercei'.
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67
70
25-28.
Vol 16No 32010
Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) cultivars grown in Hungary are of local origin while most sweet cherry cultivars in Hungary are introduced from other countries.A great phenotypic variability is displayed by both species. In the present study, we analyzed 10 sour and 9 sweet cherry cultivars for their antioxidant capacity, total polyphenolics (TPC)... and total anthocyanin (TMAC) contents. In general, sour cherries showed higher levels of antioxidant capacity, TPC and TMAC. The anthocyanin contents varied from 0.16 to 6.85 and 1.41 to 127.56 mg/100 g for sweet and sour cherries, respectively. However, TMAC generally seems to have a limited influence on the antioxidant capacity of cherries.An amarelletype sour cherry, ‘Pipacs 1’ showed the highest antioxidant capacity (21.21mmolAA/l) and TPC (44.07mgGA/l) in contrast to its lowanthocyanin content. The detected diversity presents a choice that can satisfy different consumer preferences, and meet specific nutritional requirements.
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73
69
109-111.
Vol 11No 22005
Evidence suggests that a diet high in fruits and vegetables may decrease the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, and phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids from fruits and vegetables may play a key role in reducing chronic disease risk. Recent research has proven that sour cherry (Prunus cer...asus L.) is a valuable natural source of some bioactive compounds important in human health preservation. In our work, we identified the total antioxidant activity, anthocyanine content and "antioxidant density" of sour cherry varieties named "Újfehértói fürtös", "Debreceni bőtermő", "Kántorjánosi" and "Érdi bőtermő" and those of the "Bosnyák" sour cherry clones. "Antioxidant density" is a biological value indicator obtained in a synthetic way, which indicates the antioxidant capacity of the particular food, e. g. fruit and vegetable, related to 1 Calorie.
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75
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23-26.
Vol 16No 12010
Fruit set of five sour cherry cultivars (‘Újfehértói fürtös’, ‘Éva’, ‘Petri’, ‘Pándy 279‘ and ‘Csengôdi’) of eight years-old trees grown in Újfehértó, located in the Eastern north part of Hungary have been studied over two years (2008 & 2009). Following reciprocally cross-pollination, free-pollination, self-polli...nation (autogamy) artificial self-pollination (geitonogamy) were studied. The results show that both maternal and paternal parent cultivates had significant effects on the percentage fruit set. Significant differences have been found in fruit set among years and among pollination treatments. Fruit set of free-pollinated Pándy 276 cultivar was low and seasonally highly variable. The yield of this cultivar on self-pollinated flowers was nearly 0%, and in this treatment the maximum yields did not reach 10% in any of the examined cultivars. There was no significant relationship in the fruit set of free-pollination and natural self-pollination treatments.
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65-78.
Vol 14No 1-2.2008
In utilisation of sour cherry cultivars, the paradigm has gradually changed in the sense that fresh consumption gained much more attention than before on a worldwide scale. Consequently, much more attention is paid to the problems connected with the storage, i.e. preservation of fresh fruit for direct consumption. It is a genuine interest of growe...rs, traders as well as of consumers to be informed about the possibilities of preserving economically the fresh status for a longer period after harvest during the warm summer weather in addition to the lengthening of the harvest season by choosing cultivars of different dates of ripening. Recent results of purposeful experiments indicate that the storability of the fruit of 6 main Hungarian sour cherry cultivars is on the same level ('Érdi bőtermő, 'Debreceni bőtermő’, 'Újfehértói fürtos', 'Kántorjánosi', 'Éva', 'Petri'). The traditional conditions facilitated the maintenance of freshness over a 5-week-long period, and the loss of volume was less than 7%. During the first 2 weeks, there was no difference between the cultivars regarding loss of volume and decay, moreover, the effect of time elapsed after harvest and of adversities of transport was not significant. It could be stated that 2 week of storing is safely feasible. We need only 2 °C temperature and 90% of relative humidity. The relations of oxygen and CO2 of the atmosphere is less decisive than temperature alone. No essential difference has been registered between the storing in plastic trays versus plastic boxes either. A study was performed to assess the modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) effect on Hungarian sour cherries growing in Iran (`Érdi bőtermő and ‘Érdi jubileum') shelf life. The harvested fruits stored at 0 °C under modified atmospheres (15% 0, and 10% CO2 and 75% nitrogen) for 6 weeks. Descriptive analysis showed that sour cherry stored in control condition had a higher deterioration rate than those stored in under modified atmosphere, which showed a lower rejection rate and a longer shelf life than those stored in modified atmosphere.
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42-45.
Vol 25No 1-22019
Hungarian sweet cherry production has been changed recently. Thanks to the favourable selling prices many new plantations were established in the last years. In the new orchards mainly spindle canopy are trained, although many type of crown forms are used all over the world. In our study slender spindle and bush canopy were evaluated with three cu...ltivars (‘Petrus’, ‘Vera’, ‘Carmen’) grafted on Prunus mahaleb rootstock. Vigor of the 3-4 years old trees showed spectacular differences. The highest vigor with Spanish bush was found for cv. ‘Vera’, but on slender spindle canopy the thickness values were medium. Meanwhile cv. ‘Petrus’ showed the highest trunk thickness with spindle canopy, but the lowest with Spanish bush. On spindle canopy cv. ‘Carmen’ presented the highest ramification ability, but its 2-3 years old twigs started to bald very early, which can be considered an unfavorable phenomenon. Bush canopy still can be described with strong vegetative growth on 3-4 years old trees, as vigor of spindle trees are more moderate.
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75
62
45-48.
Vol 17No 1-22011
Effect of the foliar boron (B) application on nutrient uptake and fruit quality of tart cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) was investigated from 2008 to 2009 on mature four favourite Hungarian tart cherry cultivars like ‘Oblacsinszka’, ‘Érdi bôtermő’, ‘Újfehértói fürtös’ and ‘Petri’. Tart cherry trees grown in Eastern Hungary (Újf...ehértó) on an acidic sandy soil with low B content. Trees were treated with B by foliar application (0.5% B) at full bloom and untreated with B served as a control. B sprays strongly affected on B content of inflorescences. However, B sprays had no consistent effect on summer leaf B status. In our experiment stronger year effect was observed at leaf B status than flower B status. The effectiveness of early spring boron applications are limited and mostly affected the flower B status only. Moreover, treatments had inconsistent effect on studied fruit inner parameters. Monosaccharides, vitamin C and organic acid contents of sour cherry were stronger affected by cultivars than applied treatments.
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49-54.
Vol 14No 1-2.2008
Nowadays, sour cherry buds can be seriously damaged by spring and winter frosts. Unlike other fruit species threatened by high frost damage, sour cherry cultivars have not been assessed for frost tolerance. The aim of .our survey was to establish the relative cold tolerance of the Hungarian cultivars after treatment in a climatic chamber, and to o...ptimize the methodology formerly elaborated for the frost treatment of apricot. Fourteen cultivars of Hungarian sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) were used in the experiments, which spanned the winters of 2005/2006 and 2006/2007. Our data were used to rank cultivars in two groups according to their levels of cold resistance. We also recommend critical temperatures and treatment times for the testing of sour cherry cultivar resistance to cold in climatic chambers.
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61
73
25-31.
Vol 15No 42009
Observations were made on simultaneousness of pollen shedding and stigma viability ratio, to clarify the phenology of reproductive organs of nine economically important sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) cultivars (‘Érdi bôtermô‘, ‘Debreceni bőtermő‘, ‘Csengődi‘, ‘Kántorjánosi 3‘, ‘Újfehértói fürtös‘, ‘Petri‘, ‘...Eva‘, ‘Oblascinszka‘, and ‘Pándy 279’). The main aim was investigation the possible influence of environmental cues in timing and development of phenophases and also responses of different cultivars to seasonal cues. Likely effects of climatic changes on phenological development patterns were also considered. Results showed important aspects of the reproductive biology of sour cherry flowers. The amplitude of the phenophase “beginning of blossoming” between cultivars did not exceed 6 days. There is a maximum 3 day difference in the blooming length of different directions in each cultivar. ‘Pándy 279‘ showed high variability when the position of flowers changed on the tree shoots. ‘Újfehértói fürtös‘ was stable in all four directions of the tree. The pollen shedding period and stigma viability ratio were synchronous. Pollen shedding phenomenon simultaneously occurred with the secretary activities of stigmas in all examined cultivars. Distribution of pollen shedding over the secretary activity of stigmas is almost good. In all five cultivars maximum pollen shedding occurred when the temperature was high during the day. In general the results of this experiment and our previous studies clearly demonstrate that the Pándy groups not recommended for plantation in new orchards of Iran.
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66
66
45-47.
Vol 12No 32006
Evidence suggests that a diet with high fruit and vegetable consumption may decrease the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer, and phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids from fruits and vegetables may play a key role in reducing chronic disease risk. Recent research has proved that sour cherr...y (Prunus cerasus L.) is a valuable natural source of some bioactive compounds important in human health preservation. According to the published data, the most important biological effects of sour cherry are connected — directly or indirectly — to their endogenous antioxidant behaviour as well as to their specific pattern of anthocyanin components. In the present work, we measured the total antioxidant capacity of some Hungarian sour cherry varieties in combination with their anthocyanin-, and vitamin-C content. In 2003, twelve clones were selected and grafted from a local sour cherry population called "Bosnyák" sour cherry grown in small home gardens and farms of the village Csengod (Great-Plain Region, South Hungary). Other Hungarian sour cherry varieties, i.e. cv. Újfehértói fürtos, cv. Érdi bőterrnő, cv. Debreceni bőterrnő, cv. Csengődi and cv. Kántorjánosi served as a control.
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92
83
109-118.
Vol 13No 32007
The rain induced fruit cracking is a big, serious problem especially for sour cherry growers but in some year sour cherry growers had also problem with fruit cracking caused by too much rainfall in the harvesting season. The cracked sour cherry fruits can be easily infected by different diseases like Monillinia sp. Cracked and infected fruits can ...not be transported for long distance and using for preservation because they lost their market value by the pour fruit quality. There are two possibilities to protect fruits against the rain induced fruit cracking. The most effective protection technique is the plastic rain cover over the tree rows. The installation of these equipments is too expensive for the growers. That is the reason why researchers tried to find other less expensive and sufficiently effective ways like sprayings different mineral salts, hormone and other type chemicals against the rain induced fruit cracking. Several calcium formulas calcium chloride (CaC12), calcium hydroxide (Ca (OH),) and calcium nitrate (Ca(NO3)2) can be sprayed in appropriate solution concentration. The aim of our trial is to determinate the fruit cracking susceptibility of wide grown Hungarian sour cherry varieties and find the most effective calcium formula and its concentration for spraying in orchards to prevent the fruit cracking. In the first trial year (2006) cracking index of tested sour cherry varieties were determined under field and laboratory conditions. Under field conditions were not found differences between cracking tendency of tested cultivars. After results of immersing fruits in distillated water for 24 hours tested sour cherry varieties were divided to three groups by the susceptibility to rain induced fruit cracking: very susceptible (`Maliga emléke', 'Piramis', 'Érdi jubileum', 'Erdi nagygyümölcsű’ and 'Meteor korai'); susceptible ‘Érdi bőtermő, Tandy 279' and Cigány 59.; moderately susceptible/tolerant ("T" and "R" clones). In the second trial year (2007) calcium chloride (CaCl2) and calcium nitrate (Ca(NO3)2) were sprayed in 0,35m/m%; 0,5m/m% and 1,0m/m% solution concentration. One more commercial product "Damisol-Kalcium" was also applied in the advised 1,0m/m% concentration. Like in the trial year before (2006) under field conditions we did not kept differences between the cracking susceptibility of varieties and calcium treatments. As the result of laboratory testing (immersing calcium treated fruits in distillated water) we kept that calcium chloride (CaCl2) seems the most effective against the fruit cracking in 0,5m/in% solution concentration. The other calcium formulas also decreased the cracking ratio but in less scale.
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63
71
75-80.
Vol 15No 1-22009
Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) is one of the most important fruit crop grown in Hungary, The flowering phenology and pollen shedding/stigma viability ratio, in an effort to elucidate the reproductive phenology of nine economically important sour cherry cultivars (Érdi bőtermő, Debreceni bőtermő, Csengődi, Kántorjánosi 3. Pándy 279. Úfeh...értói fürtös, Petri, Éva, and Oblacsinszka) all widespread in the Hungary, was studied at Újfehertó climatic condition. The main aims were to investigate how possible environmental cues influence timing and development of phenophases and whether different cultivars have different seasonal responses to these cues. Likely effects of climatic changes on phenological development patterns were also considered. Our results revealed important aspects of the reproductive biology of sour cherry flowers. The amplitude of the phenophase "beginning of blossoming" between cultivars did not exceed 6 days. There is maximum 3 days difference in blooming length of different direction in each cultivar. Pándy 279 showed high variability when the position of flowers changed on the tree shoots. Újfehértói fürtös was stable in all four directions of tree. The pollen shedding period and stigma viability ratio was well synchronous. Pollen shedding phenomenon occurred in the range limitation of secretary activity of stigmas in all five cultivars. Distribution of pollen shedding over the secretary activity of stigmas is almost good. In all five cultivars maximum pollen shedding occurred about the high temperature part of the day.
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