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Effect of acidity on growth rate and stroma formation of Monilia fructigena and M. polystroma isolates
63-67.

The effect of acidity (pH) ranges on the mycelial growth and stroma formation of Monilia fructigena Pers: Fr. and of M. polystroma van Leeuwen was determined on agar plates and apple fruits. Four isolates of each of the brown rot fungi and two apple cultivars, `James Grieve' and 'Cox's Orange Pippin', were used for the study. For the agar plate study, a range of the initial pH was prepared from 2.5 to 6.5. The dishes were inoculated with a 4 mm plug of each isolate and incubated at 23 °C in darkness. The mycelial growth was measured after 1.5, 4, 7, 10 and 20 days of incubation. After a 30-day incubation, stroma formation was determined by image analysis and weighing of mature stroma. In the fruit experiment, both cultivars were inoculated with one isolate of M. fructigena and of M. polystroma. The pH changes were determined after 7, 14, 28 and 35 days of incubation in both healthy and inoculated fruits. The fastest mycelial growth was at pH 4.5 for M. polystroma and at pH 3.5 for M. fructigena. After a 30-day incubation, M. polystroma isolates produced twice or three times more stroma compared to M. fructigena isolates. For both brown rot fungi, the amount of mature stroma increased from pH 3.5 to 5.5, and then decreased at pH 6.5. Results of the.fruit experiment showed that healthy fruits were quite acidic (pH < 3.5), but pH rapidly increased in the inoculated fruits for both cultivars, reaching pH 4.6-5.4 depending on cultivar and fungus isolate. On both cultivars, the stroma developed at a significantly higher pH for M. polystroma than for M. fructigena. Biological and practical implications of the results are discussed.

137
211
Response of sour cherry cultivar `Érdi jubileum' fruits to modified atmosphere packaging after ethephon spraying
81-85.

Sour cherries are not adapted to long storage. The largest percentage of sour cherries reaches the consumer either directly or indirectly through the tin can or the frozen pack. Different concentrations of ethephon usually are used commercially to facilitate harvesting sour cherry fruits that this hormone influences on fruit quality. The objective of this study was effect of ethephon preharvest application on sour cherry fruits quality during storage period at modified atmosphere packaging was investigated. Modified atmosphere packaging used with 10, 15 and 75 percent for 02, CO, and N2 respectively that those held at 0 °C. This gas compounds synchronous to 0 °C temperature caused to increase shelf life postharvest of fruits. Fruit samples were evaluated at harvest date and after 6 weeks in storage. Skin fruit colour, pH, total soluble solids, titrateable acidity, sugar/acid ratio, firmness were monitored. Ethephon concentration influenced on total soluble solid, titrateable acidity, sugar/acid ratio and L* value. In more case, 225 ppm ethephon's concentration has no observable different to control samples. Thus, the best ethephon's concentration was 225 ppm ethephon's concentration.

148
177
The effect of storage to optical properties in case of two apple fruit varieties
33-36.

The keeping quality of fruits is a very important factor in storage point of view, since it could be elongated the consumption time of fruits. In many cases the storage may be necessary, e.g. in short time it is not able to market due to the rich harvest, or all fruits could sell in markets throughout the year. The keeping quality of various fruit species is greatly different; moreover it could be observed some differences between the varieties as well. In our research, we have investigated the spectral properties of the external surface and fl esh of two ripe apple varieties – Jonagored and Granny Smith – before and after storage (about 3°C and about three weeks). The hyperspectral investigation was carried out with AvaSpec-2048 Fiber Optic Spectrometer. The experimental results represented the differences between healthy and chilling injured apple fruits. Furthermore, some indices were created to given countenance to the spectral differences.

198
191
Studies on the effects of growing substrates and physical factors in sweet pepper forcing in context with the generation of calcium deficiency symptoms
61-65.

In the publications available for us, exact levels of physical factors and those of the growing technology determining Ca2+ deficiency are rarely detailed. Although the influencing role of the various environmental factors (humidity, light, temperature) is known, we had only little information about their exact values which could be presented for the growing practice. Sweet pepper varieties of the same type grown in various substrates responded to the environmental factors in different ways. Our results revealed that increasing temperature of the root zone had the most significant effect on the incidence of Ca2+ -deficient fruits. Their amount, however, gave different results depending on the growing substrate. In forced sweet pepper grown in soil the proportion of Ca2+ - deficient fruits were significantly lower compared to the plants grown on rockwool. Fruits derived from forcing on perlite, in container were damaged the least by the blossom end rot deficiency symptoms. Our experimental results and technological suggestions are based on measurement results of three years.

143
180
The effects of ACS (1-aminocyclopropane-l-carboxylate synthase) gene down regulation on ethylene production and fruit softening in transgenic apple
65-70.

A detailed examination of the production of ethylene and other ripening parameters during storage period has been undertaken in transgenic apple fruits, where the ethylene biosynthesis was inhibited by antisense ACS (l-aminocyclopropane-l-carboxylate synthase) gene. Data indicate down regulation of ethylene production, softening and spoilage in some transgenic lines. In some cases ethylene production was inhibited for over 90 percent, considerable reduction of softening and spoilage was observed probably due to the reduced activity of cell wall degradable enzymes. ACS activity was also monitored during ripening. The fruits of the best transgenic lines could be stored for minimum 4-5 months longer under 5 °C cold room storage conditions and one month longer at normal room temperature. This molecular approach can provide an alternative way to replace the commonly used and costly atmospheric storage of fruits.

96
159
Sunburn incidence of apples is affected by rootstocks and fruit position within the canopy but not by fruit position on the cluster
45-51.

Authors investigated sunburn incidence of apples on the combinations of three different growth inducing rootstocks (M.9,MM.106 and seedling) and five varieties (‘Smoothee’, ‘Golden Reinders’, ‘Granny Smith’, ‘Gloster’ and ‘Jonagold Jonica’). Symptoms were classified as sunburn browning, sunburn necrosis and photooxidative sunburn. The frequency of symptoms was recorded at various parts of the canopy (N, E,W, S, and lower canopy, upper canopy) and on the cluster (terminal, lateral). Cultivar susceptibility varied between 0.30 and 5.65% on M.9 rootstock, ‘Granny Smith’ seemed to be the most susceptible cultivar whereas relatively low percentage of damaged fruit was observed for ‘Gloster’. On MM.106 and seedling rootstocks, damage level was significantly lower than on M.9. Remarkable differences were not observed in the share of the three sunburn types between cultivars. The most common symptom observed was sunburn browning. Far less fruit was affected by sunburn necrosis and photooxidative sunburn. Photooxidative sunburn symptoms were not found on ‘Granny Smith’ and ‘Gloster’ fruits on MM.106 rootstock. Latter cultivar did not show sunburn necrosis symptoms either. With increasing growing vigor of the rootstocks the share of sunburn browning increased. Fruits with sunburn symptoms were found in a great majority on theW quadrant of the trees. This was true for all cultivars. Remarkable differences in the location within the canopy of affected fruits between the three types of sunburn were not observed. Specific distribution of sunburned fruit was observed along the vertical axis of the canopy, too. Most of the damaged fruit were found in the upper canopy. This is particularly true for trees on vigorous stocks such as MM.106 and seedling. On M.9 rootstock, depending on cultivars 5.9 to 38.9% of sunburned fruit was located in the lower canopy. Most common symptom in the lower canopy was the sunburn browning, however symptoms of sunburn necrosis were not found at lower canopy level. Low rate of photooxidative sunburn was observed such lower canopy conditions. Sunburn incidence was very similar on king or side fruit. Significant differences were not found in the share of each sunburn types between fruit positions on the cluster. This was not influenced by rootstocks either.

193
194
The salt tolerance of vegetable paprika varieties
39-45.

In our experiments, we have chiefly tested the salt sensitivity of sweet pepper varieties. In cold forcing, 0.3 1/plant nutrient solutions of different NaCI content were given twice weekly. EC of the nutrient solutions containing 0.25% Volldünger Linz complex fertilizer was made up to 6, 10, 14 and 18 mS/cm, respectively, by 2.51/9.17/17.97/26.76 g/m2 doses of pharmacopeal NaCI every week. The solution used for the control treatment contained Volldünger only (EC 4.4 mS/cm). Irrigation was made with pure water (EC 0.6 mS/cm) when necessary.

The varieties chosen for the experiments were the following: Feherözön, HRF F1, Syn. Cecei (of white, conical fruit), Boni (of white, blunt, infolded fruit), Titan F1 (of pointed, hot fruit) and Pritavit F1 (of tomato shaped fruit).

In general, the symptoms caused by NaCI treatments (with doses higher than 10 g/m2 weekly) have been the following:

  • They have reduced the leaf area, the height of the plants, the total and the early yield, the number of fruit set per square meter, the average weight of the fruit (and, in some measure, fruit length, too) and the thousand seed weight.
  • They have increased the calcium and the chlorine content of the leaves and fruits and the dry matter content of the fruits.
  • They haven't affected the dry matter content of the leaves, the nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content of the leaves and fruits, and the germinating ability of the seed.
  • The effect on stem diameter and on seed production per fruit has been contradictory in some cases.

The effects of the intermediate treatments haven't been explicit in several cases.

The results of the examination of cuticular secretion have indicated the increase of the sodium and chlorine content of the leaves. This can be important in field growing where the rainwater may wash out a part of sodium and chlorine from paprika leaves.

The hot, pointed variety and the tomato shaped paprika haven't shown clearly higher salt tolerance than the varieties of white fruit colour.

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172
The effect of the fruit set on the mean mass of sour cherry fruits
17-19.

Experiments were conducted with four sour cherry cultivars three of that were self-fertile and one was self-sterile. Different levels of fruit set were obtained by limiting, the bee pollination period. The limitation of the duration of the effective bee pollination period definitely affected the fruit set of all the four cvs. The mass of individual fruits seemed to be related to the final set but this relationship has not find to be definitely expressed statistically at that moderate level of maximum fruit sets (10-14 per cent at the maximum) we obtained in the experiments. For this reason, further research is needed to explore that level of fruit set that can notably reduce the fruit size (mass) to an undesirable extent.

 

123
164
Antioxidant capacity and total polyphenolic content in quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) fruit
33-35.

Fruits of twelve quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) commercial cultivars and selections were compared in the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and total phenolic content (TPC) of intact and peeled fruits. The antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content ranged between 5.99 and 63.10 mmol AA/100 g FW, and 3.92 and 12.83 g GA/100 g FW, respectively. These ranges cover an almost 8-times variation among the tested genotypes in case of antioxidant capacity and also declares two-times variation for total polyphenolic content. Cultivars ‘Aromate’ and ‘Bereczki’ possessed the lowest antioxidant capacity and ‘Román portugál’ and ‘Bereczki’ had the lowest polyphenolic contents. In contrast, cultivars ‘Champion’ and ‘Konstantinápolyi’ possessed the highest antioxidant capacity and ‘Mezôtúri’ and ‘De Husi’ had the highest polyphenolic contents. The Pearson’s coeffi cient was relatively moderate but signifi cant (r=0.51) indicating a weak interdependence between FRAP and TPC values of quince fruits. Our results led us to the conclusion that quince might be considered as a valuable source of antioxidants and polyphenolics.

208
177
The effect of nitrogen supply on specific yield and fruit quality of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.)
7-21.

The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of nitrogen supply on yield and fruit quality of apple cultivars and to explore the relationships between canopy density and the different fruit quality parameters.

The experiments were carried out at Kálmánháza, in Eastern Hungary in a private orchard in 2003-2004. The response of four apple cultivars ('Elstar', 'Gala Prince', 'Granny Smith', 'Idared') to different nitrogen dosages was studied. The assessed and calculated indices were: yield, fruit diameter, fruit height, shape index, fruit mass, firmness, dry matter content and colouration. The results indicated that nitrogen fertilization has a significant effect on the yield and fruit quality of apple cultivars. The calculated specific yield values were reduced by the application of nitrogen via the increase in the volume of the canopy. An opposit trend was observed for fruit diameter, fruit height and fruit weight, which increased with increasing nitrogen supply. The reduced shape index caused flattening of fruits.

However, the improvement of fruit quality via increasing nitrogen dosage is only virtual, since these dosages increase the fruit size, but firmness, dry matter content and colouration are diminished, which decreases the value of the fruits on the market.

The authors also studied the relationships between canopy density responsible for assimilation and light supply of the fruits and the different fruit quality parameters. The closest linear inversely proportional relationship was found in the case of colouration. There was a negative linear relationship between canopy density and firmness or dry matter content. The relationship between canopy density and fruit mass could be described by a quadratic polinomial function.

135
146
Fruit drop: I. Specific characteristics and varietal properties of fruit drop
59-67.

The basic conditions of fruit set (synchronic bloom, transfer of pollen, etc.) still do decide definitely the fate of the flower in spite of the best weather conditions. Beyond a set quantity of fruits, the tree is unable to bring up larger load. A system of autoregulation works in the background and causes the drop of a fraction of fruits in spite of the accomplished fertilisation and the equality of physiological precedents. This study discuss this physiological process based on the international specific literature. The further development of fruits maintained on the tree depends mainly on the growing conditions (e.g. water, supply of nutrients, weather adversities, pruning, fruit thinning, biotic damages, etc.), which may cause on their own turn fruit drop especially at the time of approaching maturity.

277
243
Carotenoid composition and content in products of sea buckthorn and peach as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography
69-74.

A study was conducted to analyse the carotenoids by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using reversed-phase cross linked end-capping and to study the pigment content and composition in sea buckthorn products as well as in freshly harvested fruits from peach thees grown under organic and integrated farming conditions. It was found that carotenoids in fruits of both crops occur mainly esterified with fatty acids in form of mono- and di-esters. The major carotenoids were esters of zeaxanthin, lutein, β-cryptoxanthin and β-carotene. The major carotenoids showed different response to processing of sea buckthorn being highly sensitive to thermal treatments such as blanching, cooking and drying. Significant differences were found between peach varieties in their carotenoid content, whereas the impact of organic farming on carotenoids formation was found to be variety-dependent. Two of the three varieties examined in this work, when cultivated under organic farming conditions contained lower carotenoid level as compared to that found in the fruits of the same varieties but produced in integrated farms.

187
178
Metaxenic pollen effect of scab resistant apple cultivars on the fruit of apple
47-52.

As a part of an apple breeding program, we have examined the pollen effect on the fruit appearance and inner quality of different apple cultivars in the Corvinus University of Budapest Department of Fruit Science. Five apple cultivars ('Golden Reinders', 'Regal Prince', 'Rewena', 'Renora', 'Idared') have been crossed by the pollen of some new and some traditional cultivars in our experiment. The measurements were carried out in the analytic and fruit examining laboratory of the Department of Fruit Science. The diameter, height and stem length were measured by digital caliper. We have also examined the squash ratio, soluble solid- and acidic content. Sugar content was calculated by a schedule released by the International Sugar Committee (ISC). From the sugar- and acidic content, we could also count the Pomona-value.

We have observed interesting effects according to some attributes in some crossing combinations with the help of statistical analysis. Crossing 'Golden Delicious' with 'Freedom', 'Prima', and 'Baujade' have resulted in smaller fruit size than other combinations. No significant differences could be observed on `Golden Reinders' fruits according to metaxenic coloration in the year of the examination. On the other hand the color modifying effect of pollen donating cultivars have manifested on the red fruits of 'Regal Prince' (Gala Must). `Freedom' as a pollen donating cultivar has resulted outstanding value in our consistency measurements. Squash ratio was the highest in combinations pollinated by 'Prima' and `Reglindis'. We have noticed balanced values when measuring inner qualities, only `Reka' has caused lower acidic content. Significant differences have been found in combinations according to the number of frivolous seeds. No frivolous seeds were found in the combinations 'Golden Reinders' x 'Freedom' and 'Idared' x 'Prima'. Almost two frivolous seeds were found in the fruits of the combination 'Renora' x 'Sóvári' in average.

120
168
Adaptation of temperate climate horticultural plants in tropical and subtropical developing countries II. General characteristics, Hungarian experiences and possibilities
5-11.

The cooperation of Hungarian professionals with Chinese, Thai, South-Korean, Taiwanese and Brazilian colleagues should deserve much more attention than actually done. We refer to the transfer and adaptation of production technologies as well as biotechnological developments in vegetables, fruits, ornamentals and medicinal plants from the Temperate Zone to the tropical and subtropical regions. According to our information Hungarian colleagues involved in extension work are highly esteemed on the same level as Japanese, Chilean, Italian and French colleagues. We could state that immigration of investors, local enterpreneurs as well as those coming from expansive regions of Europe, North America and oversses, representaives of supermakets keeps to be accelerated by the increasing confidence triggered also by the successful management of profitable plantations, vineyards and fruits initiated first about 15 years ago.

For Hungary, the presence and achievements of Hungarian horticultural expertise in tropical and subtropical zones yielded unequivocal advantages. Therefore, the next actual step of development would mean the organisation of a network of the "Units of Horticultural Mission" in the tropic and subtropic countries. We are convinced that those Units will stimulate the traffic of technologies as centers of transfer within and between the regions and contribute to the increasing influence of professionals on the production and trade of horticultural commodities. The introduction and testing of new varieties of vegetables, fruits, medicinal plants (as well as ornamentals), the development of the growing technologies, adaptation and acclimation of Temperate Zone germ plasm representing the general trends of advanced production will be the most important tasks of the Mission with a sufficient oversight upon the whole world. It is taken as a fact that Hungarian horticulture and breeding is competitive on the world market. We are ready to contribute to the development of horticulture on a worldwide scale. The Hungarian R & D will be attentive in the future to manage the accumulated capacities by information and mediating needs and offers to the volonteers of the profession. The reality of the above propositions are amply proved by successes of the Agroinvest Co and of other professionals registered in abroad.

To keep on the top of the world list of the profession we have to follow up the international trends by our permanent presence on the most important centers of administration and production of the world in order to hold on the hot line of the Hungarian administration competent in financing the R & D activities. We need specialists which are open minded, speak languages, familiar with the tricks of informatics, economics and politics, competent in deals, able to make decisions, etc. The education and training should be strenghtened to he conform with those trends. That proposal involves also the need to follow up the activities of the transnational companies, the regular, active participation on international conferences, the permanent attention paid to electronic informations available in the worldwide networks as well as the printed periodicals of horticulture. It is also related to the attraction of investors to the developments aimed within the country as well as abroad. At last but not at least we have to keep in mind that the work performed abroad by the Hungarian professional is a kind of "para-diplomatic mission" which cannot be substituted by any other, sometimes very expensive activity charged on the officia erliplomatic missions. The benefit of it is, however, valid to the whole country because false stereotypes developed during the last 50 years cannot be abolished otherwise.

209
159
Effect of intensity of bee visitation and the foraging behaviour of honeybees on the fruit set and yield of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.)
31-39.

Based on the results of our experiments, both the relative and the effective intensity of bee visitation were rather different depending on the cultivars as well as the time of the day. While it varied between relatively extreme values (40-80%) in the morning for the varieties examined, there were much smaller differences between the intensity of bee visitation at the afternoon, because the relative bee visitation attained 70-90% at each cultivar. These results showed that the differences arising from intensity of bee visitation of different cultivars should be taken into consideration more carefully in the morning in orchard planning and in estimating the number of honeybee colonies required.

The results showed that the greatest percentage of fruit set and the highest number of viable seeds per fruit were measured on branches of those cultivars that were most frequently visited by pure pollen gatherer bees as well as by bees collecting both nectar and pollen (mixed behaviour). The effect of pure pollen gatherers and of bees with mixed behaviour was highly significant from the statistical point of view on the fruit set and the number of viable seeds per fruit.

Those bees that were sucking nectar only from apple flowers did not proved to be effective pollinators at all. Relationship between their number and the fruit set as well as the number of viable seed per fruit were not significant because the coefficient of correlation was close to nil.

The ratio of side worker nectar gatherers was negatively correlated with the fruit set and the seed content of fruits of apple cultivars examined at both of our experimental sites, at Mosonmagyaróvár and Feketeerdő as well. The presence of side worker nectar gatherers resulted in higher decrease of fruit set and seed content of fruits at Feketeerd6 than at Mosonmagyaróvár, especially in the morning.

The effect of flower visiting intensity by other pollinating insects was found to be fairly variable according to the time of the day. In the morning they had no effect on the fruit set as well as on the seed content of fruits either at Mosonmagyaróvár or at Feketeerdo. However, at the afternoon, when their intensity was greater, the correlation was a bit stronger.

118
176
The main properties of fruit offered on the retail market in Hungary
67-69.

The small enterprises of the Hungarian retail market of food and related commodities are in a dismal crisis, many of them got bankruptcy, whereas fruit and vegetables are offered in large shop-chains and supermarkets. Traditional small shops near to the domiciles are still highly esteemed by the population and their lack is regretted especially because of commodities for fresh consumption. For the purpose to evaluate the situation, I planned the comparative study of fruits offered in the retail markets by tracing their origin, quality and prices. From the six shops selected for the study three represent department stores belonging to different chains. Independent entrepreneurs manage the next three shops of vegetables with own suppliers. It was stated that the retail shops offer mainly fruits of Hungarian growers. It is however worthwhile to state that the origin of the produce was frequently not marked. The fruits imported from abroad, apple, pear, peach, were sold at substantially higher prices than those of Hungarian origin.

179
178
Composition and sensory properties of sour cherry cultivars
19-23.

Fruits of different sour cherry varieties cultivated, in 2008 and 2009, under organic farming and integrated cultivation conditions were analysed for their quality attributes, antioxidant activity and subjected to sensory evaluation.. Average size, weight, soluble solids, titratable acidity, total polyphenols, free radical scavenging capacity expressed as Trolox equivalent (TEAC), copper and zinc were determined in freshly harvested fruits. The obtained results indicated that, the principal component analysis can separate and distinguish the seasons of fruit production. The farming system seemed to have slight effect on quality the fruit as compared to varietal factors (genotypes). However, the total polyphenol content was uniformly less in 2009. Total polyphenols and free radical scavenging activity were significantly higher in Bosnian type sour cherries, and outstanding in Amarelle type cultivar ‘Pipacs’. There was no statistically significant difference between the sensory properties of cultivars tested by panels, except the case of ‘Pipacs’. The organolaptic investigation showed marked preference to the fruits of Eva and Petri cultivars.

204
181
Foliar application of zinc and its effect on greenhouse grown cucumber
79-82.

The experiment was conducted to examine the effect of the foliar application of zinc on yield and crop quality and on fruit mineral composition of cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus cv. Mustang) which were grown in peat in containers under unheated conditions and were not showing visible signs of zinc deficiency.

In the trial the following 3 treatments were set up in 4 replications: Znl = 0.35 g/litre Zn, as foliar fertilizer; Zn2 = 0.7 g/litre Zn, as foliar fertilizer, control = no foliar fertilization. Foliar fertilization was applied 5 times with 10 day intervals. After their planting out the plants were fertigated daily with water soluble complex fertilisers. Fruits were harvested twice a week, 16 times in all, and were divided into three quality classes (class I, class II and substandard). Shoot length of the plants (plant height) was measured on 3 occasions. Zinc content of the fruits and leaves was analysed at two times.

From the results of the trials it can be concluded that the 0.35 g/litre Zn (0.35 mg/ml) foliar fertilisation had beneficial effect on cucumber both in terms of yield and quality. Under the conditions of the experiment (daily fertigation through drip irrigation) the effect of a more concentrated foliar application of zinc seemed less beneficial.

The zinc content of the fruits showed no evident increase in response to foliar fertilization, while a significant increase was seen in the leaves, particularly with the more concentrated Zn treatment. This indicates that in the case of cucumber zinc, through its assimilation in vegetative parts, has an indirect effect on fruit development.

138
172
Hungaricum as a quality of fruits and fruit products
71-81.

The territory of the Hungarian state is largely suitable for the purpose of growing fruits of the temperate zone species. During the next decennia, the annual volume of Hungarian fruit production is expected to be around 1.1-1.3 million tons, from which some 15% is considered to be a produce of Hungary or "Hungaricum" (90 thousand tons of sour cherry, 50 thousand tons of apricot, 20 thousand tons of raspberry, 10 thousand tons of walnut). These fruits symbolise the country's special quality, which are worth to catch the interest the foreign consumers.

The category of Hungaricum involves almost exclusively varieties of Hungarian origin as sour cherries, apricots, raspberries and walnuts, and they are representing outstanding qualities on the international markets.

As for the fruit products the fruit brandies are eligible to be "Hungaricum" and are called exclusively "Pálinka". The Pálinka, provided to be distinguished with a geographic mark and will be competitive on the world market. Smaller quantities, though significant produce is represented by the deep frozen raspberry.

157
169
Effect of hail protecting nets on the quality of apples
77-80.

Today, successful fruit growing depends largely on the security of production. Among the technological elements of a secure growing system, the use of hail protection nets serves special attention. Components of security are the regularity, conspicuous large yields with excellent quality, which determine the prices and profitability as well (Szabó et al., 2010). In the European Union, most of the apple growing countries produce higher yields by 10-20% than Hungary. The conditions of better yields are partly due to a more favourable ecological milieu, partly to more developed technologies and serious discipline of the operations. Our own competitiveness could be developed first of all in those moments. As a consequence of global climatic changes, excesses of weather, i.e. hail-storms became more frequent. Different methods of protection against hail are developed abroad but also in Hungary. The examination of effects of the hail protection nets compared with the check without nets has been the purpose of our experiments. The growing system was the intensive one with high planting densities. Fruits of the two subsequent years have been compared as grown with and without hail protective nets. It turned out that in one season when shoot growth was stimulated, the shadowing effect of the net increased in addition the growth and at the same time braked the differentiation of flower buds, which exerted negative effects on yield of the next year. Let alone this phenomenon, the quality of fruits was not influenced by the hail protection net.

197
183
Efficacy of ethrel (2-chloroethyl phosphonic acid) as a chemical hybridizing agent in red pepper (Capsicum annuum L. var. Pusa jwala)
41-44

A field experiment was conducted during 2003-2004 and 2004-2005 to study the effect of foliar sprays of ethrel or ethephon (2- chloroethyl phosphonic acid) on pollen sterility and yield parameters in Capsicum annuum var. Pusa jwala. Effect of treatments was also studied in F1 hybrids raised from treated male sterile plants crossed with the control plants. Plants sprayed with 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3% (v/v) ethrel exhibited 93.1-100% pollen sterility. This was associated with significant reduction in yield parameters (number of flowers, fruits/plant, fruit size, number of seeds/fruit and total yield/plant). However, the plants sprayed only once with 0.1% ethrel at pre-meiotic stage showed 93.1% pollen sterility without any significant reduction in yield parameter. The F1 hybrids obtained by crossing the 100% male sterile treated plants with the pollen of untreated (control) plants exhibited only insignificant reduction in the number of flowers/ plant, fruits/plant, fruit size, number of seeds/fruit and total yield/plant. However, these parameters in F1 hybrids were significantly higher over the treated plants.

130
160
Mechanical behavior of catching surfaces used for fruit harvesting
59-64.

Various fruit gathering devices are important part of tree shakers used in fruit harvesting. The catching surface is generally used in the form of a stretched thin sheet interacting with the falling fruit. This interaction depends on many factors such as the shape and mass of the fruit, the falling height and the mechanical properties of the catching material.

In recent investigation different canvas, composite and silk materials were selected and their mechanical behavior was experimentally determined. Using the energy conservation principle, the main impact characteristics of the falling fruit was derived and used. Static and dynamic loading tests were carried out using spherical intenders and artificial fruits. Investigations have shown that, using the appropriate material characteristics, the catching surface can serve as a cushioning material and it can considerably reduce the impact stresses in the falling fruits.

90
160
Self fertility of pear varieties conditioned by natural self pollination (autogamy)
110-113.

Authors studied the autofertility depending on natural self pollination (autogamy) in 59 pear cultivars during 4 seasons at three locations with different ecological conditions (Helvetia, Kecskemet-Kisfai, Keszthely). The aim of the experiments was to determine the autogamous tendencies of varieties hitherto unexplored in the Hungarien gene bank, or to check data found in the literature. A total of 42616 isolated pear flowers produced 1.2% fruits with at least one viable seed in each. The 59 varieties observed did not set fruit by autogamy on either of the three sites during the four years of the study. The triploid (3n=51) varieties were entirely self-sterile. According to the highest autogamous fruit set, during the experimental period, the varieties have been assigned to four groups: (1) Entirely auto-incompatible (0% fruit set), (2) auto-incompatible (0.1 to 0.9%), slightly self fertile (1.1 to 5%) and (4) self fertile (5.1 to 10%). According to the number of viable seeds per fruit resulting from autogamy, the varieties are assigned to three groups as (1) low seed content (less than 3 seeds per fruit), medium (3.1 to 5) and (3) high (more than 5 seeds). Thus, the assessment of the number of seeds per fruit resulting from autogamy is indispensable as a proof of the absence of parthenocarpy.

135
188
Preliminary results on salicylic acid treatment on brown rot caused by Monilinia laxa on Jumbo Cot fruit, Prunus armeniaca L.
37-39.

The effect of salicylic acid on reducing brown rot caused by Monilinia laxa infection in postharvest apricot fruit Prunus armeniaca L. Freshly harvest Jumpo Cot fruit were treated with water as control treatment and other group treated with salicylic acid 2 Mm as induced resistance treatment, Fruits were infected by M. laxa (1 × 10-3spores ml-1) and incubated at 25 oC for 2, 4 and 6 days. Treatment fruits with salicylic acid resulted in direct effect on mycelial growth as in the salicylic acid treatment the growth reached to 45% after 6 days of incubation while in the control treatment it reached to 100%.

218
184
Effect of postharvest sodium benzoate treatment on some fruit parameters of two organic apple cultivars
35-37.

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of postharvest sodium-benzoate treatment on some fruit parameters of two organic apple cultivars (’Topaz’ and ’Florina’). Assessments were made at three times during storage: 17 November 2019, 20 December 2019 and 23 January, 2020. During every assessment dates, each fruit was observed separately, and determined the proportion of i) healthy fruits (%), ii) post-harvest fruit rot diseases iii) fruits with mechanical injury (%), iv) fruit with russetting (%), v) damage of codling moth and vi) Ca-deficiency symptoms. In addition, fruit weight (g) was measured at each assessment date. Sodium benzoate reduced the fruit decay and the proportion of healthy fruit was higher in this treatment compared to water treated fruit. This effect could be seen in all assessment dates and on both cultivars. Effects on other parameters were various according to cultivar and assessment dates. Loss of fruit weight was similar in both treatments and cultivars compared to control treatment.

324
231
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