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  • The effect of nitrogen supply on specific yield and fruit quality of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.)
    7-21.
    Views:
    182

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of nitrogen supply on yield and fruit quality of apple cultivars and to explore the relationships between canopy density and the different fruit quality parameters.

    The experiments were carried out at Kálmánháza, in Eastern Hungary in a private orchard in 2003-2004. The response of four apple cultivars ('Elstar', 'Gala Prince', 'Granny Smith', 'Idared') to different nitrogen dosages was studied. The assessed and calculated indices were: yield, fruit diameter, fruit height, shape index, fruit mass, firmness, dry matter content and colouration. The results indicated that nitrogen fertilization has a significant effect on the yield and fruit quality of apple cultivars. The calculated specific yield values were reduced by the application of nitrogen via the increase in the volume of the canopy. An opposit trend was observed for fruit diameter, fruit height and fruit weight, which increased with increasing nitrogen supply. The reduced shape index caused flattening of fruits.

    However, the improvement of fruit quality via increasing nitrogen dosage is only virtual, since these dosages increase the fruit size, but firmness, dry matter content and colouration are diminished, which decreases the value of the fruits on the market.

    The authors also studied the relationships between canopy density responsible for assimilation and light supply of the fruits and the different fruit quality parameters. The closest linear inversely proportional relationship was found in the case of colouration. There was a negative linear relationship between canopy density and firmness or dry matter content. The relationship between canopy density and fruit mass could be described by a quadratic polinomial function.

  • The tests of effectiveness of Frostbuster under excessive weather conditions in an apricot plantation
    87-91.
    Views:
    261

    Frostbuster is a new system, engine and technology, developed to protect fruit plantations from the frost damage. In order to raise domestic experiences and measurements, experimental approach has been initiated to prove the utility of the system under excessively low temperature in the plantation of the Siófoki Gyümölcstermesztési Zrt (Fruit Growing Co. Siófok). The first opportunity ensued in the night of February 23-24, 2011, when the temperature sank to 12°C below zero. The question was to see whether we could prevent the drop of temperature by the frostbuster technique. The margin of an anticyclone staying on East Europe secured a stable condition to make tests. The only difference from the imaginable conditions of dangerous frosts was the heat keeping capacity of trees was weak, much inferior than compared with trees in full boom. As a consequence, the tree rows represented much lower heat-capacity and cooled down much quicker than blooming trees in springtime, i.e. their temperature was more variable. The other difference was, compared with an episode in spring that the hard frost lasted much longer than usually in spring. For testing the system, those conditions had even more advantage. Six meteorological stations helped us in measurement. Data-collectors were timed to 1 minute distances and the bulk of data proved to be beneficial for testing the Frostbuster. The results prove that the system is adequate to keep the temperature continuously higher than the surrounding field under excessively low temperatures. Further measurements are still needed to find the optimal solutions fitting to the growing site and its microclimate. Results presented offer a basis of further proofs.

  • Conditions and outlooks of growing stone fruits
    91-98.
    Views:
    212

    Conditions and outlooks of growing stone fruits

  • Rootstock effects on fruit drop and quality of 'Arlet' apples
    69-75.
    Views:
    218

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of different growth inducing rootstocks on fruit drop of apple. This research was conducted for 3 years at Nagykutas, Western Hungary on apple cv. 'Arlet'. For the experiments, 3 different growth inducing rootstocks were choosen: M.9 (weak), MM.106 (moderate) and crabapple seedling (strong). There were 3 fruit shedding periods on the trees grafted M.9 and MM.106 rootstocks, but in the case of crabapple seedling, only 2 were found. The measure of fruit drop was closely related to seed count of fruits; seed number was the lowest, fruit drop was the highest. The lowest seed number was counted in fruits from trees on crabapple seedling. Seasonal changes of leaf:fruit ratio mainly depended on shoot growth and fruit drop. The rise of the curve of leaf:fruit ratio was very important during the first phase of fruit development, in especially at the end of June and in the beginning of July. The cause of this is that first and second periods of fruit drop appeared during this term. The rise of the curve was important in the beginning of June and the end of July on crabapple seedling. Decreasing tendency of quality parameters was found of fruits from trees on M.9, MM.106 and seedling rootstocks, except flesh firmness which was the highest in fruits from trees on crabapple seedling.

  • The Role of Human Factor in the Innovation of Apricot Production-Empirical Study in a Disadvantage Area of East-Central European Country
    131-134.
    Views:
    222

    Hungary is a traditional fruit growing country for ages. As fruit sector has a very high hand work request and value added, it has an important role to decrease the elimination of unemployment and the lack of income in the disadvantage rural areas. The study was made in the year of 2009, the studied population consisted of the members of the fruit-grower marketing organization (Gyümölcsért Ltd.), that organizes growing and sales of stone fruits in Hungary. The number of studied population were 95 capita, the number of fi lled out and evaluated questionnaires was 35. By the composition of the questions both qualitative and quantitative methods have been used. We tried to get answers to the following questions: Are the studied human factors (age, educational level, sex etc.) of growers, determined the extension of innovation of apricot production?

  • Monitoring of water regime in an apple orchard
    29-32.
    Views:
    248

    Our investigation was carried out at an micro-irrigated intensive apple orchard in Debrecen-Pallag in 2010. The aims of the study were to monitor the effect of a compacted layer on soil water regime by tensiometers and supporting the water management of the orchard. The results suggest that the physical characteristic of the examined soil is sandy soil with low capillarity and total available water content. The soil water tensions were varied between pF 0 and 2.5 due to the extreme precipitation circumstances in 2010. Tensiometers in 40 cm depth resulted fast (few hours) and significant respond to precipitation than in the 70 cm soil layer. Based on daily measurements, the soils possess a daily fluctuation of soil moisture, however the changes become more moderate in deeper layers. In accordance with all of the results, the amount of drainable water regime was about 20.6 V/V% at 40 cm depth and 18.6 V/V% at 70 cm mainly. The harmful surplus water can be infiltrated by loosening of the compacted soil layer in 50–70 cm depth or led off by vertical drainage.

  • Terminology of fruit set and fruit drop of sour cherry cultivars
    33-36.
    Views:
    211

    Fruit set and fruit drop rates of 9 sour cherry cultivars (‘Érdi bôtermő’, ‘Debreceni bőtermő’, ‘Kántorjánosi’, ‘Újfehértói fürtös’, ‘Éva’, ‘Petri’ ‘Oblocsinszka’, ‘Pandy 279’ and ‘Csengôdi’) of eight years-old trees grown in Újfehértó, located in the Eastern north part of Hungary which grafted on Prunns mahaleb have been studied. Significant differences have been found in fruit set among cultivars. The average percentage of fruit set was 18.3%, which the ‘Oblacsinszka’ by 32.6% the highest fruit set, while ‘Debreceni bőtermő’ is very similar to ‘Pandy279’ showed lowest (12%) fruit set. Seasonal changes of fruit set and drop shows that there are four abscission peaks. The first fruit abortion wave appears during second week after pollination Thereafter, the second and third dropping period was found during the third and forth weeks after pollination. The forth abscission happened on the forth week after pollination. The highest fruit drop happened on ‘Pandy279’ (92.4%) very similar to ‘Éva’ (90%) while the lowest fruit drop observed in ‘Oblocsinszka’ (71.5%)

  • Association of varieties in stone fruit plantations
    29-33.
    Views:
    177

    In the majority of Hungarian orchards of stone fruits, the planting distance is 6-7 m x 4-5 m. As many of the current varieties are self-incompatible, planting designs are applied to provide for adequate pollinisers. As long as differences in blooming time are small, i.e. 3-5 days at most, overlaps of blooming of the associated varieties are sufficient for fruit set.

    In sour cherry, one leading variety, Pándy, is self-incompatible and requires two polliniser varieties at least (Ciganyneggy or some sweet cherry varieties). Pándy is, moreover, cross-incompatible with the varieties Debreceni bőtermő, Kántorjánosi and Újfehértói fürtös being all of them self-fertile as most of new varieties recommended, by the way, for being planted to monovarietal blocks.

    Among European plums there are varieties registered as male sterile, self-incompatible, parially self-fertile and self-fertile, respectively. For the purpose of cross pollination, the choice of two varieties, at least, to be associated to any variety belonging to the first three groups, is recommended. The number of rows in blocks planted to self incompatible or male-sterile varieties should not be higher than 2-(4). Inter-incompatibility has been observed within the currently recommended assortment, between the varieties Cacanska najbolja and Stanley, only. Chinese-Japanese plums are scarcely represented in Hungarian plantations. Variation of blooming time in varieties is somewhat more pronounced, i.e. 5-8 days. There is but a weak tendency to self-fertility, thus practically, all varieties are considered as self-incompatible, thus the planting of two-row blocks for each of three varieties, at least, are recommended to be associated.

    Self-incompatibility and partially self-fertile apricot varieties are recommended to be combined with two polliniser varieties, at least, each planted to two-row blocks. The varieties Ceglédi óriás, Ligeti óriás, Nagykőrösi óriás and Szegedi Mammut are mutually inter-incompatible. Most of the peach varieties grown in Hungary are self-fertile, thus they are planted to large blocks, each. On sites threatened by late spring frost, it is recommended to plant (monovarietal) blocks of 4-6 rows at most. Cross-pollination may increase fruit set even in self-fertile varieties.

     

  • Irrigation management of a peach orchard
    19-24.
    Views:
    237

    The research field was at Siófok, in Hungary, which is situated in the South East side of Lake Balaton. The physical characteristic of the soil is sandy loam and loam and the peach orchard is irrigated. Mainly Sweet Lady (early ripening), Red Heaven (medium ripening) and Weinberger (early ripening) species were installed. In order to achieve the optimal developement level of trees and maximal yield amount and fruit diameter (Sweet Lady 60–75 mm, Red Heaven 60–70 mm, Veinberger 50–60 mm) continous water and nutrient supply is required. The irrigation modeling was set by CROPWAT 8.0 based on the climatic, crop and soil data inputs of the last 10 years. Based on the results, large amount of water is needed for optimal growth of fruit trees, particularly in the summer months, in case of active ground cover (+) and bare soil (–) as well. The irrigation requirement of a tree was found maximum 4 l/hour in certain cases. This irrigation intensity can be achieved – calculated with 12-hour operating time – by using continuous water NAAN Tif drip tube with 2 l/h flux on 3 atm pressure with 16 mm pipe diameter. If lower irrigation intensity is required irrigation can be controlled by the decreased the operation time.

  • Susceptibility of European pear genotypes in a gene bank to pear psylla damage and possible exploitation of resistant varieties in organic farming
    95-101.
    Views:
    252

    We evaluated 285 pear genotypes (commercial cultivars, ancient local varieties, unnamed local strains, seedlings, wild seedlings) in the largest gene bank of pear in Hungary from the point of view of psylla resistance to explore their possible exploitation in organic farming. We have found some 10 new resistant types (Bókoló körte, Bôtermô Kálmán, Füge alakú körte, Nagyasszony körte, Nyári Kálmán, Rozs nyári körte, Viki körte, Pb-242, Pb-299, 0-632) and 7 highly tolerant ones (Cure-6, Kései Kálmán, Kieffer, Kieffer Éd, Steiner, Téli Kálmán, II. B-3- 6/4, 96-16/5) (Table 1). These made up 3.5 + 2.8 per cent of the investigated genotypes, while 93.7 per cent of them were susceptible to pear psylla damage. Taking earlier and present results into account we can list more than 30 European pear cultivars being resistant or highly tolerant to pear psylla infestation and damage. In fact, the list of resistant and highly tolerant cultivars may serve as a basis selecting pear cultivars fitting to the specific requirements of the organic farming. By the end we can conclude that there is some real hope to exploit some resistant or highly tolerant ancient or local cultivars in organic farming but further investigations are needed to estimate their yield capacity and fruit quality.

  • Fruit drop: The role of inner agents and environmental factors in the drop of flowers and fruits
    13-23.
    Views:
    439

    The basic conditions of fruit set (synchronic bloom, transfer of pollen, etc.) still do decide definitely the fate of the flower (Cano-Medrano & Darnell, 1998) in spite of the best weather conditions (Stösser, 2002). Beyond a set quantity of fruits, the tree is unable to bring up larger load. A system of autoregulation works in the background and causes the drop of a fraction of fruits in spite of the accomplished fertilisation and the equality of physiological precedents (Soltész, 1997). There are also basically genetic agents in action. The further development of fruits maintained on the tree depends mainly on the growing conditions (e.g. water, supply of nutrients, weather adversities, pruning, fruit thinning, biotic damages, etc.), which may cause on their own turn fruit drop especially at the time of approaching maturity.

  • Colour and water content detection of sweet cherry by portable spectrometer
    23-26.
    Views:
    310

    Based on the most recent data, the average amount of sweet cherry produced in Hungary is around 10-12 thousand tons. Therefore fast and effective method is important for sweet cherry fruit quality analyses. The aim of the study was to examine the applicability of reflectance measurements for sweet cherry fruit quality analyses. In our experiment five cherry species (Vera, Cristalina, Germersdorfi, Noir de Mechet, Canada Giant) were examined in order to measure the spectral differences between species. Further more, spectral alteration was examined between different health and maturity status of the fruits in the case of a specified, the Germesdorfi species. The four new indices are appropriate tools for cherry quality analysis. Thus reflectance measurements can also support more precise and automated fruit selections. The methods for the differentiation of species could also be viable at a concerned habitat; however, the climate, habitat and soil conditions strongly affect the yield quality. Concerning the fast determination of water content, WBI could be a reliable method for the assessment

  • Climatic indicator analysis of blooming time for sour cherries
    11-16.
    Views:
    186

    County Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg produces more than the half of the total sour cherry grown in Hungary. Successful production, i.e. yield, depends largely on weather conditions. Most attention should be paid to the weather during the blooming period, being most decisive from the points of view of quality as well as quantity. In order to predict yields expected, the characterisation of the most important weather parameters is necessary. For that purpose, the database of the Institute of Research and Extension Service for Fruit Growing at Újfehértó Ltd. has been utilised. Records of weather conditions were collected throughout the period 1984-2005, i.e. daily minimum, maximum and mean temperatures (°C), precipitation (mm), and phonological diary of sour cherry varieties ’Újfehértói fürtös’, ’Kántorjánosi’ and ’Debreceni bôtermô’. Data of 7 indicators have been traced: number of frosty days, the absolute minimum temperatures, means of minimum temperatures, number of days when daily means were above 10°C, means of maximum temperatures, number of days without precipitation, and number of days when precipitation was more than 5 mm. On the one hand, we surveyed the changes; on the other hand, estimates have been attempted for the future changes expected during the following decades. The indicators being associated with certain risky events may serve for the prediction of the future recommendations to prevent damages.

  • Hungaricum as a quality of fruits and fruit products
    71-81.
    Views:
    193

    The territory of the Hungarian state is largely suitable for the purpose of growing fruits of the temperate zone species. During the next decennia, the annual volume of Hungarian fruit production is expected to be around 1.1-1.3 million tons, from which some 15% is considered to be a produce of Hungary or "Hungaricum" (90 thousand tons of sour cherry, 50 thousand tons of apricot, 20 thousand tons of raspberry, 10 thousand tons of walnut). These fruits symbolise the country's special quality, which are worth to catch the interest the foreign consumers.

    The category of Hungaricum involves almost exclusively varieties of Hungarian origin as sour cherries, apricots, raspberries and walnuts, and they are representing outstanding qualities on the international markets.

    As for the fruit products the fruit brandies are eligible to be "Hungaricum" and are called exclusively "Pálinka". The Pálinka, provided to be distinguished with a geographic mark and will be competitive on the world market. Smaller quantities, though significant produce is represented by the deep frozen raspberry.

  • Spatial and temporal variation of extremely low minimum temperatures in Hungary during the period between 1951 and 2010
    75-80.
    Views:
    195

    For this study, data of 16 meteorological stations have been processed over a period of 60 years with the purpose to reveal the spatial and temporal structure of the frequencies of absolute extreme minima in Hungary with special reference to the surmised global rise of temperatures on a worldwide scale. In the main areas of fruit growing, the monthly or seasonal absolute temperature maxima and minima are presented during the 60 year-long period and projected on the geographical map. For the main fruit- and vegetable growing regions the probability of winter- and late frosts is of prime interest. The time series of extreme temperatures though did not prove signifi cant changes over the period observed, but the information upon changes and their tendencies is a precious tool being utilised in planning, choice of adequate varieties for a longer period of time in the future. The deleterious winter frosts experienced in fruit production is not a consequence of a sole drop to a minimum temperature, but of an earlier period of mild temperatures during the winter, which sensibilised the trees. Frequent and extreme variations of temperatures may cause troubles at any time during the year and reduce the yields conspicuously. We ought to get familiar with the hazards of our climate and fi nd optimal solutions to mitigate the damages expected. The seasonal and monthly distribution projected on the geographical map we can follow up also the spatial relations and the signifi cance of their occurrence. Coeffi cients of variation between meteorological happenings at different localities facilitate the calculation of the probability of risks on the surrounding areas.

  • Correlation of precipitation distribution and quality sweet cherry production
    39-43.
    Views:
    215

    Sweet and sour cherry need 550–600 mm yearly precipitation. The critical period is 1–1.5 month after flowering, it is normally between 15.April – 15. June in Hungary. The rain induced fruit cracking is also a critical and costly problem for cherry growers. Fruits grown under arid conditions are less resistant against rainfall during harvest and up to 50–60% crack damage may occur. A computer program was developed to calculate the precipitation related production risks of sweet cherry. Focus of the research was Zala county. Spatial distribution of precipitation was compared in two directions (East and North of Zala county) based on the data of meteorological stations. The first results indicate that the developed method estimates the risks quite well, compared to the farm experiment results. The developed computer program can be parameterised according to the user’s requirements, this allows to take into account the real variety structure of a given orchard.

  • The effect of day and night temperatures on apple skin colour formation
    21-25.
    Views:
    228

    The colour of fruits is considered to be an important quality indicator. Saleability greatly depends on how well covered the colour is of the specific type of fruits. It is a well-known phenomenon by growers that apples get nicer colours in one year while in other years the basically red and green colour cultivars can be differentiated only by morphological characteristic features. Cover colour is one of the phenometric variables and it is a well-known fact that significant differences can be experienced year by year. The experienced oscillation can be the cause of inappropriate water- and nutriment supply, however it can be the result of some kind of plant disease, extremely high or low temperature, setting rate above the average and outstanding fruit density. In the present examination it is postulated that the degree of cover colour is mostly influenced by day and night temperature. Therefore, our study aims to find out whether it is true or not. Cover colour belongs to those phenometric characteristic features, only the final value of which is taken into consideration; due to their nature of establishment or forming time it seems useless to follow closely the change in the time of vegetation. However, determining the start of colouring and knowing the dynamics of full colouring could carry very important information for growers. If it is possible to determine the curve describing the time change of colouring, we have a possibility to estimate it by means of enviroment variables. So it is also possible to model pigmentation in the future. Knowing this, colouring irrigation could be made more efficient in the future. For this, as a first step, it is inevitable to find out what the relationship is between the main meteorogical variables, namely day and night temperature and the difference between day and night temperature, and colour cover. In this study we summarize and show these interrelations.

  • Agroclimatological properties of growing sites assigned to apple and pear production in Hungary
    95-97.
    Views:
    180

    Apple and pear growing sites in Hungary are classified into four regions according to the Hydro-thermic Coefficient: dry, moderately dry. moderately humid and humid. Most of the plantations of apple and pear are located in regions considered as moderately dry and moderately humid. Within that category, the two respective species have different preferences, i.e. the ecological features of Hungary give different opportunities for apple and pear growing. Apple is grown almost everywhere in the country, successfully. The selection of cultivar-regions is needed mainly for increasing competitiveness on the market. Main apple growing regions are listed in 3 large groups. For the definition of cultivar-regions, mainly the configurations of soil and precipitation, i.e. conditions of the soil and opportunities of gaining water were decisive. Market factors are also considered. The area assigned to pear is much less than that of apple, in Hungary. Some well known and popular varieties would require high air humidity which cannot be presented in most of Hungary. Therefore, the possibility to establish regions for pear varieties is restricted, we have to create a particular micro-environment. Two groups are potential. The first one comprises sites where the annual precipitation is 700 mm, at least. There, apple and pear production would compete each other. In more dry habitats (less than 700 mm annual precipitation), micro-environments should be found and only drought-resistant, mainly summer-ripe cultivars should be chosen with, preferably, low tendency of sclereid formation. In that case, neither irrigation could help to produce adequate quality in varieties sensitive to low air humidity.

     

  • Effects of excessive weather on the micro-climate of apple plantations under the hail protection nets
    81-85.
    Views:
    292

    The general utilisation of hail nets is spreading all over the world and in Hungary too. Hail nets are at present the only tool, which
    is able to prevent heavy hail damage in agricultural crops. Besides its numerous advantages, there are also deleterious side effects, e.g. it
    changes the microclimate of the crop stand. Our study aimed to observe the differences, which characterise the physical status of crop stands
    under the protection of hail nets compared with the stands in open air under various meteorological conditions: high or low temperature, calm
    or windy atmosphere and their possible combinations. The results indicated that on hot and calm days the difference may attain 3–4° C. On
    cool summer days, the difference was only 1.5 ºC. The hail net influences the relative humidity of the air, which means on ho summer days
    often 7-8% differences. Conditions of radiation may also differ conspicuously. Measurements prove the reduced global radiation on sunny
    summer days to 70%. This impairs as a rule the development of fruits reducing their quality and also its quantitative traits. Sunburn is, on the
    other hand, significantly prevented by shadow.

  • Cost and profit analysis of sour cherry production for industrial purposes in Hungary
    75-79.
    Views:
    274

    Our main objective in this present study is to evaluate the profitability and efficiency of sour cherry production by a complex economic analysis of its technological process. We concluded that the per kilogram prime costs range between 80 to 90 HUF/kg in case of sour cherry for industrial purposes. On this basis, it is clear that the 50 to 90 HUF/kg regular selling prices of previous years do not make profitable production possible. Under the present market conditions even considering per hectare average yields of 10 to 15 tons the establishment of sour cherry orchards is not economical, the internal rate of return is below the interests of money-market and the recovery will not be happened even during the whole life-time of the orchard. In this way the domestic enterprises should not only raise the yields but realize technological changes (e.g. mechanic harvesting) in order to decrease the production costs in a significant way and to maintain a profitable sour cherry production. It is expected that the enterprise farming on great land (several ten hectares), being settled for mechanic harvesting (subordinating everything to this), reaching yields of 15 to 20 tons per hectare, producing on high technological and input levels, having specialized knowledge will stay on the sour cherry market far in the future.

  • Fruit drop: I. Specific characteristics and varietal properties of fruit drop
    59-67.
    Views:
    395

    The basic conditions of fruit set (synchronic bloom, transfer of pollen, etc.) still do decide definitely the fate of the flower in spite of the best weather conditions. Beyond a set quantity of fruits, the tree is unable to bring up larger load. A system of autoregulation works in the background and causes the drop of a fraction of fruits in spite of the accomplished fertilisation and the equality of physiological precedents. This study discuss this physiological process based on the international specific literature. The further development of fruits maintained on the tree depends mainly on the growing conditions (e.g. water, supply of nutrients, weather adversities, pruning, fruit thinning, biotic damages, etc.), which may cause on their own turn fruit drop especially at the time of approaching maturity.

  • The atmospherical drought as a decisive factor of yield in the main sour cherry varieties of Hungary
    121-125.
    Views:
    205

    Atmospheric drought causes heavy diffi culties of water supply in most fruit species grown in Hungary, although the modern, intensive plantations are already equipped with irrigation. The use a dripping systems are widely applied, therefore nothing was done to avert the risk of atmospheric drought. In excessively dry seasons the reduction of yields is often due to atmospheric drought. Present study aims to utilise measured data of meteorological parameters (relative air humidity and temperature) to develop an index to characterise drought and measure its effect on fruit yield. Causes influencing yields are multiple. Phytosanitary problems are combined with defi cits of water supply. Water deficit of the soil is avoided by dripping irrigation, but the atmosphere is infl uenced by sprinklers only. Atmospherical drought increases the transpiration of the trees intensely and causes reduction of photosynthetic activity, consequently impairs the yield. Applying the index developed in a plantation of 6 sour cherry varieties grown in Hungary (Meteor, Nefris, Pándy, Újfehértói fürtös, Kántorjánosi, Debreceni bôtermô), we measured the specific yields (yield per volume of tree crown) during the period 1989–2011 using the meteorological database of the growing site. Additionally, other parameters characterising the drought are compared and searched for a method most reliable for judging the specific yielding capacity of sour cherry varieties. The results proved convincingly the utility of the index, especially for the varieties Pándy and Újfehértói fürtös. Comparison with other indices expressing the effects of drought revealed the superiority of our index, which will be applied in the future to express the risk of atmospheric drought.

  • Applied spatial analytic tools in orchards with special regard to agro-ecology
    17-19.
    Views:
    216

    Our investigation was carried out in several orchards in Hungary. This study reviews applicability of the different spatial analytical techniques in orchard especially models based on surface relief, such as digital elevation model, digital terrain model, slope and aspect maps. In recent time, the generation of digital elevation model has become a popular examination method. However, the elevation models generated from contour lines or elevation points could be applied to evaluate agro- ecological potential of fruit orchards to some extent. The highest deficiency of these models is the fact that these show the altitude of soil surface only and do not demonstrate landmarks on the surface. Consequently, the calculation of the radiation value results data relating to soil surface. The terrain model generated and applied by our team demonstrates fine surface texture and the landmarks in the orchard, so it is suitable for further examination.

  • Simultaneousness of reproductive organs of sour cherry cultivars adaptable to Iranian climatic condition
    25-31.
    Views:
    217

    Observations were made on simultaneousness of pollen shedding and stigma viability ratio, to clarify the phenology of reproductive organs of nine economically important sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) cultivars (‘Érdi bôtermô‘, ‘Debreceni bőtermő‘, ‘Csengődi‘, ‘Kántorjánosi 3‘, ‘Újfehértói fürtös‘, ‘Petri‘, ‘Eva‘, ‘Oblascinszka‘, and ‘Pándy 279’). The main aim was investigation the possible influence of environmental cues in timing and development of phenophases and also responses of different cultivars to seasonal cues. Likely effects of climatic changes on phenological development patterns were also considered. Results showed important aspects of the reproductive biology of sour cherry flowers. The amplitude of the phenophase “beginning of blossoming” between cultivars did not exceed 6 days. There is a maximum 3 day difference in the blooming length of different directions in each cultivar. ‘Pándy 279‘ showed high variability when the position of flowers changed on the tree shoots. ‘Újfehértói fürtös‘ was stable in all four directions of the tree. The pollen shedding period and stigma viability ratio were synchronous. Pollen shedding phenomenon simultaneously occurred with the secretary activities of stigmas in all examined cultivars. Distribution of pollen shedding over the secretary activity of stigmas is almost good. In all five cultivars maximum pollen shedding occurred when the temperature was high during the day. In general the results of this experiment and our previous studies clearly demonstrate that the Pándy groups not recommended for plantation in new orchards of Iran.

  • Development and trends in fruit growing
    29-44.
    Views:
    175

    In the development plan of fruit branch related to 2005, resp. 2010, the authors anticipate a 27, resp. 53% increase. They presage in the apple production a 40, resp. 61 % increase as attainable. As far as stone-fruits are concerned, the prognose amounts to 10, resp. 61% increment. (Except the sour cherry with 25 to 61% increase.) To hit the target they are planning until 2002' 4000 ha new plantations yearly. In their opinion there is a need of state subsidy (during the 3 years altogether) Ft 21 billion.