Vol 8, No 4/2 (2015)
The main goal of must clarification is to optimize the physical-chemical and biological conditions of must in order to be able to better manage fermentation and improve wine quality. Must clarification has to be as effective as possible is on the basis of technological and quality aspects (slower fermentation, cleaner fragrance, better conserva...tion of primary and fermentation aromas) in the preparation of quality white wine. Must usually contains 10-30% sediment and this ratio can be higher when rotten grapes are processed or when the pressure in the press is high. Different clarification treatments can lower this rate below 5-10%. By removing sediment the inner surface of must is reduced and further must/wine treatments become easier. It is important not to overclarify the must because sediment contains nutriment for yeasts. As must flotation, separation and hyper-oxidation can damage fragrances and aromas, these methods were not applied.
In this paper we wish to give some information about the research results and practical experience, the current and future opportunities of the sand rige of the Danube-Tisza Interfluve without aiming at completeness. In our researchgoing on for several decades we have achieved a lot of results and we were the first to write down several of them.... In this paper we want to provide a brief overview of the main directions of our research accomplishments and foremost we would like to draw attention on our main study results.
In our research we studied the economic potential; curbing costs; and elements of these of two woody stemmed invasive species: black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) and tree of heaven (Ailanthus altissima Mill.) in a period 5 years. Questionnaires were sent to the relevant state institutions (national park directorates and state forest compani...es), other publicly available background information was collected and telephone interviews were carried out to complete the data. During the evaluation of data we found that the costs of black locust reduction were so high in national park directorates that they could not be compensated by the revenue from the sale. However, in the case of state forest companies, incomes were several times higher than costs each year. The judgment of tree of heaven was negative in all areas, so it could not be sold.
A common characteristic of areas covered by plants is that they play a special role in shaping the environmental endowments of the settlement. The significance of green areas is further increased by urbanisation. We have conducted our research in the settlements of Homokhátság that includes the peculiarities and values of green areas and the...prospective plant taxa that can be used with a view to sustainability.
The territorial location issues of livestock in the European Union and also in our country have got into the focus over the past few years. There are different animal structures in the regions of our country and different animal species have become dominant. The location and the development of certain animal types are affected by a number of so...cio-economic factors (the history of breeding, ownership, labour and capital assets, etc.). In the case of the spatially differentiated species-structure we have to reckon with a variable profitability, human resources, technical standards, different risk factors and market opportunities in the different regions. The topicality of the research theme is enhanced by the fact that nowadays the spatial structure of animal production has become a key issue. That is why more and more research is needed in Hungary, primarily research studying and analysing the structural changes and principals of animal production (poultry production) in order to ensure that each region would have a rational and efficient breed-structure. In addition, it is expected in modern market economies that the various regions should specialize in animal species, for which they have the most favourable breeding conditions. In order to follow the poultry stock changes (spatial and structural) in the last decade, it was important to consider the spatial specialization of different species over time.
The need for product traceability in Vojvodina has been emphasized by the adoption of the European Union legislations. All the actors of the food chain should participate in order to accomplish this traceability. The authors have elaborated and introduced such a model in the pattern of spice pepper production, processing and sale that makes tra...ceability more transparent as well as adoptable to the local - in many cases deficient – legal framework. The raw material food-safety appropriateness and the final product origin can be justified by this system.
Ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) has become our most widespread weed. It causes a significant economic damage, on the other hand it causes pollen allergy affecting 20% of the country's population. Therefore its reduction has become a major task. An environmentally friendly method has been developed for its destruction by bioherbicides. This bi...oherbicid contains allochemical retardants. Allelochemicals are active chemical inhibition ingredients between plants (allelopathy). This method has been applied in the Kiskunság National Park (KNP) and the urban areas in the city of Kecskemét. We also present the typical therapeutic effect of ragweed, widely used in North American Indian culture.
Our tests were carried out in Kunpeszér, in the territory of the Kiskunság National Park. The coenological recordings were made in 2x2 meter quadrates. We found out the species’ composition and coverage. In the test area mostly Achilleo-Festucetum pseudovinae (grass saline desert) grassland was located. The grassland vegetation flora was de...graded by anthropogenic effects (trampling, grazing). The following weeds spread: ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia);
canadian horseweed (Conyza canadensis); poppy (Papaver rhoeas); white goosefoot (Chenopodium album); hairy pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) and prickly plants: spiny restharrow (Ononis spinosa), and field thistle (Eryngium campestre).
In present day Slovakia, a huge emphasis is put on the development of business in individual regions, by which employment and economic expansion is guaranteed. One of the methods how businessmen from stagnant regions can improve their economics is marketing and the appropriate use of marketing tools. In the given paper we present possibilities...for development and improvement businesses in less developed regions by the means of marketing activities. The research was realised in chosen enterprises from the field of gastronomy and it concentrated on the use of marketing tools. In the end we propose the results of the research, suggestions and references out of which we consider the effective use of marketing tools to be the most important, especially marketing communication and also information-communication technologies that should be used more by managers.
This paper reports on the findings of the study related to the agricultural land purchases in the Slovak Republic from June 1, 2014 till September 30, 2015. The situation is analysed according to the new legislation for the period after the expiration of the moratorium on the purchase of agricultural land by foreigners. We focus on the agricult...ural land supply and land prices in particular Slovak regions related to the land which has been offered for sale via the Register of Publication of Offers of the Agricultural Land at the web side of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development. Our results show that new legal regulation Act no. 140/2014 Coll. on acquisition of ownership right to agricultural land directly favours certain groups interested in purchasing of land, and limits not only foreigners but also domestic persons interested in purchasing of agricultural land. The land supply prices are higher than the administrative ones in all Slovak regions.
In the present study we draw attention to the urgency of the problem related to the formation of tourism clusters. Then we describe the current state and the specific features of the object of study. We expand upon the scientific basis of the proposed research methodology. Finally we offer recommendations on the practical application of the exp...ected results. The organizational model of the regional tourist cluster based on a two-element core, in the case of its practical
application will improve the efficiency of the formation and development of clusters in a variety of service industries, and adapt them to the high variability of the environment. The improvement of scientific and methodological tools, the connection of economic and administrative resources provide a solid foundation for the development of the tourism sector, increase the investment activity of economic entities and increase the investment attractiveness of the economy at the regional level of government.
Rural tourism in Russia is determined by established traditions, the peculiarities of the agricultural sector and share of rural population in total population.
The National Association of rural tourism organizations has been created in Russia. Rural tourism clusters have also been created as a basis for developing infrastructure. The govern
In the article the problems of development of tourism for people with disabilities. Special attention is paid to the organization of transportation and accommodation services. Integration into society of persons with disabilities is part of the implementation of social responsibility of the tourism business.
The present study searches for the answer to the question: what man means in culture and what culture means in the modern human world. What have people got to do with culture? Does man have any interest in dealing with culture beyond the individual life, politics, and management in those days when man deals with living or getting rich? Is still... or yet true that only the educated and virtuous humans should live well?
There is a big tradition of apple producing in Bácskertes (Vojvodina, Serbia), but this cannot be declared for the intensive production. I have chosen the economic investments of the intensive apple plantation as the topic of my thesis, because of the later profitability of our family business that deals with apple producing as well. The estab...lishment of the intensive apple plantation is the most extensive investment among the fruit types the return of which depends on several factors. In my thesis I deal with the economies of a plantation planted with the help of investment support. I carried out the research with the help of the producers’ data and special literature. In addition to it I did some research about the customers’ needs in the nearest market. As regards profitability I examined the plantation in the following respects: the NPV (Net Present Value), IRR (Internal Rate of Return), DPB (Dynamic Payback Period), and PI (Profitable Index).
In order to be able to prepare accurate calculations we had to determine the area and number of plants both in the case when the seeds were sown in the field and when they were in seedling transplants. The time requirements of the treated areas and also material used associated with the different modes of propagation varied. There are significa...nt differences between the field and forcing technologies as for construction-related costs. The expense and cost calculations were based on the operation. The calculation includes the operating natural inputs (labour, material used), and are expressed in monetary value: the costs (wages, cost of materials). Costing does not count with the common charge, since the production process has not been completed yet. In this calculation the cost of labour is recognized. We calculated the area which can give enough profit to support the farmer and his family.
As regards the selection of the tasks of the municipality sector, the local authorities have freedom both according to the former and the current legislation. The advantages of performing tasks through companies owned by the municipality include the flexible adaptation to market conditions and integration into the relation network of the econom...y. Some research works have proved, however, that their operation is rather risky. In the frames of the research I reviewed the reports of companies and compared the indices formed, evaluating primarily the profitability, indebtedness, asset structure and solvency. In regard to the liabilities of the examined companies, the dominance of short-term liabilities, increasing receivables and the profitable management were clear phenomena in most cases within the sample.
We conducted a shelf survey and a customer satisfaction survey with a questionnaire for a poultry processing plant in Bács-Kiskun County. It can be concluded from the shelf survey that the packaging processes of the rival companies and the packaging processes applied by the company examined are similar with the exception of the modified atmosp...here packaging. The quality of the packing materials and their design seemed to be completely different. The rivals generally use packing materials of a better quality which include some graphic elements, too. After consulting with the full range of customers we have the following conclusions. Most of the respondents are “satisfied” and “fully satisfied” with the company’s products regarding colour (94.4%), taste (94.1%) and durability (94.4%). There is a high number of customers who need modified atmosphere packaging, that is 72.2% of the respondents. As a result, we suggested that the new tray sealing machine should work with this technology.
We conducted a customer satisfaction survey at a meat wholesale company. It can be concluded from the results of the survey that customers are mostly satisfied. The most important problem is unpunctuality, the unreliable fulfilment of orders which generally the producers should be blamed for. The company wants to extend its offer with frozen pr...oducts. One part of the survey focused on the question whether the partners would buy products of this kind from the company. On the basis of the answer we suggest that they should extend their selection this way, too.
The spread of utilization of renewable energy resources is primarily motivated by objectives of energy policy and climate protection. However the rural and community development role of the new investments had got a greater significance in the past years. In the last years or decades the different renewable energy sectors became an important ob...jective of regional policy. In parallel with these changes the renewable energy sources aroused the interest of potential investors. The low population density and relative richness of natural resources in rural areas provide favourable conditions for location of these investments. On the base of local economic development aspects was designated as positive effects that the investments utilize the internal resources of these regions. However in practice it raises different significant questions. What is the role of local financial resources, professional skills and sufficient number of customers in renewable energy investments? We cannot imagine authentic and successful rural development projects without considering the interests and participation of local communities. Our research focuses on requirements of prosperous and long-term sustainable renewable energy based community development solutions following Hungarian and European examples.
In the new framework which came into force from 2014 the main directions of rural development are determined by the protection of the environment, the struggle against climate change and innovation. In addition, within the framework of EU programmes is a more careful attention is paid to young farmers. In the 2014-2020 programme the support of...young farmers will also receive a prominent role.
Nowadays the defence industry and the development of new technologies have been intertwined. Recently weapons and weapon systems have been tested that, little before, only science-fiction fans could believe to be possible and it was but a few professional insiders, mainly developers, who were encouraged to have anything like this on their desig...n desks. Today the development of the defense industry is synonymous with that of new technologies from which societies benefit in at least two ways: (1) they improve the social and national safety and security, and (2) provide new tools for everyday use. The article aims to introduce readers to some features of the evolving change being presently experienced in modern warfare through some examples of the up-to-date weapons, weapon systems and technologies, and let them have a glance also at their possible forms of use in the near future.
In the article the authors present the eligibility criteria of the procedure, which enables the military airfield to serve for public purposes as a joint civil military airport. The article pays special attention to the necessary changes and amendments of the laws in force and the auditing procedures, which concern the owner and the operator of... the airfield in order to meet the requirements of European Union legislation.
The undiminished development of air traffic has a direct effect on the environment of airports. Year in year out the continuously growing passenger traffic has increased the number air flights. The technological development has made it possible to increase the size and performance, - and with it the transportation of heavier payload - of aircra...ft. Of course, it has necessarily resulted in more fuel use (burnt fuel) emitting more pollutants into the atmosphere. In addition this effect appears not only during the high altitude flying polluting the high atmosphere, but due to the today very busy and the continuously increasing ground aircraft motion (taxiing) contaminating the close surroundings of the airport. With some innovation and technological development we can make the airports not only more environmentally friendly but also cost effective. In this paper I would like to introduce the possible use of renewable energy sources and the ground movement of aircraft without their own engines.
The accession to the NATO presented new challenges to the Hungarian Defence Forces. In order to meet the requirements of the federal obligations, besides the protection of the state we must take a role also in conflict areas even thousands of miles away from Hungary. One of the basic conditions to achieve this, is that the forces offered need t...o arrive at the right area of application at the right time in a cost-effective way. The purpose of this article is to present an overview on how the Hungarian Defence Forces are able to meet these requirements. An important matter is whether the air transport capacity should be provided by our own capabilities or by other (civil or military) sources. In order to answer this question I am going to analyse the processes which have influenced the development of air transport capacity over the last 10-15 years.
A new aircraft has appeared at the flying troops of the Hungarian Defence Forces which also brought about the emergence of a new maintenance strategy. The new strategy meant a switch of the operating technology at the same time, and it also posed a set of management problems, especially in certain stages of the conversion process. The morphosta...tic or morphogenetic nature of the change has been brought up as a fundamental question; the successful realization of this change requires various management procedures. In the present study I make an attempt to compare the two operation strategies that are simultaneously present, from which it may emerge that what processes are affected by the changes and at what level they are affected. In my view the usefulness of the analysis lies in the fact that the efficiency of integrating a new aircraft into the system may considerably increase in the future.
Spring frost often damages green shoots in vineyards. This was the case on 25 April 2015 in Kecskemét when -2.4 oC temperature was measured in the morning. The temperature largely varied among sites. The trees protected the grapes in the traditional intercultural cultivation. The high trellises also gave protection to vines. The time of budbre...ak was also a crucial point. Seven grape varieties were examined in the vineyard that is located in Kecskemét-Máriahegy: Kadarka, Pirosszlanka, Kövidinka, Rajnai rizling, Narancsízű, Pannon frankos and Merlan. The Pontica varieties regenerated best. Narancsízű variety is a table grape variety that has a lower bud fertility. Between the two resistant varieties, the numbers of clusters were different. Rhine Riesling which has a late bud burst was less damaged by the frost.
While examining soil patterns from low ridges and shallow furrows of untouched forest areas we discovered some traces of antropogenic effects. We found that samples from the ridges are argillaceous, succinct, highly-bound and significantly eroded Luvisol samples with a thin layer of humus and strong acidity. By contrast, the samples of the furr...ows have thin layers of mould and weak acidity. HTM (a pebble, which came from other areas) and other artificial products can be found in both geological sections and they refer to the antropogenic effects and the accumulations and eroding processes resulting from ci-devant, 15-20 cm deep ploughing. Our findings give an evident proof of former cultivations and their soil status-changes in the currently forest-covered areas.
The concept of corporate responsibilty has been around for many decades, yet its application and supplantation into practical usage has not been highly successful in Hungary. This study is an assessment of recent developments and the current performance of companies.
The cereals are the most important and most determining cultivated plants of the world and our homeland. Their importance manifests itself in the fact that corns in the ear and corn occupy collectively 50%- of the world's tillage areas and 66-68% of the tillage areas of our homeland. The competitiveness of the cultivation to a great extent depe...nds on the modernity of the production, which is especially valid for our homeland. So I intended to analyse the economic situation of one of the most important cereals, the corn through the activity of a family economy working well. I examine the modern corn growing technology in my work. I present the operations belonging to the technology applied by the economy and I outline the operation norms. I calculate the expenses arising in the interest of corn growing, I define the material costs incurred, the personal expenses, the amortisation and other expenses. I calculate the income from the sales of corn growing with and without support and I also calculate the main capital efficiency indicators.
In our study we would like to present the effect of adult education on the situation of women in the labour market in the subregion of Miskolc. During our research we developed several hypotheses that we proved by analysing the literature, by statistical data, and a questionnaire on this subject. Women over the age of 18, who are economically a...ctive and are living in the subregion of Miskolc were selected for the research. Altogether 200 people completed the questionnaire. We used IBM SPSS Statistics 20 and Microsoft Excel 2007 software to examine the data. The aim of our research was to prove that regarding the inhabitants of the subregion of Miskolc adult education is not effective enough to change the situation of women in the labour market. The results of the questionnaire showed the interest in adult education, but supply does not meet demand, since the state either does not support the education or the unemployed or the job-seeker cannot find a suitable education that would match her qualifications. We would like to recommend solutions for the development of this area, for the decrease of unemployment, for the improvement of the situation of women in the labour market and for increasing the efficiency of adult education.
Thanks to the favourable impact of the vintage effect occurring in recent years the Fusarium contamination of wheat and consequently a high DON toxin concentration has often caused a problem. The DON toxin in terms of human and animal health is a serious food safety risk factor. Therefore, it is important that there be methods during the wheat...milling process, which reduce the level of the toxin. We proved in our earlier examinations that with the help of a modern colour sorting machine the DON toxin content of wheat items can be significantly reduced. The question is how the mycotoxin content of the by-product produced in parallel during the process changes, which is used primarily as animal forage. The authors present an analysis of these relevant experimental data. The results show that the toxin content of the by-product exceeds the toxin content of the initial wheat item.
Nowadays robotic manipulators have been widely used in all fields of engineering. The main features of these machines are speed, accuracy and a good repetition capability, and their sustainability over the entire operating life of robots. However, it is not sure that such complex equipment is always required. The operational tests presented her...e are suitable to compare the operating features of each machine with a different structure but executing the same tasks and
thereby to select a machine type or construction. In this publication I present the operating principle of the two most commonly used industrial robot motors and their most important parameters through operational tests.
Based on the 2014 National Competence Assessment data the study analyses the mathematical and reading competences of students in Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok County in comparison to other counties. In general the students in Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok County achieved lower results than the students in other counties. The proportion of schools with a higher... proportion of Roma students is relatively high in the county. However, the competence assessment results are explained by the social status of the students’ families in first place. The pedagogical added-value compares the competence assessment results to the social background of the students. However, the schools of the county lag behind other counties in this aspect as well. In the county the four- and eight yearsecondary schools and vocational high schools show a positive added value, other types of schools achieve lower results than expected.
The present paper draws attention to the urgency of the problem related to the formation of tourism clusters. Then the current state and the specific features of the object of study are described. Then we expand upon the scientific basis of the proposed research methodology. Finally we offer guidelines on the implementation of the expected resu...lts. The development of initiative in the implementation of cluster projects in the territories of the administrative-territorial and municipal entities of the Russian Federation has been intended to promote the concentration of existing and attracted resources that will improve the efficiency provided for socio-economic measures.
During our research we have made a fermented solution and infusion of two plants, namely nettle and bear garlic. The experiments took place in the exhibition garden at the Horticultural Faculty of Kecskemét College. Kápia paprika was the objective of the experiment. We have collected leaf samples from the experiment units and measured the gro...wth quantity. The nettle and bear garlic extracts have a good effect on the growth quantity and the condition of plants. The injury of Helicoverpa Armigera could have been diagnosed only in the plants of the control group, however this has not occured in the treated groups. According to our research results we recommend using these plant extracts in practice for the purpose of biological control and nutrient supply.
The authors present the weapon system of combat helicopters, plus some possibilities/alternatives to be considered when modernizing them. The paper presents a comparative procedure that is to be used when purchasing and/or modernizing combat helicopters, gives numerical objectives and comparative results also to be considered and it points out...that an armed transport helicopter or multipurpose helicopter cannot substitute attack helicopters at all.
In our series of experiments celery test plants were used in lysimeter type pots. Plant growth, nutrient content and the relationships of them were observed. This publication shows the effects of different doses of nitrogen fertilizer (absolute control, basic +60/120/180 kg/ha N, and the base + 240 kg / ha N (calculated N from manure). The nitr...ogen content of the celery increased significantly depending on the N-doses; and a strong positive correlation (r = 0.815, p < 0.025 level) was detected in the tubers between N content and vitamin C. Our results establish that in our experimental setup on sandy soil, organic fertilization - enriching the colloid content and improving soil structure - proved to have the most beneficial effects.
The biotope network has an important role in the case of intensive agricultural landscapes. Our aim was to examine the history of land-use of an intensively managed area – as Kétsoprony village – in the Alföld (Great Hungarian Plain) region and to study the changes in the biotope network, especially the tree rows in time. The biotope netw...ork and mainly the tree rows may be importance from the aspect of nature conservation because land use has been dominated by arable lands in the research area for centuries. We have identified the main stages of structural changes by studying historical maps and considering quantitative and qualitative features. We have found that the rate of arable lands was continuously growing while the length of tree rows was decreasing in the 19-20th centuries.
Terror organizations threat those huge places and buildings which are used by a big mass of people. Public transportation hubs such as airports are most preferred places of terrorist attacks. If we prepare a small explosive device, we can cause a huge harm in the aircraft killing a lot of people. Security regulations have been improved to creat...e new methods to prevent terrorist attacks. The main targets are at the airport the airplanes on the runway and already in the air, the arrival and departure halls, and the air traffic control and radar systems. To protect human life and airplanes in the airport security they check the passengers, their handluggage, their registered baggage and the cargo. I would like to show you how we can avoid the terrorist attacks and this present article gives an overview of the application of such equipment, their types and the working principles of the devices of airport security systems.
This model was created mainly for those SMEs from the building industry which have such industrial specialties like low capitalization and tight liquidity. Due to these factors the fast management information system and the focus on operational and financial issues are essential. Based on the facts mentioned above I have tried to provide a tech...nical assistance for the owners/CEOs of these SMEs. Although they have no controlling department they need the fast information flow to support their business processes and to base their decisions aiming for a profitable operation and a sustainable liquidity.
Many of the climate change researchers believe that in this century the average temperature is expected to rise apart from the climate becoming more extreme (Solomon et al., 2007). These weather anomalies can significantly influence the living beings, including the range limits of plants. This could seriously effect our indigenous tree species,... some prognoses assume that the 82-100 % of the zonal spread of the sessile oak will have fallen outside the optimum climate area in tthe Carpathian Basin by 2050 (Czúcz et al., 2013). Such and similar forecast make the climate tolerance and health condition examinations of the sessile oak stands particularly important, so that we can measure the changes in plant communities. We have examined the health conditions of two elderly - over the age of 100 years - stands with the FAKOPP +D Acoustic Tomograph. One of the stands can be found in the Börzsöny Mountain, s while the other one in the Gödöllő Hills.
Widespread irrigation methods: Dribbling: water is leaking in perforated pipes, it can be used in beds and on tables. Drip tube: various elements (drip tapes, hard tubes inserted into a dropping bottle) of water are delivered to the roots of the plants. Mat watering: the potted plants are placed in a so-called water vehicule duvet, which is be...flooded with water. Ebb and flood system: the table of the greenhouse is flooded by water or a nutrient solution at the height of 1-2 cm. Sprinkler irrigation system: the fineness of the the spray heads varies depending on the spray head, micro sprinkers are often used. It contributes to the inrease in the humidity of the environment. Boom watering: special equipment, a hosepipe with a fine spray nozzle which is moving over the plant beds or tables, it forms a right angle to them and moves back and forth.