Taxing a wide range of businesses is a signify major challenge in nowadays economic, social life. The topicality of the study is indicated by the fact that the Hungarian tax system has been transformed in recent years. We analyze by respect to tax benefits the extent of the tax burden at companies in the course of the research. The enterprise s...ector data are examined from three sides whereby we search for statistically verifiable relationships between the pre-tax profit, the tax benefits used and the tax payable. We investigate what regional and settlement differences can be located in the tax burden of businesses. Tax revenue appears to be highly concentrated by territorial distribution. The question arises to what extent the development of the region influences the proportion of the tax benefits used. In our results, there is a significant difference experienced in the corporate tax burden on enterprises of settlement.
In this study, listed companies of 5 countries (Hungary, Slovakia, Poland, Czech Republic, and Romania) were analyzed between 2014 and 2018. The data was downloaded from www.EMIS.com. Financial institutions and companies with too many missing data and those that were not full period listed on the stock exchange were removed from the dataset. Th...e main aim of the research was to compare the performance of the listed companies on the stock exchanges of countries examined. First, there was analyzed performance indicators, then market indicators. Using variance analysis, there was investigated the differences between countries based on ROS, ROA, ROE ratios, which then was expanded to include some market ratios. Based on the results, it can be stated that due to the difference in the number of listed companies and the size of the companies, large variations can be observed both within and between countries. No best country can be determined because almost all of the indicators perform better in different countries during the period examined. It is important to note that earnings per unit capital are the highest in Hungary and the Czech Republic, so investors are likely to expect higher returns in these countries. During the analysis of variance, there could not be found in many ratios with significant differences between countries over the years investigated.
The paper deals with one of the most important problem of supply chain management – the bullwhip effect. This phenomenon influences the coordination of supply chain. The issue of coordination is the key element in the success of supply chains. The aim of paper is to introduce the causes of the bullwhip effect, to present its impacts on the co...ordination of supply chains. It makes suggestions to decrease the negative impacts of bullwhip effect.
It has been more than three decades since the first businesses were created in Hungary. Act C of 2000 on Accounting regulates the field of financial accounting. Accounts of enterprises are public, so market participants are provided objective information on their economic, financial, and income situation. Accounting is an internal information s...ystem on the one hand and an information system towards the external environment on the other. This duality is primarily the cause of critical comments. For years, there has been controversy over whether the administrative burdens and account-ing rules imposed on enterprises can be too demanding? Parallel to this, there is an open question. What essential information should be published in the accounts, which helps to make grounded decisions for the stakeholders?
The present study focuses on the asset-structure of the Hungarian district heating suppliers with a special interest in their current ratio and the structure of their current assets. The research is aimed toward the examination of the current ratio and the structure of the assets serving short-term obligations and toward finding the characteris...tics of these companies in terms of their liquidity. The study also aims to find specificities characterizing the sector of district heating supply that can later be used for other research purposes. In terms of its methodology, it is based on report analyses with the reports of 72 Hungarian companies as sample population. Data retrieved from the reports is complemented with certain technical and economic information and analyzed in the time frame of nine years (2009-2017).
Entering the digital age, business conditions have changed. The social and economic effects of Industry 4.0 surround humanity. Systems that work together in the cyber-physical space move companies and create value. Naturally, the management wants to evaluate these processes and wants to see reports about them. New times, new winds, that is, the... activities of a company based on digital technology require a new kind of reporting technique and methodology. The study briefly introduces the tools we use for this purpose. These tools (methods) also raise a number of ethical issues, while controlling and reporting must also meet the pressure of efficiency, that is, we have to increase the efficiency of reporting.
The quickly increasing of economic and social inequalities are the most prominent territorial process. Economic disparities between the regions of the European Union are of constant concern both for policy and economic research. Romania is one of the European Union countries within regional inequality is high. The purpose of the study is to pre...sent the evolution of the economic and income disparities in the romanian regions by examining the period of 2014-2018.
The operability of Hungarian public utility corporations are presented in the treatise. During the study, I analyzed the liquidity and equity ratio of corporations performing public functions, according to three years. I compared these values with the results calculated of bankruptcy prediction models (Chinese and Indian models). As a result of... the investigation, we could realize that the bankruptcy prediction model shows a considerably more pessimistic picture than the values of the indicators.
In the literature the way innovation shakes an industry or social subsystem shows up as ‘digital transformation’, or ‘disruptive technology’. Digital transformation impacts the whole company, especially finance and accounting. These function areas, on one hand, are following the changes brought about by digital transformation, while sup...porting decision-making process, and, on the other hand, new opportunities are opening up to make these areas more effective. These environmental changes demand an in-depth examination of the development of competency expectations and responsibilities of employees working these function areas. The aim of this paper is to determine how the revealed processes and tendencies affect the organizational and the individual level, and how the expectations of the future controller change.