...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">In an agricultural field or horticultural plantation, weeds compete with cultivated plants for water and nutrients. The transpirated water by the weeds is needed to be replaced, which saddles surplus costs on the farmer, which could reduce the profitability of crop production. The aim of the precision plant protection system is to protect cultivated plants by applying site-specific technologies and optimized herbicides combination and methods, without environmental damage. The first step of precision weed control is the scouting for weeds. Traditional and modern (passive and active remote sensing) weed surveying technologies are available to detect weeds. The examination was carried out in an intensive apple orchard with drip irrigation system, protected by hail net of the Study and Regional Research Farm of the University of Debrecen near Pallag. The spectral-based weed detection was worked out by the Tetracam ADC broadband multispectral camera and the GreenSeeker 505 vegetation indexmeter. A strong correlation observed between vegetation indices and weed coverage. Based on the collected data, weed maps are created in appropriate software environment, thus the spatial distributions of the weeds are determined. The species level discrimination and the recognition of weed structural parameters were executed based on the 3D point cloud data by Leica ScanStation C10 laser scanner.
...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The aim of our research was to establish the difference between the weed flora of maize hybrids sown in different times. Our field trial has been performed nearby Szombathely on a field of an agricultural farm, where two different hybrids were grown. The cold tolerant hybrid was sown at the end of March; the traditional hybrid was sown at the end of April. During the vegetation weed survey was conducted on 4–4 model parcels at two times in case of both hybrids. Cirsium arvense gave the largest weed cover in both hybrids. In cold tolerant hybrid gave 4.53%, in the traditional hybrid gave 56.63% weed cover. Considering the number of shoots per square meter C. arvense was also dominant with 64 plant m-2 density in early sown maize and 49.5 plant m-2 in traditional maize hybrid. At the time of the second weed survey the number of weeds increased significantly. The shoot number of C. arvense in cold tolerant hybrid was almost one and a half times more than at the first evaluation, while in case of the traditional hybrid it is nearly doubled. According to the weed density assessment there were differences between the two hybrids in the rate of G3 and T4 weeds. In early sown maize hybrid (MT Milo) this rate was 50–50% while in traditional hybrid was 90–10%. On 26th June the density of the weeds in the cold tolerant hybrid was two times higher than in the traditional one (Kamelias). Based on the experimental results it can be stated that the effective weed control in cold tolerant, early sowing maize hybrids is very important too.
There are two directions of the development of the methods in precision weed controll. One is the on-line, either is the off-line solutions. The advantige off the on-line method is that it covers all the territory of the field, therefore there are no problems in sampilng methodology. At the same time picture processing is slow and the performan...ce of the machines is low. We have choosen the off-line precision weed controll in Hungary to start with and we have solved the precision wedd controll of wheat, maize and sunflower successfully. We have also conducted on-line developments with the application of Weed Seeker sensor.
In our investigation we used different weed control technologies in the different phenology states of the maize. The experiment have been
carried out in Hódmezővásárhely, in the Experiment garden of the Pilot farm of University of Szeged Faculty of Agriculture, on meadow
chernozem soil, on 24 m2 plots, in 3 replications, ra
where, in addition to the untreated control, six chemicals or chemical-combinations are applied (Spectrum 720 EC, Motivell Turbo D,
Stellar + Dash HC, Clio + Akris SE + Dash HC, Clio + Dash HC) in five different times (pre, early post, post and two late post) and eight
mechanical weed-control technologies were used. Hoeing took place connected to the herbicide treatments in different times: until 2-3-leave
age weedless, in 3-4-leave age hoed once, from 3-4-leave age weedless, in 6-7-leave age hoed once, from 6-7-leave age weedless, in 8-leave
age hoed once, from 8-leave age weedless.
Our results were assessed by chemical efficiency examination, maize length measurement, corncob-length and fertility examination,
Sorghum plant-number determination and yield weighing carried out in four periods. The data were evaluated by a one-factor analysis of
variance and a two-factor linear regression analysis.
Woolly cupgrass (Eriochloa villosa /Thunb./ Kunth) is native to East Asia, it spreads in several parts of the World and causes difficulties in plant protection, especially in maize. Difficulties in control of Eriochloa villosa originated from several reasons: seeds continue to germinate later in the season, significant part of seeds emerges fro...m a deep layer of the soil, and the species is less susceptible to some herbicides applied to maize than other annual grass weeds.
The first report on the occurrence of woolly cupgrass in Hungary was published in 2008, and it reported about the appearance of this species near to Gesztely village (Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén county), however, no information has been added about spread of the weed in Hungary until now.
A significant population was discovered next to Debrecen (Hajdú-Bihar county) in summer, 2011, and then weed associations were examined in maize, sunflower and stubble-fields on several km2 in the area to estimate the Eriochloa villosa infection. The weed species was found on every maize field bordering with a ground cover of 0.5-4%. Woolly cupgrass occurred inside of the 50% of maize fields, and reached a ground cover of 76% in case of most infected area, in addition it was found in sunflower and stubble-fields.
The spread of woolly cupgrass is expected in this area, which requires the consideration of this species in the planning of weed management technologies.
The world is in a continuous progress, as a result of which energy consumption and with this the release of gases with adverse impact show rapid increase. As a result of the survey conducted by the International Energy Agency, if the major economic powers do not initiate a change in their energy policy, the increase of energy consumption may as... well reach 40 % by 2030. This increased energy demand is getting more and more difficult to fulfill with the fossil energy resources, which is to lead to an increasing significance of renewable energy resources. In Hungary, these energy resources are the best to provide with biomass growth. Biomass growth for energetic purpose can mostly be provided by energy plants, out of which “energy willow” (Salix viminalis L.) is outstanding with its high yield and with its excellent burning technology characteristics of its timber. The willow’s cropping technology is being established in our country. One of our tasks is to work out an adequate weed control plan. The professional and safe use of herbicides can increase the success of production. In our paper, we discuss the weed flora data collected on treatments applied in the different fertilizer and compost. We started our survey in 2010. We examined twelve different fertilizer and compost treated areas. The dominant weeds were: Amaranthus retroflexus, Chenopodium album, Echinochloa crus-galli among annuals; Cirsium arvense and Agropyron repens among the perennials.
Wooly cupgrass (Eriochloa villosa) is an East-Asian originated weed species and it has been spreaded worldwide by now. The first occurrence of this species in Hungary was observed and published in 2008 nearby Gesztely village (Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén county, North-East Hungary) than in the summer of 2011 a significant population was discovered n...ext to Debrecen city (Hajdú-Bihar county, East Hungary).
In 2013 this weed was also reported from Szentborbás village, Somogy county (South-West Hungary). These observations of spreading and its biological features (production of stolons and large number of seeds, moreover herbicide tolerance) indicate that wooly cupgrass (E. villosa) has a great potential of invasiveness, so it may become a hazardous weed not only in Hungary but in all over the world.
The objective of this study was to identify the fungus which was isolated from wooly cupgrass (E. villosa) root residue samples which were collected after maize harvesting on arable land in late autumn, near Debrecen. The identification of the fungus based on morphological characters of colonies and the features of conidia developed on potato dextrose agar (PDA) plates. After the examination of axenic culture we revealed that the fungus from rhizosphere of wooly cupgrass was Fusarium culmorum. Pathogenicity and/or endophytic relationship between the fungus and wooly cupgrass is still uncertain so pathogenicity tests and reisolations from plants are in progress.
Ustilago trichophora (Link) Kunze is a widespread smut fungus in all over the world. This fungus is pathogenic on species of Echinochloa genus. The subject of present research was that smut fungi occurrence on barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli). Numerous barnyard grass plants with symptoms of smut galls caused by Ustilago trichophora on st...ems were collected from two counties, víz. Hajdú-Bihar (East-Hungary) and Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok (Middle-Hungary). The infested plants were examined in laboratory, which included the observation of the symptoms and the morphological properties of the spores and the colonies developed from sporidia. The results suggested that this fungus could be effective against barnyard grass weed so the biological control of this weed plant (Echinochloa cruss-galli) can be managed by using Ustilago trichophora biopreparates. As Ustilago trichophora can produce abundant sporidia in liquid culture, a high effectiveness control should be apply by Ustilago trichophora smut fungus as a mycoherbicide in Echinochloa weed control.
In Spring 2005, the owner of the Szalka-Pig Ltd. of Mateszalka, decided to import the willow species Salix viminalis L. and to create a plantation for energy production purposes on the humid arable lands in his ownership. In 2006, he enlarged this area by 43 hectares. The owner further decided not only to plant this species on the more adherent... (KA 70), but also onto the incoherent structured sand (KA 30-35). His main argument was that the cost of coal tar derivatives as energy sources was rapidly increasing in Hungary, so he needed to find a cheaper energy source for the drying of his products and for the heating of his buildings. He also planned to change his gas and oil heating equipment.
The willow’s cropping technology is being established in our country. One of our tasks is to work out an adequate weed control plan. The professional and safe use of herbicides can increase the success of production. In our paper, we discuss the data collected on treatments applied in the pre-emergent stage. The applied herbicide combinations (terbutilazin+S-metolaklór, mezotrion+ S-metolaklór, pendimetalin+S-metolaklór, oxyfluorfen+ S-metolaklór) yielded good results in large scale experiments.
Weed infestation regulation in sugar beet belongs to the most difficult growing measures, the aim of our work was to find out, if active substances contained in preparations Roundup and Fazor influence number, weight and germination of clusters in plants of weed beets. Statistically significant differences in germinability were found among cont...rol and all variants in which preparation Fazor was applied. The Roundup treatment did not have significant influence on germination. Presented results are only preliminary and one-year results, more experiments are necessary to determine the effects of the studied applications.
The effect of crop production factors on maize yield are examined on chernozem soil in a more than 30 year old long-term experiment on the Látókép Experiment Site of the Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economic Sciences of the University of Debrecen. The aim of research is to evaluate the effect of fertilisation, cultivation, plant numbe...r, genorype and irrigation. The analysis of the data in the database of the examined period makes it possible to evaluate the effect of maize yield, as well as that of the crop production factors and the crop year, while the correlations and interactions between these factors were also examined. During the examination of the cultivation treatments, it was concluded that the highest yield was obtained as a result of autumn ploughing, but its effect largely differs in the irrigated and the nonirrigated treatments. Based on our examinations, strip cultivation should be applied periodically (e.g. strip – strip – ploughing – loosening) in areas with favourable soil conditions free from compacted layers.
In years with smaller, average precipitation supply or when the precipitation was higher than average, higher plant numbers were more favourable. Under drier conditions, but especially in several consecutively dry years, a lower plant number can be recommended which is not higher than 60 thousand per hectare. In the case of favourable water supply, 70-80 thousand plants per hectare can be used. The yield increasing effect of fertilisation was significant in the case of both non-irrigated and irrigated conditions, but it was much more moderate in the non-irrigated treatment. The extent of weed coverage was significantly affected by the previous crop. In the case of a favourable previous crop (wheat), the weed coverage was significantly lower than after an unfavourable previous crop (maize). In the case of the same previous crop (maize), the extent of weed coverage was mostly determined by the crop year and the extent of precipitation supply. Irrigation is not enough in itself, because if it was not accompanied by intensive nutrient management, yields started to decline.
The results of researhc, development and innovation contributed to the technological method which makes it possible to apply locally adjusted sowing seed, fertiliser and pesticide in a differentiated way, as well as to change the method of operations within the given plot.
The paper presents a short review of the different types of farming systems:
Biofarming, Organic farming, Alternatíve farming, Biodynamic farming, Low input sustainable agriculture (LISA)
Mid-tech farming, Sustainable agriculture, Soil conservation farming, No till farming, Environmentally sound, Environmentally friendly, Diversity farmi
Crop production system, Integrated pest management (IPM), Integrated farming, High-tech farming
Site specific production (SSP), Site specific technology (SST), Spatial variable technology, Satellite farming.
It concludes that the various systems are applicable in different ratios and combinations depending on the natural and economic conditions.
The author predicts an increase in precision technologies , the first step being the construction of yield maps compared with soil maps and their agronomic analysis. Based on this information, it will be necessary to elaborate the variable technology within the field, especially for plant density, fertilization and weed control.
The changes in weed flora during the past fifty years based on 10.000 samples within the same fields using the weed cover method are presented.
Common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca L.) is one of the most noxious and invasive weed species in Hungary. A. syriaca invades arable lands, horticultural and forestry plantations, natural and semi-natural habitats too. In cases of field crops it can cause considerable yield losses mostly in maize (2–10%), soybean (12–32%) and sorghum (4–29%)..., but only with high rate of coverage. It can also increase these problems that the common milkweed can be serve as reservoir and host for viruses, other pathogens and pests.
Because of the importance of common milkweed and in spite of demand to develop effective biological control, until now has not been developed a proper control program against A. syriaca. The aim of our research was to identify the necrotrophic fungal pathogens, which were involved in notable disease occurrence on this weed in different parts of Hajdúság region of Eastern-Hungary in 2016.
To the isolation of fungi from leaves and their identification were based on morphological colony characters on potato dextrose agar (PDA) and Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA). To the description of conidia features were used PDA for Alternaria and synthetic low-nutrient agar (SNA) for Fusarium species, respectively. The examination of axenic cultures revealed that the fungi isolated from the leaves of common milkweed were Fusarium sporotrichioides and Alternaria alternata.
Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) is one of the most important, allergenic weed species in Hungary. A. artemisiifolia invades both a broad range of often disturbed areas (brownfields) and either undisturbed ones like waste lands, roadsides, riverbanks and railway tracks. In field crops it can cause considerable yield losses mainly in...sunflower, maize, cereals and soybean. In Hungary many inhabitants suffer from allergy caused by Ambrosia pollen which results a serious human-health risk. The aim of the control is to prevent flowering and seed propagation of A. artemisiifolia. Until now the occurrence of numerous pathogenic fungi which attack common ragweed plants have been identified in Hungary, however there is not yet available biological weed control program because of shortage in acceptable effectiveness, and endangering cultural plant species. During our weed surveys in the region of Hajdúság (East-Hungary) we found numerous common ragweed plants showing heavy necrotic lesions on leaves and stems. The objective of this study was to identify the fungus which was isolated from diseased tissues of common ragweed (A. artemisiifolia). The identification of fungus based on morphological characters of colonies and features of conidia and chlamydospores developed on malt extract agar (MEA) plates. After examination of axenic cultures we revealed that the fungus isolated from the leaves ands stems of common ragweed was a Phoma-like species.
Our experiments have repeatedly shown that the extract of ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) is an antifungal and antibacterial component.
In our paper we tested of the biological activity of the herbal substance against opportunistic human pathogenic bacteria strains (Staphylococcus
aureus 110003 and 25923; Staphylococcus saprophyticus 11
An important problem refers to soil weeds seed bank with special reference to brown luvic soils and relationship between vegetal remains
(roots + stub) and nutrition regime – crop rotation plant. A great number of seeds can be found in first 20 centimeters of soil (plowing
layer). This fact causes a high weeds density, which has a negat
Weeds cause serious problems in agriculture on a global scale. These plants reduce yield and the quality of crops by competing for water, nutrients and sunlight. The improper or excessive usage of herbicides have led to development of resistance in some weed species while contaminating the environment; therefore, biological control has an incre...asing role as an alternative method for controlling special weed species.
The aim of this study is to make a brief review of biological control of weeds by pathogens and to characterize two rust fungi (Puccinia lagenophorae and Puccinia xanthii) which are broadly examined recently in a biological control concept and have been found on their hosts, such as common groundsel (Senecio vulgaris L.) and common cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium L.), two common and difficult to manage weeds both in horticultural and agricultural lands also in Hungary.
Sunflower is our most important oil-plant grown on the largest area in Hungary. In Europe sunflower has been grown since the 16th century. In recent years sunflower growing area is between 450-500 thousand hectares. Weed management in sunflower production is getting more and more difficult in case of annual and perennial dicotyledonous weeds, e...specially in dry springs. Two active ingredients, imazamox and tribenuron-methyl could be a solution for farmers for the control of these weeds in herbicide tolerant sunflower hybrids (Christensen-Reisinger 2000, Hódi-Torma 2004, Nagy et al. 2006). Most of the farmers choose the Clearfield technology and the use of tribenuron-methyl herbicides. In 2009 imazamox- (IMI) and tribenuron-methyl- (SU) tolerant sunflower hybrids were produced on 200 hectares in Hungary, of which 150 hectares was IMI, while 50 hectares was SU-hybrids. Small plot experiments were carried out to investigate the phytotoxicity of herbicides on imazamox (IMI) and tribenuron-methyl (SU) tolerant sunflower hybrids under field conditions. At harvest we measured the moisture content of achenes and average yield.
The development and implementation of precision agriculture or site-specific farming has been made possible by combining the Global Positioning System (GPS) and the Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Site specific agronomic applications are of high importance concerning the efficiency of management in crop production as well as the protectio...n and maintenance of environment and nature. Precision crop production management techniques were applied at four locations to evaluate their impact on small plot units sown by wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) in a Hungarian national case study. The results obtained suggest the applicability of the site specific management techniques, however the crops studied responded in a different way concerning the impact of applications. Maize had a stronger response regarding grain yield and weed canopy. Wheat was responding better than maize concerning plant density and protein content performance.
Hyper and multispectral imaging systems are widely used in agricultural and environmental protection. Remote sensing techniques are suitable for evaluating environmental protection hazarsd, as well as for agriculture resource exploration. In our research we compared aerial hyper and multispectral images, as well as multispectral digital camera...images with the background data from the test site. Hyperspectral records were obtained using a new 80-channeled aerial spectrometer (Digital Airborne Imaging Spectrometer /DAIS 7915/. We have chosen two farms where intensive crop cultivation takes place, as test sites, so soil degradation and spreading of weeds can be intensive as a result of land use and irrigation. We took additional images of air and ground with a TETRACAM ADC wide band multispectral camera, which can sense blue, green and near infrared bands. We had detailed GIS database about the test site. Weed and vegetation map of the area in the spring and the summer was made in 2002. For soil salt content analysis, we gathered detailed data frome an 80x100 m area. When analyzing the images, we evaluated image reliability, and the connection between the bands and the soil type, pH and salt content, and weed mapping. In the case of hyperspectral images, our aim was to choose and analyze the appropriate band combinations. With a TETRACAM ADC camera, we made images at different times, and we calculated canopy, NDVI and SAVI indexes. Using the background data mentioned above, the aim of our study was to develop a spectral library, which can be used to analyze the environmental effects of agricultural land use.
To the effective control of invasive weeds are essential to prevent establish, if has already happened obstacle to massive accumulation, and promoting the efficient and rapid eradication, if it is possible. The Woolly cupgrass (Eriochloa villosa /Thunb./ Kunth) belongs to weeds which “hard to control” especially in corn. One of the difficul...ties of effective control is the prolonged emergence causing avoidance of several individuals the contact with pre-emergent herbicides. Another problem arises due to the intensive use of post-emergence herbicide products with short duration of action. To optimalize of timing of treatment is essential for successful control of later emerging weeds. The recently established Woolly cupgrass in Hungary shows resistance or reduced susceptibility to substantial portion of herbicides used in corn. The data collected from small-plot trials demonstrates that application of sulfonylurea or selective monoctyledonous herbicides can be effective against the Woolly cupgrass.
Field experiments were conducted to study affects of pH and hardness of spray water on efficacy of a herbicide combination (terbuthylazine + mesotrione) influenced by several pH adjusters and adjuvants in Debrecen, Hungary in 2008, 2009 and 2010. Favourable or unfavourable effects of pH and hardness of spray water could be observed under field...conditions. Evaluation of weed control efficacy is suitable for examination of affects of spray water pH and hardness on herbicides. The terbuthylazine and mesotrione herbicide combination is suitable to control monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous weed species, however, significant effects of hardness and pH of spray carrier was observed only in control of monocotyledonous weeds. Certain pH adjusters (e.g. ammonium nitrate) can lessen harmful affects of water hardness effectively. Significant loss of efficacy of sensitive herbicide was found in hard water (by about 50-60%), and surfactants was not able to eliminate that harmful affect. However, biological activity was the same as in soft water with ammonium nitrate which can overcome the antagonism of salts. That pH adjuster had a more significant affect on the efficacy of the herbicide than the surfactant had in that experiment.
Because of the globalization and global warming the emergence of invasive weeds in Hungary are more common. The woolly cupgrass (Eriochloa villosa [Thunb.] Kunth) is published as an important invasive weed in Hungary. Woolly cupgrass is native in East Asia and it spreads into several parts of the World and causes difficulties in plant protectio...n. It has been spreading extensively during the last few years,as the weed shows a very serious invasion potential.
We made a botanical survey of a seminatural meadow situated in the vicinity of Hajdúnánás-Tedej in Hungary, using traditional phytocenological methods. The habitat, based on its soil-, and botanical characteristics, can be classified into the category of saline meadows. One of the landscape ecological values of this area is its mosaic-like s...tructure and, as a consequence, this habitat can be divided into six characteristic associations with blurry borderlines and characteristic overlaps. Because of its rare plant species and species richness this area can be considered to be a valuable „seed bank” and a „stepping stone” in the ecological network among the larger, intensively cultivated fields. The area can be evaluated as moderately recovered, the natural species are dominant, but there are few disturbance tolerant species. Except for the two saline associations, the high grass associations, which make up about two-thirds of the habitat, are cut once a year; therefore, the agricultural utilisation of the area and its prevention against weediness are being assured at the same time.
The necessity of application of hybrid specific crop production technology has been confirmed not only by trial results but also by the experiences gained from the agricultural practice. For this reason it is essential to test and collect data in field trials about the specific agronomic traits of the corn hybrids belonging to different maturit...y groups and genotypes. Corn hybrids are tested for their responses to sowing time, plant density and fertilizer supply; sensitivity to herbicides; and lately, the resistance to the damages caused by the larvae of corn root worm. Last but not least, mention should be made of the differences in the responses of the corn hybrids to the damages caused by drought stress. Based on the trial results, suggestions for the hybrid specific corn production are compiled and made public for the experts and farmers engaged in corn growing. Corn hybrids may deliver maximum yields on the impact of specific crop production technology only in case if it relies on carefully done general production technology including soil cultivation, seed bed preparation and weed control. Similarly, precision crop production technology may advance the yield increase in economic way if it is constantly drawing on the source of research results.