The anthocyanin content of the Hungarian sour cherry is remarkable. Nutraceutical and pharmaceutical effects of the anthocyanins and their role in disease prevention have been studied extensively. Endothelial cells are involved in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases. The objective of this work was to investigate pure sour cherry extract on human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) as an inflammatory model. HUVECs were treated with 100 ng/mL lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and 50 mg/mL sour cherry extract or M199 medium as control. The optimal concentration range of the sour cherry extract was investigated and selected based on MTT assay measuring the conversion of the tetrazolium salt to formazan by mitochondrial dehydrogenases. The level of interleukine-8 (IL-8), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, was measured in Luminex MagPlex assay. LPS treatment significantly increased the secretion of IL-8. The pure sour cherry extract was able to attenuate this increment indicating the potent anti-inflammatory effect of pure sour cherry extract. Our results emphasize that pure sour cherry extract could reduce the LPS-induced inflammatory response thereby may improve endothelial dysfunction.
The aim of this study was to investigate the possibilities for reducing fungicide treatments of sour cherry. The study was conducted in fruit bearing sour cherry orchards of the Institute of Agriculture at Kyustendil during 1991-2005. Cherry leaf spot was controlled by postinfection applications of ergosterol biosynthesis inhibitors and dodine. Bacterial canker, brown rot, shot-hole syndrome were controlled by protective treatments with copper-containing fungicides in late autumn and early spring. Insecticide treatments were applied when it was necessary. Blumeriella jaapii is the main pathogen of sour cherry which can be controlled successfully by postinfection treatments. Their number could be reduced in some years. Sprays against leaf spot were effective against other diseases too. Protective treatments against Pseudomonas syringae with copper-containing fungicides were effective against shot-hole syndrome and Monilinia laxa as well as Monilinia fructigena.
Anthracnose is considered one of the most destructive diseases for sour cherry production due to the rapid development of the disease on fruits. Glomerella cingulata (Stoneman) Spauld. & H. Schrenk (anam.: Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Penz. & Sacc. in Penz.) has been the fungal pathogen responsible for anthracnose in last decades. Yield losses greater than 90% may occur under epidemic conditions. C. acutatum (J.H. Simmonds, 1968) strains were isolated of sourcherry plantations in East Hungary and this pathogen, new for Hungarian microbiont became recently dominant. Contrarily to the former species it is certainly transmitted with ants during fruit ripening. About third of strains proved to be cutinase producers that enable them to actively penetrate via cuticule, and these strains infect directly berries of blackberry, grape and tomato as well as plum and apple. Most of cutinase negative strains could also infect these fruits after mechanic injury. All strains of both species produce amylase, cellulase, lecithinase, lipase, polyfenoloxydase and protease in vitro, although the activity of these enzymes highly varied in the medium. The only C. acutatum strains produced noticeable amount of chitinase. Strains, tolerant to recently applied fungicides to control the anthracnose, could be isolated of sour cherry plantations that might be the cause of ineffectiveness of control measures in 2010. The mycofungicide containing mixture of three Trichoderma species in oil carrier could efficiently depress the development of anthracnose in ripening sour cherry.
The iron concentration of ’Csengődi csokros’, ’Debreceni- and ’Érdi bőtermő’ , ‘Éva’, ’Kántorjánosi’ ,’Petri’ and the ’Újfehértói fürtös’ cultivars was determined by ICP-MS. Furthermore the Vitamin C, L-Malis acid and Citric acid concentration of samples were measured.
Our results show that large amount Fe2+ (average 20.5 mg kg-1) accumulates in the pulp of sour cherry. Besides, the concentration of Vitamin C, L-Malis acid, that increase the absorption of iron, are high. Based on these results, the sour cherry and the products of sour cherry play an important role in the forming of iron content in body.
In our experiments sour cherry kernels were investigated. The kernels of different sour cherry cultivars were originated from Újfehértói Gyümölcstermesztési Kutató és Szaktanácsadó Nonprofit Közhasznú Kft. Tocopherol profile, oil yields and nutritional value were stood in focus of examinations.
We started processes preparing of sour cherry kernels. After the preparation recovered non-polar fraction was investigated. We worked with formerly developed chromathographic system, which is capable to separate different tocopherol isomers efficiently. We measured concentration of each tocopherol isomers and registered those and their relation in different oil samples.
According to received data, alpha-, gamma- and delta-tocopherol appeared in samples, but beta-tocopherol could not be detected. It became clear that level of gamma-tocopherol is far higher than alfa- or gamma-isomer, it is concentration exceeded 1–1.5 mg ml-1.
The antioxidant capacity of ’Debreceni bőtermő’, ’Újfehértói fürtös’ and ’Érdi bőtermő’ cultivars were determined by FRAP (Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma), DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity) and photochemiluminescence method. In sour cherry, the most antioxidant effects of natural bioactive compounds are anthocyanins. Our results show that the photochemiluminescence method out of applied assays is ratheris suitable to determine the antioxidant capacity of red soft fruits and tart cherries. The correlation is good between the determined anthocyanin concent by this technic and pH-differential spectrophotometry. However, both FRAP and DPPH assays are inaccurate.
The anthocyanin composition of ’Debreceni bőtermő’, ’Újfehértói fürtös’ and ’Érdi bőtermő’ ’Csengődi csokros’ sour cherry varieties were analised. There are big differences between the accumulation of anthocyanan compounds of cultivars. ’Csengődi csokros’ produce melatonin in large quantity. On the evidence of the results, we can say that the hungarian sour cherry cultivars are suitable for functional food development.
Evidence suggests that a diet high in fruits and vegetables may reduce the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, and phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids from fruits and vegetables may play a key role in reducing chronic disease risk. Recent research has proven that sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) is a valuable natural source of some bioactive compounds important in human health preservation.
In our work, we identified the total antioxidant capacity and ”antioxidant density” of sour cherry varieties named ”Újfehértói fürtös”, ”Debreceni bõtermõ”, ”Kántorjánosi” and ”Érdi bõtermõ” and those of the ”Bosnyák” sour cherry clones. ”Antioxidant density” is a biological value indicator obtained in a synthetic way, which indicates the antioxidant capacity of the particular food, e. g. fruit and vegetable, per 1 Calorie.
The stone fruit weewil (Anthonomus rectirostris L.) has been known as the kernel pest of the wild cherry in Hungary. There have been no data about its harm on sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) in our country, yet. 5-10% of stone infection has been observed on some sour cherry trees (cultivars: Debreceni bőtermő, Újfehértói fürtös) in the eastern side of an orchard at Debrecen-Józsa adjacent to a wood in early July 2011. The damage can be in connection with the fact that the yield has not been harvested for years.
Although a high portion of domestic orchards is cultivated extensively, quality Hungarian sour cherry is a highly demanded product throughout Europe. Trees are slightly pruned, or not pruned at all. Thanks to the unique character of the species, older wood parts are pilling up. Thus, the interior of the canopy is inactive, fruits and shoots confine the exterior layer of the canopy.
We established pruning treatments in the sour cherry plantation in the Horticultural Exhibition Garden of the University of Debrecen, involving two age groups in two spacings. The trees are standing on seedling rootstock. The involved varieties were: Érdi bőtermő, Debreceni bőtermő and Kántorjánosi. We examined how to encourage shoot formation and the regeneration of older, pilling wood of the interior canopy parts.
Applying strong rejuvenating cuts, the most shoots were generated on the 3rd and 4th year laterals. Wood parts older than the 3rd year shall be removed by leaving short (2-3cm) stubs. This way, older, passive woodparts can also be made to burst out. From the examined varieties the Kántorjánosi showed the most favourable regenerative ability. Due to summer pruning, more shoots regenerated on the axis of the trees, than on those rejuvenated in the dormant season.
Agriculture has always been an important role in economy, food supplies, sustainability of society During our experimental work an effective extraction procedure has been developed for melatonin. Further chromatography was developed the quantitative and qualitative determination of melatonin. A compound that was equal to the standard was purified from the extract by preparative HPLC technique and the structure of the purified sample was confirmed by MALDI-TOF-MS and NMR analysis. Based on our measurements, harvested in the state of biological maturity Hungarian sour cherry cultivars contain high levels of melatonin.
Our results show that "VN4" variety has extremely high melatonin content, 9.893 ug g-1 and suggest that "VN4" which were selected from the "Bosnyák" varieties is melatonin accumulating. The average value of the melatonin content of Hungarian sour cherry cultivars is 2.319 ug g-1.
The antioxidant capacity of 12 cultivar that were harvested in 2014, were determined by FRAP (Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma), DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity) TEAC (Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity) and photochemiluminescence method. In sour cherry, the most antioxidant effects of natural bioactive compounds are anthocyanins. Our results show that the photochemiluminescence method is the most suitable to determine the antioxidant capacity of red soft fruits and tart cherries
To increase the intensiveness of sour cherry production, i.e. the use of smaller trees, it is necessary to adopt growth-moderating techniques rather than using dwarfing rootstocks. Apart from the traditional technique of using rootstocks that support stronger growth, new or rarely-used techniques and methods must be adopted. Pruning should be carried out in the summer rather than in the winter, the optimal period being 1-3 weeks after harvest.
A combination of the increase in favourable exposure-time and smaller crown sizes make higher tree densities (tree/ha) and better utilisation of the crown (specific cropload) possible.
The systematic use of summer pruning leads to better quality fruit.
Today’s programmes aiming at enhancement of fruit and vegetable consumption have been intensified. In the unanimous view of experts, different health problems, such as those of the immune system, inflammations, and even certain cancerous diseases can be prevented and/or cured with regular consumption of fresh (raw) fruit and vegetables. It is well-known fact that among the biologically valuable components, antioxidant compounds – C- and E vitamins, as well as carotinoides – play an important role. In this field, Hungary can expect success in the future since it has excellent plant genetic stock. Regretfully, national data banks regarding cultivation technology, cultivation areas or varieties for fruits and vegetables and their antioxidant contents do not exist in Hungary. Nevertheless, in connection with the so-called “Hungaricums” its existence would be of urgent necessity. Such excellent Hungarian products are – among others – a lot of sour cherry varietiles, the Szeged green pepper and the Makó onion. They enjoy high priority as “Hungaricums” even in the European Union and such activities that support these kinds of products should be enhanced by intense and consequent research work, which may prove their role as functional foods. Presently’ the USA leads in the research of antioxidant compounds of sour cherry, and so far 17 of these compounds have been found partly in Hungarian varieties. Similar research on green, and ‘pritamin’ peppers have not gone so far since they were limited only for seasoning paprika. In Hungary, studies on onion and garlic have not been performed. It should be mentioned that due to the continental climate, these products may be cultivated, consumed or processed only in a limited period. Taking this into consideration, processing and conserving methods are needed which make the consumption of these fruit and vegetables as functional food possible year-round. Scientific establishment of this set of questions is of current concern, because consumption of these products could have an important role in improving the health status of the Hungarian population in the future.
In our present study, we performed a quick test of the antioxidant capacity of domestic fruit and vegetable cultivars with a PHOTOCHEM® instrument (Analytik Jena AG, Germany). The instrument is special because it can measure both the total lipid-soluble antioxidant capacity (ACL method) and the total water-soluble antioxidant capacity. Another advantage of the system is its quick measurement. With similar instruments, such measurement can take several hours, while PHOTOCHEM® can perform it within a few minutes.
In our model studies, we examined the changes in the antioxidant capacity of sour cherry, green pepper, carrot, pumpkin, red beet and Brassica sp. cultivars. We aimed to determine how suitable the instrument is for quick, routine measurements in the case of the different horticultural products and which species have high antioxidant capacity values.
On the basis of our examinations, we can state that the PHOTOCHEM® system is suitable for routine, semi-automated measurements of the total antioxidant capacity at several vegetables and fruits. Besides this, the system can be used for testing the quality of food products, for monitoring storability in post-harvest technologies, and for special breeding programmes and for physiological and biotechnological studies.
Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) is a non-climacteric fruit. Storage optimization would enable the expansion of fresh consumption. The quality parameters are required for storage optimization. Those parameters are sugar content, acid composition, mineral content and alcohol content,
moreover it is also planned to determine antioxidants, vitamins and patulin mikotoxin under different conditions. In this paper, we demonstrate the measurement options of these parameters.
The European stone fruit yellows (ESFY) phytoplasma disease caused by pathogen ’Ca. Phytoplasma prunorum’ induces serious damages in cherry, sour cherry, peach, and apricot orchards mostly in Europe. Its known vector is the plum psyllid (Cacopsylla pruni). Many articles report on the biology (morphology, taxonomy, life cycle etc.) and the method of transmission of the pathogen by the vector, and the possibilities of their control. This paper reviews our knowledge about the vector, and summarises the results of an inland research carried out in a northeastern Hungarian apricot orchards. Our goal was to show some important data for the farmers or anyone who is interested in this disease and its vector. And give some known method that we can protect our orchards against them to prevent the appearance of the disease. As the psyllid that became infected with the pathogen can hold its infectionous capacity during their lifetime, it is very important to have enough knowledge about their lifecycle, that we can determine the right time and method to control them. We also have to know how to identify them; therefore, this paper lists several important data which can be helpful. The most important keys of identification are their wing color, which dark borwn in the apex and brown is in the remaining part of the forewing. The length of the antennae is also an important factor, since other genuse’s species have longer antennae than twice the width of the head. C. pruni has as long antennae as twice the width of the head. They return to Prunus species in early spring and we have to protect our orhards in this period against them. We have to use preparations with a knock down effect on them to prevent the inoculation of the pathogen into the trees in our orchards.
Plant diseases caused by phytoplasmas have increasing importance in all over the world for fruit growers. Lately, phytoplasma diseases occur on many fruit varieties and responsible for serious losses both in quality and quantity of fruit production. In the long-run these diseases cause destruction of fruit trees. The apricot phytoplasma disease (Ca. Phytoplasma prunorum) was first reported in Europe in 1924 from France. In 1992 the disease has also been identified in Hungary. On the base of growers' signals serious damages of "Candidatus Phytoplasma prunorum" Seemüller and Schneider, 2004 (formerly: European stone fruit yellows phytoplasma) could be observed in different stone fruit plantations in the famous apricot-growing area nearby Gönc town, Northern-Hungary. Field examinations have been begun in 2009 in several stone fruit plantations in Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County mainly in Gönc region which is one of the most important apricot growing regions in Hungary, named “Gönc Apricot Growing Area”. Our goals were to diagnose the occurrence of Ca. Phytoplasma prunorum on stone fruits (especially on apricot) in the North-Hungarian growing areas by visual diagnostics and confirm data by laboratory PCR-based examinations. All the 28 collected samples were tested in laboratory trials and at 13 samples from apricot, peach, sour cherry and wild plum were confirmed the presence of phytoplasma (ESFY). On the base of observations it seems evident that the notable losses caused by "Ca. Phytoplasma prunorum" is a new plant health problem to manage for fruit growers, especially apricot producers in Hungary.
Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element for animals, microorganisms and some other eukaryotes. It has become increasingly evident that Se plays a significant role in reducing the incidence of lung, colorectal and prostate cancer in humans. Although there is evidence that selenium is needed for the growth of algae, the question of essentiality of Se in vascular plants is unresolved. Therefore Raphanus sativus (Se accumulator) and Capsicum annuum (non Se accumulator) were treated with 0-200 mg/l natrium-selenate. The results showed that lower (2 mg/l) concentration natrium-selenate increased the fitomass and total antioxodant capacity in seedlings.