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  • Examination of French bean on organic and conventional farming of Research Centre of Nyíregyháza
    87-98
    Views:
    74

    This study presents the yield results of some French bean varieties in organic and conventional farming. This study presents the advantage of organic farming in environmental point of view and in nutrition. Sale of organic products is insured, there is solvent demand rather in abroad than in Hungary.
    In Research Centre of Nyíregyháza had made organic farming since 1994, at present on 74 hectares.
    In the first trial, variety comparison with 9 yellow podded French beans in organic and conventional farming was conducted. Varieties: Carson, Cherokee, Debreceni sárga, Goldmine, Héliosz, Minidor, Sonesta, Sundance és Unidor. The following parameters were observed: the time of emergence and flowering, number of plants per plot, plant height and flowing green harvest. We weighed yield of the standardized, un-standardized and diseased pod fractions. The results were evaluated statistically with SPSS and Excell softwares.
    Emergence had all at once, but the plants of organic farming were 5 days earlier at flowering and maturity, than conventional farming.
    The plants in organic place were more developed than in conventional ones. Emergence was more uniform, the growth and the number of plant were square. Significant difference was not detected in plant height between two places. Most of the varieties examined had better total yield in organic place, than in conventional ones. Deviation depended on variety. ‘Sonesta’ and ‘Debreceni sárga’ had the best yield in both places. In
    conventional farming choice can be expanded with ‘Unidor’ and ‘Sundance’. In organic farming choice can be expanded with ‘Minidor’ and ‘Carson’.
    In both places the Sonesta, Debreceni sárga and Unidor varieties had the most standardized yield per hectare. In organic place Carson variety had good pod yield because it was infected less by diseases.
    In the another trial we studied inside content values of some varieties on organic and conventional places. The parameters were observed: dry matter-, starch-, crude fibre-, crude protein content and amino acid content.
    The rates of asparagin or glutamine acid were the highest, which was followed by serin or histidine. In asparagin content was the most deviation between conventional and organic farming.
    Significant differences were between varieties in dry matter-, starch-, crude fibre-, and crude protein content both on organic and conventional places. Each variety had significant differences between organic and conventional farming.
    Starch had strong and negative correlation with dry matter, crude fibre and crude protein content.
    Budai piaci and Minidor varieties and BU-16 variety candidate had higher starch content and lower dry matter, crude fibre and crude protein content on organic place. Sonesta variety had almost equal dry matter content on both places, but crude protein content was higher with 10% and starch content was lower with 6% on organic place, than on conventional place. Paridor variety had almost equal starch content, but it had higher dry matter and crude protein content on organic place. 

  • Feeding questions of organic lamb fattening
    155-160
    Views:
    88

    Organic farming has done in line with conventional farming in the Karcag Research Institute of DU CASE since 2001. Our organic farming activities were enhanced with sheep farming and
    grassland management in 2005. We started our study of technology development of organic lamb fattening and the treatment of its economic effect this year. Our goal was to develop
    the elements of the technology to reach a more efficient organic lamb fattening. We also studied what economic advantages the organic sheep farming could realize in the present economic environment. Our studies were carried out between 2005 and 2007. We established that the excellent ewe feeding (good quality of fodder and silage) can decrease the lamb feeding cost between the 2nd and 8th weeks of the lambs’ life. We established that the
    yield of convention lambs are significantly higher than the yield of organic lambs. The cost of organic lamb fodder is significantly lower than the cost a convention lamb fodder, but the profit was higher in the case of convention lamb fattening. The organic lamb fattening technology (without extra price) is not competitive to the conventional lamb fattening technology. We think that the profitability of organic lamb fattening is significantly less than of the convention one. The organic lamb price should be 20-30% higher than the other price to be competitive.  Unfortunatly there is only a little demand for organic lamb and there is no difference between the prices of organic and convention lambs, so organic sheep farmers have worse economic circumstances than conventional sheep farmers. 

  • Nitrogen Supplying Capacity of Brown Forest Soil under Different Cropping Practices and 0.01 M CaCl2 Soluble Organic Nitrogen
    17-23
    Views:
    86

    The best known and most remarkable example of continuous production in Hungary is the Westsik’s crop rotation experiment, which was established in 1929, and is still in use to study the effects of organic manure treatment, to develop models, and predict the likely effects of different cropping systems on soil properties and crop yields. In this respect, Westsik’s crop rotation experiment provides data of immediate value to farmers concerning the applications of green, straw and farmyard manure, as well as data sets for scientific research.
    Although commonly ignored, the release of nitrogen by root and green manure crops has a significant impact on soil organic matter turnover. The design of sustainable nitrogen management strategies requires a better understanding of the processes influencing nitrogen supplying capacity, as the effects of soil organic matter on soil productivity and crop yield are still very uncertain and require further research. In the treatments of Westsik’s crop rotation experiment, nutrients removed from soil through plant growth and harvesting are replaced either by fertilisers and/or organic manure. Data can be used to study the nitrogen supplying capacity of soil under different cropping systems and its effect on the 0.01 M CaCl2 soluble organic nitrogen content of soil.
    The aim of this paper is to present data on the nitrogen supplying capacity of brown forest soil from Westsik’s crop rotation experiment and to study its correlation with hundredth molar calcium-chloride soluble organic nitrogen. The main objective is to determine the effects of root and green manure crops on the nitrogen supplying capacity of soil under different cropping systems. The nitrogen supplying capacity was calculated as a difference of plant uptake, organic manure and fertiliser supply.
    The 0.01 M CaCl2 soluble organic nitrogen test has proved reliable for determining the nitrogen supplying capacity of soils. Brown forest soils are low in organic matter and in the F-1 fallow-rye-potato rotation, the nitrogen supplying capacity was 15.6 kg/ha/year. 0.01 M CaCl2 soluble organic nitrogen content was as low as 1.73 mg/kg soil. Roots and green manure increased the nitrogen supplying capacity of soil by more than 100%. This increase is caused by lupine, a legumes crop, which is very well adapted to the acidic soil conditions of the Nyírség region, and cultivated as a green or root manure crop to increase soil fertility.

  • Organic soybean production in Hungary
    45-52
    Views:
    128

    Organic soy production, particularly for feedstuff in organic animal husbandry, is needed in Hungary and the EU regions. Soybean producing crop area in Hungary has increased in the last years, however, the agroecological potential would allow for a larger soybean production area. This study presents the soybean market in Hungary, and the role of soybeans in protein supply in food and feed, summarising the critical elements of organic soybean production from variety selection to marketing. During the field research, the effects of the agronomical environment on yield potential factors were examined. We aimed to determine how different row spacing and tillage systems affect organic soybean yields of different varieties, with particular attention to the dry region, and determine the specific methods and varieties of soybean that favour these areas. We found that the tillage (plough/grubber), the spacing (wide/narrow), and the variety effects were all significant on morphological variables. The most remarkable difference was seen in plant height and the number of pods per plant, while the number of nodes was also highly impacted by tillage treatment and variety. The nutrition variables were significantly different, mainly as an effect of tillage and spacing interaction with significantly different plant responses of varieties.

  • Comparing the yield of maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids in organic and conventional agriculture
    13-17
    Views:
    60

    The European Green Deal was published by the European Commission in 2019. The main aim of the program is to reach net zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2050, making Europe the first climate-neutral continent in the world. To achieve this, criteria are also set for agriculture: increasing the share of land under organic farming to 25%, reducing the use of fertilisers and pesticides. However, the benefits of organic farming are widely debated. The aim of our study was to compare the yield of maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids bred in Martonvasar in two different cropping environments. The silage yields of 20 different maize hybrids were evaluated in a three replicate small plot experiment in an organic field and an adjacent conventional field. The average green mass yield of the hybrids was 36,58 t ha-1 in the organic field and 43,03 t ha-1 in the conventional. The green mass yield in the organic area was 20% lower than in the conventional area, and the dry matter yield and digestible dry matter yield were about 18% lower. Hybrids of different maturity groups responded differently to organic cultivation. The yields of early hybrids decreased more and late hybrids less in the organic farming compared to the conventional production.

  • Economic Aspects of Winter Wheat and Sunflower Production Under Organic Farming Methods
    256-261
    Views:
    83

    On the basis of data from selected organic crop producing farms around Hortobagy and a significant conventional agricultural enterprise, the efficiency calculation of two important crops, winter wheat and sunflower were compared to each other, according to the organic and the conventional farming methods. The analysis was carried out on the basis of data of the year 2002, helped by the calculation and the comparison of the efficiency indexes. According to the results, the organic winter wheat was more highly profitable in 2002 than the conventional one, and this is because the price ratio of the two was quite high, however the yields and the production costs per hectare were almost on the same level. Considering the sunflower, organic farming was less productive than the conventional one in 2002, as the average yield in the examined organic farms was significantly lower than under the conventional farming method, and this was not compensated by the extra price for the organic crop product.

  • The Role of Organic Farming in Hungary and in the Northern Plain Region
    273-276
    Views:
    71

    In 2003, the area, which was monitored according to the requirement of organic farming, was 116 thousand hectares in Hungary, and included almost 1700 works, which produce organic products. This is some 2% of the cultivated land of Hungary. The increase of organic farming areas has slowed down in recent years. In these conditions the optimal 300,000 hectares cannot be achieve in 2006.
    In 2003, the area which was cultivated according to the regulations of organic farming was more than 33 thousand hectares in the North Great Plain Region, and monitored 250 enterprises the associates of the monitor organization. The challenge of the coordinators of the organic farming in the region are to fortificate the processing industry. The goal is to increase the added value of the products.

  • Name Brands and Symbols Used Organic Products in the European Union and in Hungary
    174-180
    Views:
    79

    In 2002, the area which was monitored according to the requirements of organic farming numbered 103 thousand hectares in Hungary (this is some 1.7% of all cultivated land) and almost 1000 plants producing organic products were inspected. It is a realistic assumption, when considering these data, that within a short period time the area used for organic farming will reach the optimal 600.000 hectares.
    Contrary to overproduction in the EU – cereals, maize and other plants – organic products can be sold in unlimited quantities. Practice also indicates, that 90% of Hungarian certified organic products are sold in EU and Swiss markets.
    Thus, it is important to label Hungarian products according to EU standards. This way standard quality products can be sold easier and by increasing their income, manufacturers can contribute to the improvement of the environment.

  • Change of mineral and organic nitrogen forms in a long term fertilization experiment (literature)
    43-47
    Views:
    112

    The research topic has timeliness, since the rational utilization and protection of the soil, besides the conservation of its diverse functions is part of the sustainable development. Research of the long-term experiments is esentially important, because it can model the term effects in the same place, under the same conditions. If we want to get accurate informations about the occured changes, way and danger of changes, we should track the resupply and effect of the mineral nutrients and the removed quantity of nutrients with the harvest. Nitrogen is an essential element for living organisms, it is present in the soil mainly in organic form. In general only only a low percentage of the total nitrogent content can be used directly by plants in the soil. This inorganic nitrogen is produced by the transformation of organic contents through mineralization processes and it get into the soil by the fertilization. The plants incorporote the mineral nitrogen into our bodies. This is how nitrogen turnover is realized when mineral forms become organic and organic forms become mineral.

    The purpose of our paper is to make a literature before our research.

  • Current Conditions and Opportunities of Biofarming in Hungary
    150-156
    Views:
    85

    The aim of organic farming is not to maximize income, but to achieve optimal product quality. It is completed by the tightest possible material, and energy flow within the farm. Organic agriculture significantly reduces external inputs by avoiding the use of chemo-synthetic fertilizers, pesticides and pharmaceuticals. Instead it works with nature to increase both agricultural yields and disease resistance. Total independence of external resources can not be achieved in Hungary due to the small-scale of organic animal husbandry. Some materials in limited quantities can be purchased from external resources, though the group of these materials is strictly regulated. Organic farming harmonizes with the concept of European multifunctional agriculture, because besides farming, it includes social considerations, as it helps to maintain natural resources and the relationship between people and their environment, and provides a living for those living in the region.
    As regards organic farming the fertility of the soil and the health of vegetation can be influenced in various ways. Farmers have to be highly skilled and able to manage a farm with great expertise. Generally it can be stated that as the use of non-organically produced products is limited, the opportunities to correct failures made by the farmer are minimal, contrary to conventional farming. Farmers must be intent on developing the tightest material- and energy flow. This means that organic farms ideally have both animal husbandry and crop production. This energy and skill demanding system of farming is compensated by state subsidies, growing market share and relatively high prices for organic products.

  • The effect of soil cultivation systems on organic matter distribution in different grain size fractions of the soil based on three years of experience
    22-30
    Views:
    71

    Changes in the physical distribution (particle size and the state stability against decomposition) of the organic carbon pool in tilled layers of Hungarian field soil under different tillage treatments were studied. Three years after starting the experiment, soil samples were fractionated (they were taken in March 2005) by their particle size and density. The treatments caused well measurable, significant effects on two fractions of intra-microaggregate organic matter (53-250μm particle-sized, well and less decomposition-resistant pools) and onto their relative rate in the organic carbon pool of the whole soil.
    Different tillage treatments caused different distributions in the organic matter fractions. In regularly intensely cultivated soils evolve different physical structure, particle size-distribution, which reduce the soil fertility and its resistance against outer impacts.

  • Previous data on the relationship between the intensity of pruning and the degree of damage in integrated and organic applegrowing systems
    47-52
    Views:
    87

    In Hungary, fruit growers are increasingly interested in environmentally friendly growing methods, such as organic and integrated systems. Vital is the establishment of a strengthened system of cultivar-pruning-plant protection in production technology. Consequently, our aim was to examine the susceptibility of apple cultivars to diseases and pests and the effect of pruning technique on diseases and pests in organic and integrated growing systems.
    Two pathogens (Venturia inaequalis, Podosphaera leucotricha) and two pests (Leucoptera malifoliella, Pannonychus ulmi) were observed in organic and integrated systems under „strong” and „weak” pruning techniques. Our results on six cultivars showed that the pathogens and pests infested the trees more in the organic system, as compared to that of integrated production. The pruning technique affected mainly the susceptible
    cultivars to diseases and pests. The „weak” pruning technique caused a higher level of diseases and pests infestations than the „strong” pruning technique, especially in the organic growing system. The likely reason is that the shoots grow fast and powerfully under “strong” pruning technique. This supports better preservation of the trees supported by susceptibility of plant tissues to diseases and pests.

  • Comparative Study of Dutch and Hungarian Environmentally-friendly Apple Orchards on Potential Ascospore Dose of Apple Scab
    31-36
    Views:
    85

    In a 2-year study, Dutch and Hungarian environmentally-friendly apple orchards were compared as regards the amount of apple scab primary inoculum. The PAD (potential ascospore dose) method was used to quantify the potential amount of primary inoculum (ascospores) per m2 orchard floor. Applying this method, the number of lesions per m2 of leaf in the autumn (LD), the proportion of the orchard floor covered by leaf litter at bud break (LLD) and potential ascospore dose (PAD) were determined. In autumn, LD values ranged between 2.2 and 13.5 in the integrated orchards, while in the organic orchards the values were between 42.5 and 106.2, with especially high values in the Dutch organic orchard. LLD values ranged between 24 and 43% at bud break in both countries. PAD values were 10-60 times higher than those of the integrated orchards. The PAD values were between 673 and 4275 ascospore/m2 orchard floor in the integrated orchards, while in the organic orchards these values were 37102 and 52390 ascospore/m2 orchard floor, respectively. On the basis of the recorded primary inoculum quantity, the Dutch integrated apple orchard is considered to be excellently protected, while the Hungarian orchard has a medium level of protection. However, both countries’ organic orchards can be regarded overall as being very poorly protected. Accordingly, in the integrated orchards the predicted epidemic risk is low or medium, while in the organic orchards it is very high on the basis of PAD values.

  • Comparison of macroelement and microelement contents of conventionally and organically grown crops
    87-92
    Views:
    141

    Nowedays one of the most important issues to discuss is the healthy nutrition: feeding our bodies with high quality nutrients, which is free of chemical residues. The demand for healthy and nutritious food is increasing worldwide, that results in the growing popularity of consumption of organic food. Several studies dealing with the nutrient content of traditional and organic food have been published lately, since it became clear that eating food contaminated with chemical residues damage to health, food and the environment. Therefore it would be desirable to find out if organic food is really superior to conventional one. In our study we analyzed the dry matter, ash, macroelement and trace element content of organically and conventionally grown crops (carrot root, potato tuber and parsnip). Our results provide further information to consumers about the nutritional value of organic and conventional crops.

  • Consumption of fertilizers in districts of Slovakia in the period 2006–2015
    389-398
    Views:
    153

    Consumption of fertilizers in districts of Slovakia in the period 2006–2015 Water quality in the surface streams is influenced by several factors. One of important information which can help us to solve problems with quality of water in water body is a distribution of point and non-point pollution sources in a river basin and also amount of pollutants released from them to surface streams. An example of a point source of pollution is the outlet from wastewater treatment plants (industry, urban areas, farms, etc.). On the other hand the most significant non-point source of pollution is considered the application of fertilizers in agriculture.

    In this paper we have evaluated consumption of organic and industrial fertilizers in Slovakia in the period 2006–2015. Total (in tonnes) and average (in kg ha-1) consumption of industrial and organic fertilizers was analyzed. In monitored period, the amount of applied organic fertilizers was much higher than the amount of applied industrial fertilizers and in addition a significant part of total fertilizers consumption had nitrogenous fertilizers in a group of industrial fertilizers. In a group of industrial fertilizers during the period 2006–2015 we observed just moderately increasing in their consumption, while in the period 2010–2015 the average amount of applied industrial fertilizers per hectare of agricultural land increased by about 20 kg ha-1. On the other hand, in a group of organic fertilizers we observed a decreasing in consumption of fertilizers.

  • Effects of Tillage Systems on Physical Status and Organic Matter Turnover of the Soil
    42-45
    Views:
    154

    The cultivation technology for those plant, that play a key role in arable land production need to be renewed in order to reduce production costs and to protect arable land. The modernisation of technologies can only be achieved by applying appropriate tillage systems. Our measurements were carried out on chernozem soil with lime deposits at the Látókép Experimental Station of the Center for Agricultural Sciences, Debrecen University, in long term tillage experiments set up in 1989. We examined the typical physical parameters, the albedo, field capacity, the bulk density of the soil, organic carbon content (humus %) and the measured pH-values in the water solution within the two tillage variations. We have also modelled nitrogen cycle formation in different treatments.
    A significant difference occured between the albedos of the two soils, which may be the result of significant amounts of stem remaining on the surface in the case of the reduced tillage method. The yellow, waxy stem of maize reflects 21% of the sun’s rays, especially at the beginning of the vegetation period, when its decomposition has only just started. This delys the warming up in early spring, which delays the sowing time of maize and reduces evaporation. In the two tillage variations, the water management characteristics do not differ practically, the wilting point field capacity are in accordance. In reduced tillage methods, the so-called „plough-pan” can be well measured at 15-20 cm, while in winter ploughing it is at 30 cm. The humus % of the soil does not differ in the two tillage variations, but due to the difference in bulk density this means a different humus and organic nitrogen content. The organic nitrogen content is greater in the reduced tillage method. On the basis of pH value evaluations, we could not detect significant differences in the two tillage variations. The organic nitrogen content of areas where reduced tillage method was applied is higher than in areas where conventional winter ploughing was applied.

  • Comparison of apricot cultivars for suitability for organic growing
    63-65
    Views:
    60

    Nowadays, important task is using more widely the environmentally friendly production technologies. There are considerable differences
    among technologies using reduced spray programs (integrated and organic) in plant protection and plant nutrition.
    In this case integrated production has a better position as roles for organic production more strict and due to this fruits has an obvious
    temporal and permanent reduction in tree conditions. Fitotechnical elements and renewal and regeneration of cultivars are important
    factors for offseting or delaying of condition weakening.
    In this study, 5 apricot cultivars (not pruned for 8 years) were compared in their characteristics (assessment of inactive, semi-active and
    active plant parts).
    Our study showed that there were 50-70% differences among observed characteristics. Our study confirmed those cultivars which are
    suitable for organic production and which one more resistant to condition weakening and which one able to tolerate negative technological
    effects.

  • The effect of reduced sprinkler programs on the main fungal pathogens of apple in environmentally sound production systems
    13-16
    Views:
    75

    Aim of our two-year study was to evaluate the possibilities of chemical use against key fungal pathogens (apple scab, apple powdery mildew and brown rot) in integrated and organic apple production. Therefore, first, disease incidence was compared in standard and reduced spray programmes and then each technological variation was evaluated from practical point of view. Altogether four spray programmes were compared. Standard and reduced spray programmes were performed in the integrated production. The same pesticides were used in the reduced spray
    programme compared to standard one but numbers of spray were reduced by 25% at the second half of the season. Standard and reduced spray programmes were also performed in the organic production and the numbers of spray were reduced by 40% in the reduced spray programme. Incidence of diseases was low in both standard and reduced spray programmes in integrated production. Diseases level was high in the organic production and disease increased significantly in the reduced spray programmes compared to standard programmes. Results showed that reduction in spray numbers at the second half of the season can be used practically in integrated production. Omission of sprays in organic
    production resulted in serious disease management risk; therefore, it is not recommended for practical use. 

  • Early evaluation of use of fermented chicken manure products in practice of apple nutrient management
    195-198
    Views:
    104

    According to the Green Deal efforts, the importance and relevance of organic fertilization will increase in the near future. Therefore, the investigation of the effects of different organic fertilizers on soil productivity and nutrient supply is a priority area of agricultural research. Organic fertilizer experiment was conducted in an eight-year-old apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) orchard at Debrecen-Pallag. In the trial Pinova cultivar was used. In this study, two different fermented chicken manure products were added to the soil (in 20 cm depth) to test their effects on soil nutrient status, plant uptake and fruit quality. It was found that the applied treatments slightly increased the pH and nutrient levels in almost all cases, but significant effect was not observed in all treatments compared to the control. Leaf nutrient contents (N, P, K, Ca and Mg) were measured in the experiment. Leaf nutrient status was not affected by the fermented chicken manure treatments. However, used treatments had strong effects on the fruit characteristics and inner parameters, such as fruit diameter and Brix value. Moreover, it was established that the applied organic fertilizers increased the yield significantly.

  • Microbiological and Chemical Characterization of Different Composts
    106-111
    Views:
    68

    Composting of agricultural waste is considered particularly important from the point-of-view of environmental protection. Degradation of organic substance results in a significant reduction of waste volume.
    The end product of the composting process, mature compost, can be used as soil coverage against excess loss of wastes, for mulching, for organic manure etc. The problem of composting has come into limelight in environmental studies and in agriculture.
    The quality of the mature compost is determined by physical, chemical and biological parameters of the composting process which, in turn, depend on initial composition of the raw materials, the technology, e.g. regular mixing and moistening and on environmental factors. Quality is the key question in compost use.
    We studied the composting process in compost windrows of different raw material composition. We measured temperature, humidity content, pH, organic substance content, nitrogen and carbon content.
    We counted the number of bacteria, microscopic fungy, ammonifying and cellulose decomposing microorganisms. We directed the composting process with turning weekly (to provide oxygen) and watering (to provide humidity content 40-60%).
    We set up windrows of 1 m3 volume from dry plant substances (cornstalk, pea straw, tomato stalk and crop, weeds) and cow manure not older than 1 week. The cow manure was used at ratios of 0%, 35%, 50%, 65% and 100%, respectively.
    We measured changes in compost temperature relationship with outside temperature until they were almoust the same. Humidity was 40-60% in most cases.
    At the beginning of the process, pH was slightly acidic-neutral; it later becomes neutral-slightly alkaline (pH: 6.93-8.02) as ammonia is liberated from proteins.
    At the end of the process, pH decreased again, due to humification.
    Organic substance content decreased as microorganisms mineralized them. Organic carbon content decreased gradually due to microorganisms used it as an energy.
    Total nitrogen content increased until middle of july and decreased gradually until than.
    The carbon/nitrogen rate were higher in the beginning, it decreased until july-august and increased by smaller degree until end of the process.
    The number of bacteria was higher in the first three weeks and between june-september. The number of cellulose degrading bacteria was the highest in the first three month, the number of ammonifying bacteria was the highest from the end of may until sepember.
    The number of microscopic fungy was significant in the second part of process, after july.

  • Loss and Disease Development of Monilinia fructigena (Aderh. & Ruhl.) Honey in an Organic Apple Orchard
    6-8
    Views:
    143

    In a two-year-study, yield loss and temporal development of incidence of Monilinia fructigena were quantified in organic apple orchards and the importance of fruit wounding agents was determined. The first infected fruits were observed at the beginning of August in 2001 and 2002. Disease development was continuous until fruit harvest in both years. Pre-harvest yield loss caused by Monilinia fructigena amounted on average 27.2% in 2001 and 41.6% in 2002 by fruit harvest. The growth rate of disease development was almost double in 2002 compared to 2001. All infected fruits were injured by wounding agents such as aboitic and mechanical injury factors, codling moth (Cydia pomonella), common earwig (Forficula auricularia) and birds. In this study, the most important wounding agents were codling moth and mechanical injury factors in organic apple orchards. In both years, our results showed that 70-80% of the infected fruits were damaged by codling moth in organic apple production. Moreover, 10-15% of the infected fruits were mechanically injured in the two years. Our results indicated that most of the damaged fruits fell on the orchard floor before harvest and they became an important secondary inoculum source of M. fructigena. Biological and practical implications of the results are discussed.

  • Change of soil nitrogen content in a long term fertilization experiment
    39-44
    Views:
    136

    The most important aim of sustainable agriculture is to ensure our natural resources – such as soils – protection, which includes fertility preservation and the use of appropriate methods of cultivation.

    If we want to get accurate information about the occurred changes, way and danger of changes, we should track the resupply and effect of the mineral nutrients and the removed quantity of nutrients with the harvest.

    Nitrogen is an essential element for living organisms and it is present in the soil mainly in organic form. In general only a low percentage of the total nitrogen content can be used directly by plants in the soil. The mineral nitrogen is incorporate by plants into our bodies. This inorganic nitrogen is produced by the transformation of organic contents through mineralization processes and it gets into the soil by fertilization. This is how nitrogen turnover occurs when mineral forms become organic and organic forms become mineral.

    The objective of this publication was to introduce – through some element s of nitrogen turnover- how changing the properties of soil in a long term fertilization experiment.

    We established that the fertilization is influenced the soil pH. With the increase of fertilization levels increased the acidity of the soil, maybe it is related with the number of nitrification bacteria. The fertilization and the rotation affected to the quantity of nitrate.

  • The role of green manure crops in Hungarian plant production
    49-53
    Views:
    201

    According to the data of KSH (Hungarian Central Statistical Office), the sowing area of cereals in the crop year 2016 was over 2.56 million ha, on which winter wheat and maize were produced in a rate of around 50–50%. Regarding these data it is obvious that the domestic cropping structure has been simplified and become unilateral. This unfavourable crop rotation system causes several problems. The number of Hungarian livestock decreased in the past decades. The amount of manure was 24 million tons in 1960, but only hardly 4.5 million tons of organic manure was applied in 2016. Therefore, the importance of other possibilities, alternatives for organic matter recovery have become enhanced. This is especially important from the aspect of sustainable plant production. The fact that the European Union has introduced new directives for subsidiaries in 2015 has to be noted as well.

    The objective of the set experiment is to find new technological solutions that are suitable for the execution of sustainable plant production by inadequate crop rotation, organic substance recovery conditions or under more unfavourable climatic conditions.

  • Analysis of organic farming’s economic viability at different subsidy levels
    111-118
    Views:
    65

    Applying a data-collection-based economic model, I analyzed the economic viability of organic farming at different subsidy levels. The database is concentrated on the Hortobagy region. On the basis of data, I built an average sized and operated organic farm model with both arable land cultivation and animal keeping activities. The analysis of viability is based on gross profit calculation and compared with the criteria of the long-term economic viability, determined by the author. This study summarizes the most important results of the analysis.

  • Possibilities of ecological farming in the North Great Plain Region
    69-71
    Views:
    66

    Agriculture plays a significant role in the North Great Plain Region. Organic farming is a sustainable farming method controlled by regulations. Active environmental protection and conservation play significant roles in organic farming, along with food quality and safety, originality and the monitoring of products. Organic farming offers opportunities to create employment, social safety and high profitability. As a result of these characteristics, organic farming could become one of the most important means of developing our region in the future.