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Risk effects of the spread route of mycotoxins
Published October 5, 2010

In Hungary the mycotoxin is a great problem, because there are many natural toxins in wheat and maize. These cereals can be found on
considerable proportion of the country’s sowing area, and they are deterministic food for the population. The direct human and animal
utilization of the contaminated cereals mean a serious risk in the food... chain. In Hungary’s climate the soil is contaminated with pathogen
moulds, particularly Fusarium species, which increase by respective temperature and moisture content in cereals. The Fusarium can
decrease the quality of the wheat in different ways: decrease the germination capability and cause visible discoloration and appearance of
mould, reduces the dry material and nutrient content of the grain. From the toxins produced by the Fusarium genus, the trichotecene (T-2,
HT-2, deoxinivalenol, nivalenol, diacetoxyscxirpenol, Fusarenon-X) and the estrogenic zearalenon (F-2) are the most common in Hungary.
The fumonisins (FB1, FB2, FB3) first identified in 1988, relatively newly discovered, are also important. Major proportion of mycotoxins in a
healthy organization is metabolized by the enzyme system of liver and intestinal bacteria. The toxicity is reduced or even leaves off.
However, more toxic and biologically active compounds can be formed. For the reduction of mycotoxin-contamination several possibilities
are available in the case of storage, processing and feeding.

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A study of the changes in management tasks
Published July 28, 2008

Determining the scope of management is difficult owing to the terminological uncertainty, which can be experienced often. The terms of management theory are interpreted differently not only by the general public but also by the highly recognised specialists, researchers, and instructors of this special area. The reasons for this can be found in... historical preliminaries, the different social environment, attitude and approach. The definitions and the content of the terms have been modified and developed in parallel with the social and economic changes (Berde, 2001). The consequences of the economic changes of the past decade have significantly affected the conditions for the operation of management, the management structures, the ranking and importance of management tasks. The differentiating of corporate sizes, the increase in the number of small and medium-sized enterprises, the simplification of the production structure, the decrease in management levels, the strengthening of proprietary positions, and the continuous changing of the market economic environment are all influences that also affect, determine and continuously modify the management tasks.
Everyone knows what a manager does. Still, it is not easy to determine what it does all day as his or her work is such a complex activity where the management tasks are present in a complex way, weaved into each other. Nevertheless, the separate management tasks appearing in the management activity can be defined well, can be separated from each other clearly, enabling us to study and analyse each management task separately.
Based upon the findings of a face-to-face questionnaire survey, this essay aims to present that, according to the managers, to what extent the judgement of management tasks has changed and to what extent the applied management tasks specialise based upon the extent of relation to the company.

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Human resource management surveys at organizations operating at profitoriented and public spheres
Published September 2, 2009

I introduce the performance management from the area of human resource management that I examined at organizations operating in market environment and in the public sphere as well. The reason of my choice of subject is that the performance management got into the centre of interest also in Hungary lately.
The scale of values connecting tradi...tionally to the organizations of the private and public sphere is different vitally, what affected substantive differences of the organization, the management and the human resources management environment. Within these I tried to reveal their performance management system and with their comparison to draw conclusions. I did my surveys at profit oriented organizations and at organizations operating at the public sphere.
Performance management is one centre field of modern human resource managing, as the basis of the successful functioning of any company is the possibly most effective operation of its resources. Performance management is a possibility for the company and for the employer to overview the realization of the determined aims and the factors that block or promote accomplishments. Considering the results, the employee and the manager could determine subsequent realistic and accessible aims for the following period. Achievement management is extremely
important in those positions where achievement could not be measured accurately.
I carried out my surveys according to performance management by observation and data acquisition. I applied questionnaire survey to collect data, or rather made deep interviews; I talked personally with more employees as well.
The questionnaire consisted of one data format and performance management questionnaire. I processed the gathered data by computer and visualized graphically. I also did examinations by using statistic methods, by which I was able to get to know the certain organizations deeper and thus it was possible for me to reveal more connections.

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Examination and statistical evaluation of physico-chemical parameters of windrow composting
Published May 20, 2020


The treatment and utilization of plant and animal waste and by-products from agriculture is very diverse. Traditional environmental management practices for waste management have been retained through soil conservation and the applied of recycle degradable organic substances in soil. The management o...f by-products from agriculture (animal husbandry) is important because a closed loop can be created to utilize by-products (manure, feathers) from the production of the main product (eggs, meat, milk) and to form a raw material for a new product. It is important to treat the resulting by-products, especially deep-litter manure, as it has served as a basis for compost-treated manure to develop an organic-based, soil-conditioning product line. Poultry manure by itself is not suitable as a substrate for aerobic decomposition, so it has to be mixed with other substances (zeolite, bentonite, soil), because of its high nutrient capacity, it is an acidifying substance.

The aim of this study was to compost the mixture of poultry manure and hen manure by the addition of zeolite and to monitor the composting process. It was also our aim to statistically determine the effect of the zeolite on parameters describing the composting process.

The windrow composting experiments were set up in the composting area of the University of Debrecen, Institute of Water and Environmental Management. The composting experiment was 62 days long, during which the main parameters describing the composting process were continuously monitored: temperature (°C), moisture content (w/w%), electrical conductivity (mS/cm), organic matter content (w/w%), examination of nitrogen forms (w/w%). In this study, three factors were investigated: temperature, humidity, and pH. For statistical evaluation, R software and RStudio user interface were used. We developed a repeated measurement model, in which the fixed and random effects were determined for our parameters under study, and the resulting relationships were shown on interaction plots.

Based on our results, the temperature of the prisms has become independent of the ambient temperature and the composting stages can be separated in both the control and the zeolite treated prisms. In the repeated measurement model, we proved that treatment, time and treatment: time interaction were significant at both temperature and pH.

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Congruency Analyses in Agricultural Organizations
Published March 4, 2006

Management is one of the ancient activities. Managerial behaviour helped humans to become sociable creatures. The aims and roles of management have continually changed along with social and economic changes. Some management theories in the early literature interpret the managerial function as „to instruct” and „to control” subordinates.... The manager – having the appropriate authority – unilaterally appoints the expected activities in accordance with the objectives of the organization and his/her own wish. Its form is the instruction or the command.
Later, organizations and management theories defined the managerial function rather as the impact on the employees than (or instead of) a unilateral manifestation of will. These focus on collaboration and imitation instead of on obedience. These theories were based on the fact that the employees work hard to succeed in meeting organizational goals because they want to meet their own needs, desires and wishes.
Today, management means being in a relationship with colleagues, effective and successful working methods and, last but not least, commitment and liability for the company. The responsibilities of directors are to estimate the employees’ competences and to apply the workforce expediently.
In our opinion, the two most important questions of human resource management (HRM) will be:
• the expectations made of the manager by the subordinates,
• the expectations made of the subordinates by the manager.
The expectations of management have continuously evolved along with the social, political and economical improvement. We consider the most important requirements will be the following:
• the exploitation of employees’ abilities (especially the leaders’),
• the exploitation of human resource,
• aim-oriented leadership related to different management levels.
The actual research covers only the examination of managerial requirements. We experienced that the expectations are affected by many factors starting with the fulfillment of a specific task to the social environment as a whole. Managements of the last century did not require such self-reliance, creativity and broad knowledge from their subordinates as they do today. Employees have to be able to adapt to new tasks, technology and methods; have to react quickly against the problems; and be loyal to the company and the manager.
We plan to expand our research backwards as well, in which we will search for the answer what kind of expectations are formulated by subordinates on the manager. Thus, we can approach and reveal the expectations (the examined factors) from two sides.
Due to this method, we would like to work out such coherences which can help us to demonstrate the opinions of the differently qualified employees of the organisations. The applied method provides us facilities to carry it out in various organisational parameters, such as functional form, size, effectiveness, range of activity.

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Influence of 17-alpha methyl testosterone on the production parameters of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) fry
Published December 28, 2018

During our research we aimed at finding an answer as to what extent the different concentrations of 17-alpha methyl testosterone incorporated in the diet of common carp fries can influence the production parameters of the species, as well as how efficient their sexreversal can be with the use of this method. To this end, an aquarium experiment ...was conducted in the course of which four different hormone treatments were set and monitored. The fish feed was enriched with 17-alpha methyl testosterone in 50 ppm, 75 ppm, 100 ppm, 500 ppm dosages.

The obtained figures revealed that the hormone treatments had no influence on the production parameters and conservation of the common carp fries. Further on, our team is to determine the sex of the fish through the examination of gonads during autopsy when they reach the 500 g average weight.

Furthermore, a male specific test method which was supposed to be of great help in our attempt to select the sex-reversed specimens in the subsequent processes was also put to the trial. During the experiment the DNA-isolation of different sample types (muscle tissue, fin, mucus) of common carp with identified sex was successfully carried out. The extracted PCR product was examined with agarose gel. Our results indicated that the ccmf2 marker was applicable, however, the obtained figures were not reliable.

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Effect of hail net on the water potential of an apple orchard
Published December 1, 2020

 Apple production has seen a decline in yields in recent years, primarily due to ecological factors such as drought, water stress, water scarcity, uneven rainfall distribution, frost damage and hail damage. Ecological factors that are harmful to the plant can be eliminated by human intervention, irrigation or the ...use of hail net. In our study, we investigated the positive effects of hail net on the development of plant water potential as the vegetation progressed, in non-irrigation area with temperature and humidity. Water potential values were determined using a field osmometer. Confirmed the positive effect of the ice protection net in the apple orchard of Early Gold and Golden Reinders. Our results were supported by statistical analyzes our results.

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Changes in Managerial Functions in Agriculture
Published September 15, 2003

Managerial activity is a process constituted by well separable functions, tasks. The functions and the content of managerial activity are influenced by several factors.
This multi-sided affectedness focused our attention on the analysis of management tasks. We aimed to formulate responses for the questions how and to what extent the and tasks of organizations define the tasks and functions at the given organization. On the basis of interview surveys, we analyzed the following managerial tasks: functions concerning information, communication, planning, decision-making, organization, control. The interviewed had to rank the factors influencing management tasks on a scale ranging from one to five. On the basis of the activities and tasks of organizations, we defined three types. The scope of this study does not allow us to publish all the results related to the above-mentioned managerial functions, so we can only present some, which are of interest.
Our findings suggest that the realization of certain management functions is influenced by several factors. Without striving for completeness, we could only evaluate 9-11 factors per function. The evaluation of information sources is considerably differentiated in terms of the activities, tasks of organizations. In the assessment of plans, the potentials for realization and repetition were judged differently, whereas non-organization changes and individual planning similarly. The findings of impact factors in decision making are largely different, as well in terms of organizational activities, but all the interviewed ranked the interests of the organization high. Analysis on control indicated that managers attributed higher importance to issues of content than to methodological ones.
Our investigations follow Fayol’s classical groups based on managerial tasks. We studied the following five tasks in the process of management: information tasks, planning, decision-making, instructions and control. We performed our studies with the inclusion of agricultural organization managers, with questionnaire surveys. The interviewed were asked to qualify the impact factors on the five investigated management tasks on a scale ranging from 1-5. We identified the following company groups: small company, medium company and large company.
We performed our analysis on the basis of company sizes as well, seeking to formulate responses on how size influences the qualification of the investigated factors.
Our findings suggest that the interviewed company managers attribute higher than average roles to the tasks of the management process. The qualification, ranking of management tasks are considerably influenced by company sizes. Relationships and venues are important in the implementation of information tasks, whereas the viability of plans is essential in the process of planning. Usefulness and company interests are highlighted in decision-making. In the case of instructions and decision-making, we stressed the significance of content elements as opposed to formal ones.

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Study on Human Resource Management in Agriculture
Published December 10, 2002

The human factor has been reassessed with regard to strategic initiatives towards obtaining and preserving competitive advantage. Knowledge, experience and special skills are a specific form of capital, forming part of the organisations’ assets and serving as an organisational strategic resource. Their development and use require major invest...ments, both on the part of the individual and the organisation. In a Europe undergoing integration, the quality of human resources enjoy priority among our really important values and specific features. The opportunities of the near future can be utilised, and agricultural economic organizations can survive and increase their organizational effectiveness, if they possess a basis of human capital which is able to make a shift in perspective and behaviour which is of primary importance from the point of view of incorporating market mechanisms and implementing them in practice. My investigations were focused on the current position of human resource management in a comprehensive manner; further, on the approach of top managers regarding the future. Analysing the business and other indicators of the companies studied, I have set the objective to describe the differences and special features of the human resource management practice of companies, which are different in size, operational form, and from the perspective of success or failure.
Human resource management is directed to attracting, retaining, motivating and utilising labour. A given work process can be successful or unsuccessful – given the same conditions – depending on who performs it. Therefore, human resource management related tasks require special attention when enterprises are planned, established and operated. On analysing the responsibilities of human resource management, I have found that the functions and responsibilities of human resource have low or medium importance in the operation of economic organisations today. Regarding the future, top managers have expressed higher expectations of human resource management responsibilities in all areas and they consider individual functions to be more important. The establishment and operation of a human resource information system has been presented as the most important need for change. Correlation analyses have proved that the higher the sales revenues of a company, the higher the development of human resources is regarded by its manager, and the same holds for training, career support and a proper establishment and continuous evaluation of job profiles.

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Experiences of Waste Management at Agricultural Enterprises in Hajdú-Bihar County
Published March 4, 2006

The general tendency of the last few years has been that besides large agricultural Ltd.’s and firms, smaller agricultural enterprises also have to correspond to stricter environmental regulations.
This process suits the EU’s environmental and waste management regulations. Recently, manure, liquid manure and addle are registered as non h...azardous agricultural waste in waste management in Hungary.
In the case of the amount of these wastes is larger than 200 t/year, one has to make an individual waste management plan.
Accordingly, several small agricultural enterprises have to make individual waste management plants in Hajdú-Bihar County.
This article is based on the results of these companies experiences.

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Assessment of Environmental Susceptibility/Vulnerability of Soils
Published December 10, 2002

Soils represent a considerable part of the natural resources of Hungary. Consequently, rational land use and proper soil management – to guarantee normal soil functions – are important elements of sustainable (agricultural) development, having special importance both in the national economy and in environment protection.
The main soil fu...nctions in the biosphere are as follows: conditionally renewable natural resource; reactor, transformer and integrator of the combined influences of other natural resources (solar radiation, atmosphere, surface and subsurface waters, biological resources), place of „sphere-interactions”; medium for biomass production, primary food-source of the biosphere; storage of heat, water and plant nutrients; natural filter and detoxication system, which may prevent the deeper geological formations and the subsurface waters from various pollutants; high capacity buffer medium, which may prevent or moderate the unfavourable consequences of various environmental stresses; significant gene-reservoir, an important element of biodiversity.
Society utilizes these functions in different ways (rate, method, efficiency) throughout history, depending on the given natural conditions and socio-economic circumstances. In many cases the character of the particular functions was not properly taken into consideration during the utilization of soil resources, and the misguided management resulted in their over-exploitation, decreasing efficiency of one or more soil functions, and – over a certain limit – serious environmental deterioration.
Soil resources are threatened by the following environmental stresses:
– soil degradation processes;
– extreme moisture regime;
– nutrient stresses (deficiency or toxicity);
– environmental pollution.
Environmental stresses caused by natural factors or human activities represent an increasing ecological threat to the biosphere, as well as a socio-economic risk for sustainable development, including rational land use and soil management.
The stresses are caused by the integrated impacts of various soil properties, which are the results of soil processes (mass and energy regimes, abiotic and biotic transport and transformation and their interactions) under the combined influences of soil forming factors. Consequently, the control of soil processes is a great challenge and the main task of soil science and soil management in sustainable development.
The efficient control of these processes necessitates the following consecutive steps:
• registration of facts and consequences (information on land and soil characteristics, land use, cropping pattern, applied agrotechnics, yields, with their spatial and temporal variability);
• evaluation of potential reasons (definition and quantification of soil processes, analysis of influencing factors and their mechanisms);
• assessment of the theoretical, real, rational and economic possibilities for the control of soil processes (including their risk-assessment and impact analysis);
• elaboration of efficient technologies for the „best” control alternatives (best management practice).
Scientifically based planning and implementation of sustainable land use and rational soil management to ensure desirable soil functions, without any undesirable environmental side-effects, require adequate soil information. In the last years such data were organized into a computer-based GIS soil database in Hungary, giving opportunities for the quantification, analysis, modelling and forecasting of the studied environmental stresses and for the efficient and scientifically based prevention, elimination or reduction of environmental stresses and their unfavourable ecological and economical consequences.
Special attention was paid to the assessment of various soil degradation processes, as: (1) soil erosion by water or wind; (2) soil acidification; (3) salinization and/or alkalization; (4) physical degradation (structure destruction, compaction); (5) extreme moisture regime: drought sensitivity and waterlogging hazard; (6) biological degradation; (7) unfavourable changes in the plant nutrient regime; (8) decrease of natural buffering capacity, (9) soil (and water) pollution.
The actions against undesirable environmental stresses and their unfavourable consequences are important elements of sustainable, efficient, economically viable, socially acceptable and environmentally sound crop production and agricultural development. These are joint tasks of the state, decision makers on various levels, the land owners, the land users and – to a certain extent – of each member of the society.

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From the Concept of Sustainable Development to the Subsidies of Agricultural Environmental Management
Published December 6, 2005

The most important aim of the study is to introduce the theoretical background of my PhD dissertation – agricultural environmental management –, in order to help the scientific foundations for my dissertation, which is in progress. For this reason I will try to clarify and systematize facts found in the special literature according to my ow...n thoughts, from a new aspect.
In my study, I therefore attempt to introduce the theoretical background of sustainable development as pertains to the subsidies of agricultural environmental management (National Agricultural Environmental Management Program, National Regional Development Plan, agricultural environmental management measures). Having clarified the concepts I place sustainable development in the economic theories directed to the treatment of environmental problems, introduce where subsidies are within the environmental regulation implements and I dwell on to the institutional questions in the explanation. I then study questions of sustainable agricultural economics. Accession to the European Union has to be considered as one of the most important concrete motivities of domestically coming into prominence of agricultural environmental subsidies therefore I think it is important to study how the problematic of sustainable development, sustainable agricultural development and agricultural environment protection worked out in the EU. Finally I survey the main characteristics of domestic agricultural environment management programs fitting into the theories explained above, how the program adjusts to the theories of sustainable development and sustainable agricultural development.
In the dissertation I begin with sustainable development as the broadest theoretical background, then I survey a narrower category, the theories of sustainable agricultural development and how concrete agricultural environmental programs fit into the studied theoretical relations.

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The importance of predator species in the population dynamics of the Brown hares (Lepus europaeus, Pallas 1778) – Literature review
Published August 29, 2017

One of the conditions for successful small game management is the good management of predator species. The predator species play an important role in the sustainable utilization of the domestic brown hare populations. A portion of these species are under nature protection and with the rest of the species can be utilizing by the wildlife managem...ent professionals. Important prey species of brown hares: perspective are red fox, domestic dog and domestic cat. Based on latest date of the National Game Management Database in hunting bags increasing every year the number of the European badger, the stone marten and the golden jackal. In Hungary the brown hare’s most important predator bird species are common buzzard, marsh-harries and goshawk. The human race is not only as a top predator affects the number of the population of brown hares with the wildlife management but indirectly with traffic, (soil cultivation, mowing, and pest control) as well. The control of predators is absolutely necessary for successful small game management, but without sufficient habitat size and habitat development it is hardly sufficient.

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Water managed properties of apple and pear trees based on lysimeters
Published November 20, 2011

A significant proportion of the aboveground green and dry weight of the plant is constituted by foliage. The canopy is an important factor of plant growth. On the one hand, the canopy absorbs solar energy, which is necessary for photosynthesis; on the other hand, it accumulates the nutrients absorbed by the roots, and most of the water-loss occ...urs through the foliage. The determination of the full canopy is not an easy target. In our research, we developed a measurement method to determine the leaf area. With the parameters of the examined tree (leaf length and maximum width) and the data of the ADC AM 100 leaf area scanner, we determined the k-value, with which we can easily and fast evaluate the leaf surface. Furthermore, we defined from the water balance of compensation lysimeters the cumulative transpiration of fruit trees and the efficiency of water use of trees. From the examined trees were made a 3D depiction, which show the shape, branching and the location of trees.

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New challenges in soil management
Published September 5, 2018
Soil management represents two important tasks that are harmonization of the soil protection with demands of the crop to be grown on the given land under prevailing farming condition. Further goals are to preserve and/or develop the soil physical, biological and chemical condition and to avoid the unfavourable changes of the soil biological a...ctivity and the soil structure. Classical authors emphasised the importance of creating proper seedbed for plants. In the physical approach, tillage was believed to play an important role in controlling soil processes. Consequently, the period of several centuries dominated by this approach is referred to as the era of crop-oriented tillage (Birkás et al., 2017). The overestimation of the importance of crop requirements resulted in damaging the soils, which inevitably led to turn to the soil-focused tillage. Since the first years of climate change, as the new trends have raised concern, tillage must be turned into a climate-focused effort with the aim of reducing climate-induced stresses through improving soil quality.
The development of soil management has always been determined by the economical background. At the same time, deteriorating site conditions have contributed to the conception of new tillage trends by forcing producers to find new solutions (e.g. dry farming theory in the past or adaptable tillage theory nowadays). Győrffy (2009) recited the most important keywords were listed in 2001 and that seemed to be important in the future of crop production. These keywords (endeavours) were as follows:
− Biofarming, organic farming, alternative farming, biodynamic farming, low input sustainable agriculture;
− Mid-tech farming, sustainable agriculture, soil conservation farming, no till farming, environmentally sound, environmentally friendly, diversity farming;
− Crop production system, integrated pest management, integrated farming, high-tech farming;
− Site specific production, site-specific technology, spatial variable technology, satellite farming;
− Precision farming.
Győrffy’s prognosis proved to be realistic and the efforts mentioned above have mostly been implemented. New challenges have also appeared in soil management in relation to the last decades. The most important endeavours for the future are:
1) Preserving climate-induced stresses endangering soils.
2) Turn to use climate mitigation soil tillage and crop production systems.
3) Applying soil management methods are adaptable to the different soil moisture content (over dried or wet may be quite common).
4) Use effectual water conservation tillage.
5) Use soil condition specific tillage depth and method.
6) Adapting the water and soil conservation methods in irrigation.
7) Preserving and improving soil organic matter content by tillage and crop production systems.
8) Considering that stubble residues are matter for soil protection, humus source and earthworm’ feed.
9) Site-specific adoption of green manure and cover crops.
10) Applying site-adopted (precision) fertilization and crop protection. Considering the development in agriculture, new endeavours will occur before long.
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Microbiological status of bulk tank milk and different flavored gomolya cheeses produced by a milk producing and processing plant
Published December 28, 2018

The microbiological quality of milk is important not only for food safety, but it can also influence the quality of dairy products. In this study, our aim was to assess the microbiological status of the bulk milk of a milk-producing farm, and some natural and flavored (garlic, dill, onion) gomolya cheeses made from pasteurized milk produced by ...their own processing plant. We determined the number of coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and molds of three milk and eight cheese samples. The tests were conducted between July and September, 2017.

In bulk milk, the mean coliform count was 3.83±0.17 log10 CFU/ml; the mean E. coli count was 1.38±0.14 log10 CFU/ml; the mean mold count was 3.74±1.30 log10 CFU/ml; and the S. aureus count was <1.00 log10 CFU/ml, respectively. The mean coliform count in gomolya cheeses was 3.69±1.00 log10 CFU/g; the mean E. coli count was 2.63±0.58 log10 CFU/g; the mean S. aureus count was 3.69±1.35 log10 CFU/g and the mean mold count was 1.74±0.37 log10 CFU/g. The amount of coliforms detected in different flavored gomolya cheeses were significantly different (P<0.05). More than 10 CFU/g of E. coli was found only in the dill flavored cheeses, and S. aureus was found only in dill (3.66±1.86 log10 CFU/g) and onion (3.71±0.52 log10 CFU/g) flavored gomolya cheeses. Based on the obtained results, it was found that the amount of coliform bacteria and E. coli in bulk milk exceeded the limit set in regulation of the Hungarian Ministry of Health (MoH) 4/1998 (XI. 11.) and the amount of S. aureus was below the limit. For gomolya cheeses, the S. aureus count exceeded the limit. The amount of coliform bacteria remained above the limit in cheeses, except for the garlic flavored gomolya cheese. In cheeses, a larger E. coli count was detected than in the bulk milk, but there is no specific limit for cheeses in the regulation. The mold count exceeded the limit specified in the regulation in cheeses, but a lower value was detected relative to milk.

The results show that, in the case of bulk milk and gomolya cheeses, certain detected quantities exceeded the limit values set forth in regulation of MoH 4/1998 (XI. 11.). The results indicate an inadequate microbiological state of the raw material and the finished products. The reasons for these are due to reduced technological hygiene or the inappropriate handling of raw material and finished products. In this study, we have summarized the results of our preliminary studies, which can provide a basis for further hygiene studies.

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Testing laboratory parameters of compost tea
Published December 28, 2018

During the industrial production of broiler chicken, a large amount of manure is produced, of which easily contained nitrogen content (without pre-treatment) is released into the atmosphere as an air pollutant. In our experiments, we aimed to prepare compost tea, also known as water extract of compost, from pre-treated poultry manure in order t...o create a product can be utilized as liquid nutrient supply. The poultry manure source was the Baromfi-Coop Ltd. located in Nyírjákó, Hungary, where it was treated by composting. As a result of this pre-treatment of the poultry manure, its nutrient parameters improve and nitrogen is present in a form that is better utilized for plants. Furthermore, this product is suitable for further utilization and also can be the base material for a brand-new product. For this reason the effects of compost/water ratio, incubation time, low oxygen level, and extraction time on the parameters of the resulted product were studied in the frame of developing new soil-life enhancing microbial product, so-called compost tea.

Chemical parameters of the compost used as base material strongly determined the properties of the resulted compost tea, especially the ratio of the various nitrogen forms, their concentration and the salt content. It was found that adding water at a higher rate that means 1/40 and 1/50 mixing ratios results in more cost-effective production. In the experiment the compost tea were held under oxygen-poor conditions, therefore pH of the extractions decreased, which influenced the quality and quantity of their nutrient content.

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Preparatory studies for modelling production on protected grasslands
Published July 16, 2007

There is a mutual dependence between nature conservation activity and agriculture in Hungary, as the management of the protected areas cannot be achieved without ecological farming methods. Moreover, viable economic activity can be only imagined through the harmonization of agricultural and nature conservation interests. From a nature conservat...ion point of view, grass management systems play the greatest role in domestic agricultural systems. Yet, due to the prohibition of certain management methods and the spatial and temporal restraints on grazing, nature conservation activities have priority on protected grasslands. While nature conservation activity is still of prominent importance, it is not equally suitable for the economical management of protected grasslands per se. With our examinations, we would like to emphasize the common interests of these mutually dependent activities and to promote bilateral cooperation. Our aim is to model the production of grass on the great pastureland of Hajdúbagos. Potential grass production levels are easily calculable with a computer model based on data collected through a series of test harvests, as well as by factoring in changing climatic factors and by simulating the effects of grazing animal species and stocks. This model is not only useful for determining the optimal number of the grazing animal stock and grazing method, and therefore the most suitable management strategy, but it also supports local farmers to be able to plan their activities. In this way, both nature conservation and economic aims can be easily harmonized, which would be an important factor for the sustainable development of rural areas.

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The effect of supplemental pig milk replacer on carbohydrate metabolism – a review
Published December 28, 2018

The aim of this review is to examine the effect of milk supplementation on pigs’ carbohydrate metabolism. These parameters regulate the growth of piglets, the nutrient intake and the period of pre-weaning. Due to the increased litter size, the sow milk yield reaches an individual maximum. The individual maximum has not increased proportionall...y with the number of piglets born alive. The use of liquid milk supplementation may give the opportunity to keep these large litters. The examined hormones are insulin, insulin-like growth factor, growth hormone, growth hormone releasing hormone, ghrelin and leptin. This review seeks to find these hormones’ interactions.

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Conceptional Model of Regional Agricultural Water Management System
Published December 6, 2005

Our study focuses on the water management improvement of the Hajdúsági-löszhát (loess ridge). The Hajdúsági-löszhát (loess ridge) is an intensive agricultural area. At the same time, the problem of increasing water demand is still not solved, so towards of safety production irrigation should be improved. To realise this should be known ...not even agricultural water demands but industrial and urban ones as well, thus a complex water management system is required to be worked out.
In the first part of the research, the water demand in the area is mapped, then a conceptional model of the Hajdúsági-löszhát’s (loess ridge’s) water management system is created. After collecting data the water management scenario is summarized in a real time model splitted into five periods.
During the research, the instruments of spatial informatics (GIS) are used to get acquainted with the variation of the hydrological parameters in space and time. To understand and simulate the different decision making processes and to choose the right decision alternative, a decision support system is created with the use of spatial informatics data.
In addition, considering the potentially right decision alternative, irrigation will be started in practice, an effect and after-effect inquiry will be made, and the results will be analysed, evaluated and summarized. Finally, a suggestion to the most adequate irrigation technology will be made.

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Effects of bioactive plant extracts on immune-related gene expression of common carp (Cyprinus carpio)
Published December 1, 2020

 In recent years, intensive fish farming has led to an outbreak of several diseases, and the health status of fish can affect the economy of aquaculture. Since fish health and intestinal health are in correlation, it may also have an impact on immunity. Accordingly, many natural feed additives are being used to im...prove immune functions. In our study, carotenoids, oligosaccharides, and anthocyanins were applied at 1 m/m% in feed to investigate their effects on cytokines, such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) in spleen and mid-intestine of 6 months old carp. Gene expression analysis was carried out to examine IL-1β, IL-8, TNF-α, and IRF-1 mRNA levels in fish spleen and mid-intestine. The gene expression level of pro-inflammatory IL-1β decreased in the mid-intestine of carotenoid-fed carp compared to anthocyanin supplemented group, but the effects of the bioactive plant extracts were not observed on the examined cytokines compared to control fish.

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Effect of different weaning time on the growth and survival ofCommon carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) larvae
Published December 28, 2018

Within our experiment, we studied the combined effect of live food application and feed training on the production parameters of carp larvae. In addition, we examined whether there is a difference in the growth rate and survival rate of the specimens of Szeged mirror landrace reared in similar stocking density but with different treatments.


Specimens of Szeged mirror landrace from induced propagation were placed into 12 pieces of 40-liter aquaria. For the 4 different treatments, (K, A3, A6, A9), live food (Artemia salina) was fed, as well as feed training was applied.

We also sought to find an answer as to how our feeding and rearing conditions can affect the production parameters of common carp fries and what impact these conditions may have on their survival rates. At the end of the 2-week experiment we determined the individual weight gain of the carp fries, their survival rate and the biomass growth. The purpose of the study is to examine the optimum timing of shifting from live food to feed for carp larvae.

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Nest-site preference of Hooded Crow (Corvus cornix L.) in Debrecen, Hungary
Published November 20, 2011

In the past decade, the population of the Hooded Crow has shown significant growth in Debrecen, Hungary. The aim of this study was to become acquainted with the nest-site selection behavior of Hooded Crows in urban spaces. While our research revealed that the Hooded Crow is not particular when it comes to selecting among tree species for nestin...g, we did notice differences regarding nesting height. Hooded Crows living in the city build their nests higher up than those living outside Debrecen’s city limits. We also discovered a slight, insignificant difference between nesting heights and tree species, which is probably due to the different characteristics of the given tree species. As for nesting heights, we found that in typical urban habitats there were no relevant differences. However, when we compared these habitats in pairs, it came to light that nesting heights -when comparing solitary trees - wood segments and tree rows - wooded segments- did show significant differences, which can be explained by the various conditions provided by the habitats mentioned.
In summary, the following results emerged from our research:
1. The Hooded Crow prefers approximately the same nesting heights in all kinds of habitats, urban environment and tree species.
2. The nesting height does not significantly depend on the habitat itself or on the tree species.

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Angle-count sampling method for estimating forest stand volume – a practical approach
Published December 1, 2020

Point sampling, which is also known as angle-count sampling (ACS), can be considered an efficient way of estimating the basal area and volume of forest stands. It is possible to use it in forest management: providing more accurate estimates (precision <10%) of  site and stand characteristics needed for management planning. 20 black (Robinina pseudoacacia L.) stands were selected at final cutting age to determine the regeneration criteria based on their total volume. It was verified that at P=5% there was no difference between the main volume values of stands indicated in the relevant forest plans as well as calculated by the ACS method.


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Change of antioxidant compounds of spices during drying
Published December 15, 2019

Spices and herbs have been used by humanity for thousands of years, so they are very important plants.

In this study, the change of dry matter content and antioxidant compounds of eight spices (basil, thyme, rosemary, mint, parsley, lemongrass, chives, coriander) have been examined the raw plants and in plants preserved by three differe...nt drying methods (an oven in 50–60°C; drying at room temperature; lyophilisation between -40 and -50°C, under pressure), because we wanted to see the change of the parameters.

The water content of raw plants was very high, i.e. the dry matter content was very low. By the application of the three drying methods nearly 100% of the water has left the plants, with the exception of the lyophilized basil and rosemary.

Based on the results related to the original material, lyophilized has proved to be the best treatment for the preservation of antioxidant compounds, however air drying also showed high results for some spices.


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