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The role of disease resistance in the registration of crop varieties in Hungary
Published June 2, 2015
27-29

Variety testing including disease resistance test of the major crops has been carrying out since the 1960’s in Hungary. Testing for resistance of the new candidate varieties is performed in the so-called VCU (Value for Cultivation and Use) trials under natural infection and in special small-plot or micro-plot trials using different disease pr...ovocative methods. Disease resistance, especially those of multiple and horizontal-type (race non-specific, partial or durable) resistances, has recently become a key limiting factor in the state variety registration. The role of disease resistance in the decision-making process of variety registration is demonstrated on the examples of winter wheat and sunflower as two major field crops in Hungary.

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Effect of Ozone Exposure on Phytopathogenic Microorganisms on Stored Apples
Published December 14, 2004
9-13

The aim of our study was to clarify the effect of ozone exposure on several phytopathogenic fungi on stored apple fruits under different storage conditions. The study was conducted at Bistrita, Romania, in the storehouse of an experimental apple orchard in 2002 and 2003. Two widely grown apple cultivars (‘Jonathan’ and ‘Golden Delicious...) were used. General microbial examination of the fruits was made during storage in order to identify the most important storage pathogens. Efficacy of six ozone treatments was evaluted on fruit decay caused by phytopathogenic fungi. Monthly observations (January, February, March and April) were made of the degree of decay and three measurements were assessed (disease frequency, disease intensity and degree of attack). Our results showed that the most important phytopathogenic fungi during storage was blue mold, caused by species of Penicillium. Disease frequency of apple fruits was very high on cv. ‘Jonathan’, much higher than on cv. ‘Golden delicious’. Ozone treatments (25 ppm ozone for 0.5 and 1.5 hours in November) caused significantly lower disease incidence on stored apple than all other ozone treatments. For longer storage, it seems that additional ozone treatments in February increased treatment efficacy. Cv. ‘Golden delicious’ seemed to be more resistant to storage diseases than cv. ‘Jonathan’ both on the untreated and treated fruits. The effect of the ozone treatments was also the most effective when 25 ppm ozone was applied for 0.5 and 1.5 hours in November.

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Susceptibility of maize hybrids to corn smut diseas
Published February 3, 2016
39-42

Corn smut disease is one of the most common maize diseases. In the previous years the disease lost from its importance, however nowadays it is becoming more and more important and widespread. The protection against it encounters great difficulties, therefore it is important to emphasize prevention and resistance based protection. The aim of the... research was to investigate under laboratory circumstances the resistance of Hungary’s most commonly cultivated maize hybrids to corn smut disease. Twelve species were investigated. We distinguished two susceptibility groups within the hybrids based on the investigated parameters. The results are intended to assist the protection against corn smut disease and to make a suggestion for the farmers so that they could apply more environmental friendly and economical production.

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Ideas on the European stone fruit yellows – as an entomologist can see them
Published November 2, 2014
30-34

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The European stone fruit yellows (ESFY) is an important endemic disease in Europe which causes in both, the Mediterranean countries and Central Europe serious damage. Its pathogen is the ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma prunorum’. The treatment and healing of the diseased trees and plantations with chemicals do not promise success. Thus, prevention may be the only solution. The transmission and spread of the pathogen happen by infected propagation material (grafting) or a vector (the psyllid, Cacopsylla pruni). Mechanism of the pathogen’s transmission and population dynamics of the vector have been extensively investigated in several European countries, which may allow by the control of C. pruni even to hold back the disease. Diseased stone fruit trees and wild Prunus spp. as main host species play an important role in maintaining and spreading the pathogen. C. pruni collects the pathogen by feeding on these plants and it carries persistently ‘Ca. P prunorum’. Researchers in Hungary have been characterized the disease only in terms of plant pathology, but neither the significance of the vector nor the role of wild Prunus spp. have been studied. This summary intends to give clues to these researches, that not only axe and saw should be the instruments of national control, but knowing the role and population dynamics of the vector the stone fruit production should be more successful.

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Phytoplasma diseases on fruits in Hungary
Published November 2, 2014
24-29

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">In the last twenty years, three phytoplasma diseases were identified in Hungary, viz. European Stone Fruit Yellows (ESFY) (caused by Candidatus Phytoplasma prunorum), pear decline (caused by Candidatus Phytoplasma pyri), and apple proliferation (caused by Candidatus Phytoplasma mali). Candidatus Phytoplasma prunorum was isolated from apricot, peach, plum and japanese plum. Cacopsylla pruni the vector of ESFY was also isolated and identified. Infection of Candidatus Phytoplasma pyri was diagnosed from pear and Candidatus Phytoplasma mali was found on apple and pear. The three phytoplasmas cause different damages on their host plants. The most economically important phytoplasma disease is the ESFY. It seriously impairs apricot and japanase plum trees. After infection of apricots and japanese plums show yellowing and defoliation, and within a few years die in apoplexy-like symptoms. The disease on japanese plum is so severe that this fruit practically can not be cultivated in Hungary. Pear decline is the most serious problem especially in intensive pear plantations. The vector Cacopsylla pyri, C. pyrisuga and C. pyricola can be found in almost all pear orchards. Because of the regular presence of psyllids in intensive pear orchards the insecticide control is necessary. Apple proliferation is not an important disease in Hungary. All of our isolations of ’Candidatus Phytoplasma mali’ occured in organic orchards and record was not available in Hungary lately.

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Review of the biology of plant psyllid (Cacopsylla pruni, Scopoli 1763), and its role in the spreading of European stone fruit yellows, ESFY-phytoplasma with Hungarian data
Published June 30, 2018
25-33

The European stone fruit yellows (ESFY) phytoplasma disease caused by pathogen ’Ca. Phytoplasma prunorum’ induces serious damages in cherry, sour cherry, peach, and apricot orchards mostly in Europe. Its known vector is the plum psyllid (Cacopsylla pruni). Many articles report on the biology (morphology, taxonomy, life cycle etc.) and the m...ethod of transmission of the pathogen by the vector, and the possibilities of their control. This paper reviews our knowledge about the vector, and summarises the results of an inland research carried out in a northeastern Hungarian apricot orchards. Our goal was to show some important data for the farmers or anyone who is interested in this disease and its vector. And give some known method that we can protect our orchards against them to prevent the appearance of the disease. As the psyllid that became infected with the pathogen can hold its infectionous capacity during their lifetime, it is very important to have enough knowledge about their lifecycle, that we can determine the right time and method to control them. We also have to know how to identify them; therefore, this paper lists several important data which can be helpful. The most important keys of identification are their wing color, which dark borwn in the apex and brown is in the remaining part of the forewing. The length of the antennae is also an important factor, since other genuse’s species have longer antennae than twice the width of the head. C. pruni has as long antennae as twice the width of the head. They return to Prunus species in early spring and we have to protect our orhards in this period against them. We have to use preparations with a knock down effect on them to prevent the inoculation of the pathogen into the trees in our orchards.

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Application of time series in medical research
Published September 7, 2001
14-22

This article reviews the mortality data of chronic liver disease and cirrhosis, as well as tracheal, bronchial and lung cancers, in Hungary by methods of time series analysis. The methods of time series of death rates of chronic liver disease and cirrhosis as well as tracheal, bronchial and lung cancers and their reliability, are analysed from ...data available from WHO. The author used ARIMA models (autoregressive and integrated moving average models) and auto- and cross-correlation functions to study the substantial role an exogenous environmental factor has on incidences of
death. The confidence intervals of autoregressive (AR) coefficient are compared to the standard normal distribution, the estimation of White’s theory and the continuous time estimation model.
On the basis of the analysis, it may be concluded that chronic liver disease and cirrhosis can be influenced by an exogenous environmental factor, however, this relation cannot be demonstrated for deaths due to tracheal, bronchial or lung cancers. In each case, the continuous estimation of the AR(1) coefficients give the best results.
The paper demonstrates how the presented methods can be applied to agricultural science.

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Studies of Cryphonectria parasitica (MURR.) BARR subpopulations on Quercus petraea in Ukraine
Published October 30, 2011
70-75

Chryphonectria parasitica (Murr.) Barr, the casual agent of chestnut blight disease, which is one of the most important fungal pathogens of chestnut (Castanea sativa). The disease seriously affected the chestnut in Northern-America and in Europe as well. It is important to mention that the pathogen does not only infect the chestnut but oak spec...ies (Quercus spp.) also. In the Carpathian-Basin, the chestnut is endemic in the Mecsek mountains, in Zala, in Somogy counties but it also can be found in the Danube-Bend. In the Carpathian-Basin (outside Hungary) the chestnut is found in Slovakia, Ukraine, Romania. In our study bark samples infected by Cryphonectria parasitica were collected from Bobovyshche, Serednje and Rostovjatica (Ukraine). The rate of infected chestnut tree were higher than 90% around Bobovyshche and beside chestnut, the symptoms were detected on oak trees as well. We collected bark samples from chestnut and oak as well and then we isolated the pathogen Cryphonectria parasitica in the lab of University of Debrecen. Symptomatological observations, laboratory examinations on fungus morphology, as well as comparisons of ITS sequency homology were made and approved that the causal agent of new disease was Cryphonectria parasitica. Our results proved that the Cryphonectria. parasitica infects oak trees beside chestnut in the Carpathian-Basin. Further studies are needed to determine the VCG (Vegatative Compatibility Group) group of the Cryphonectria parasitica found on oak trees. 

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Loss and Disease Development of Monilinia fructigena (Aderh. & Ruhl.) Honey in an Organic Apple Orchard
Published December 14, 2004
6-8

In a two-year-study, yield loss and temporal development of incidence of Monilinia fructigena were quantified in organic apple orchards and the importance of fruit wounding agents was determined. The first infected fruits were observed at the beginning of August in 2001 and 2002. Disease development was continuous until fruit harvest in both ye...ars. Pre-harvest yield loss caused by Monilinia fructigena amounted on average 27.2% in 2001 and 41.6% in 2002 by fruit harvest. The growth rate of disease development was almost double in 2002 compared to 2001. All infected fruits were injured by wounding agents such as aboitic and mechanical injury factors, codling moth (Cydia pomonella), common earwig (Forficula auricularia) and birds. In this study, the most important wounding agents were codling moth and mechanical injury factors in organic apple orchards. In both years, our results showed that 70-80% of the infected fruits were damaged by codling moth in organic apple production. Moreover, 10-15% of the infected fruits were mechanically injured in the two years. Our results indicated that most of the damaged fruits fell on the orchard floor before harvest and they became an important secondary inoculum source of M. fructigena. Biological and practical implications of the results are discussed.

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Fruit melanotic ringspot (FMRS) – a disease of resistant Capsicum genotypes infected with Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) on the fruits
Published October 30, 2011
64-69

Etiology of pepper fruit melanotic ringspot (FMRS) disease (Salamon, 2009) was studied on fruit samples collected in forced pepper populations. It was noticed that in spite of heavy thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) infestations and of TSWV epidemy detected in the forcing houses, FMRS occurred only in plants having healthy foliage. Symptomato...logical surveys strongly suggested that FMRS appeared exclusively in specific pepper genotypes. The size of melanotic ringspots has been observed to grow at room temperature during postripening of diseased fruits. A mechanically transmitted plant virus was isolated from symptomatic parts of 9 white pepper fruits affected by FMRS. On test plants each of the virus isolates caused systemic symptoms characteristic to TSWV. Using cDNA/PCR technique and TSWV N-gene specific primers a ca. 300 bp long DNA fragment has been amplified from total nucleic acid extracted from symptomatic tissues but never from asymptomatic parts of the fruits showing FMRS. Plant progenies grown from seeds of FMRS diseased fruits segregated in respect of resistance and/or susceptibility to TSWV infection. TSWV was also detected in and isolated from three fruits showed non-melanotic yellow rings (one of them was infected with a tobamovirus, too). Seedlings derived from these fruits proved to be susceptible to TSWV. Based on the above results we could conclude that the FMRS disease developed on fruits of “cecei” type white peppers that carry a TSWV resistance gene, most likely the Tsw gene in heterozygous form. These fruits were infected with thrips transmitted TSWV and FRMS appeared as a hypersentive reaction (HR) manifested in fruits.

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Old-new disease is maize smut (Ustilago maydis)
Published June 2, 2015
43-46

Corn smut disease (Ustilago maydis) is one of the most common maize diseases. In the previous years the disease lost some from its importance, however nowadays it turns into more and more important and widespread one. The control encounters great difficulties, therefore it should be emphasized the preventive and resistance-based protection.

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The effect of reduced sprinkler programs on the main fungal pathogens of apple in environmentally sound production systems
Published December 22, 2010
13-16

Aim of our two-year study was to evaluate the possibilities of chemical use against key fungal pathogens (apple scab, apple powdery mildew and brown rot) in integrated and organic apple production. Therefore, first, disease incidence was compared in standard and reduced spray programmes and then each technological variation was evaluated from p...ractical point of view. Altogether four spray programmes were compared. Standard and reduced spray programmes were performed in the integrated production. The same pesticides were used in the reduced spray
programme compared to standard one but numbers of spray were reduced by 25% at the second half of the season. Standard and reduced spray programmes were also performed in the organic production and the numbers of spray were reduced by 40% in the reduced spray programme. Incidence of diseases was low in both standard and reduced spray programmes in integrated production. Diseases level was high in the organic production and disease increased significantly in the reduced spray programmes compared to standard programmes. Results showed that reduction in spray numbers at the second half of the season can be used practically in integrated production. Omission of sprays in organic
production resulted in serious disease management risk; therefore, it is not recommended for practical use. 

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Examination for Susceptibility of CAE
Published May 4, 2004
33-36

Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis (CAE) is a group of diseases in goats caused by a retrovirus, namely the Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus. CAEV belongs to the lentivirus group within the retrovirus family. The CAEV is intimately associated with white blood cells, therfore any body secretions which contain white blood cells are a potential so...urce of virus to other goats in the flock. Once goats are infected with CAEV, it remains infected for life and has to be eliminated.
Since not all goats infected with CAEV progress to disease, very important to test goats for infection using a serology test (ELISA, AGID, IDT). These serological tests demonstrate the presence of antibodies to CAEV in goat serum or detect the virus genome in the white blood cells. However, Swiss results (Dolf and Ruff, 1994) pointed out individual and species differencies in predisposition for this disease. This result was considered as a starting point to our examination. Microsatellite analysis was used in order to find whether there was any association between genotype and serological results, and to look for a marker associated with this disease. To date, altogether 135 goats have been examined. Unfortunately, a significant association between serological results and genotype was not found using the Chi2 test

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Phytoplasma infection status survey in plum psyllid (Cacopsylla pruni) population
Published December 15, 2019
45-48

European Stone Fruit Yellows (ESFY) phytoplasma disease causes an increasing amount of damage. This is especially true to the Gönci growing region. The insect vector of the disease, which has been shown to have a vector role during transmission experiments, is the plum psyllid (Cacopsylla pruni). In 2018, during the swarming period of plum psy...llid, in 3 different settlements (Boldogkőváralja, Nagyvárad and Bekecs) 265 psyllidswere collected, from which 165 were plum psyllid. Molecular biology studies showed 106 individuals infected with phytoplasma, of which 20 were males and 86 were females.

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Presence, feeding and health status of collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto Friv. 1838) on animal breeding farms
Published May 23, 2006
49-54

In the course of our examinations we were determining the gender of collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto) feeding at animal breeding farms by biometric data. We were estimated their nourishment and necropsies were carried out.
We compared the results of the nutrition analysis with similar data of collard doves feeding at agricultural areas....
We analyzed the crop and gizzard content and recorded the body proportions of collard doves that were captured between December of 2004 and August 2005. In the course of the necropsy examinations we did parasitological, bacteriological examinations as well as examinations for the detection of Newcastle disease. In the course of the gender analysis of the collard doves that were collected at animal breeding farms, both the wing length and the length of the third quill-feather has shown a significantly greater value in the case of males (p>0.05).
From the orts found in the crop and gizzard it has been stated that the feed consumed the most was corn (80.77% m%). The collared doves consumed much less other cereal seeds (wheat 0.82%, barley 1.26%).
In the course of the necropsy examinations done in the Veterinary Institute of Debrecen, the birds proved to be free of parasites, and the results of the Salmonella and Newcastle disease analysis were negative as well. E. coli bacteria had been detected in the liver of not more than three birds.

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Dieback of apricot plantations caused by 'Ca. Phytoplasma prunorum' in Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén county (Northern-Hungary)
Published November 10, 2010
34-41

Plant diseases caused by phytoplasmas have increasing importance in all over the world for fruit growers. Lately, phytoplasma diseases occur on many fruit varieties and responsible for serious losses both in quality and quantity of fruit production. In the long-run these diseases cause destruction of fruit trees. The apricot phytoplasma disease... (Ca. Phytoplasma prunorum) was first reported in Europe in 1924 from France. In 1992 the disease has also been identified in Hungary. On the base of growers' signals serious damages of "Candidatus Phytoplasma prunorum" Seemüller and Schneider, 2004 (formerly: European stone fruit yellows phytoplasma) could be observed in different stone fruit plantations in the famous apricot-growing area nearby Gönc town, Northern-Hungary. Field examinations have been begun in 2009 in several stone fruit plantations in Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County mainly in Gönc region which is one of the most important apricot growing regions in Hungary, named “Gönc Apricot Growing Area”. Our goals were to diagnose the occurrence of Ca. Phytoplasma prunorum on stone fruits (especially on apricot) in the North-Hungarian growing areas by visual diagnostics and confirm data by laboratory PCR-based examinations. All the 28 collected samples were tested in laboratory trials and at 13 samples from apricot, peach, sour cherry and wild plum were confirmed the presence of phytoplasma (ESFY). On the base of observations it seems evident that the notable losses caused by "Ca. Phytoplasma prunorum" is a new plant health problem to manage for fruit growers, especially apricot producers in Hungary. 

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The response of sunflower hybrids to different plant densities on a chernozem soil
Published July 31, 2012
123-128

In our experiment the reaction of six sunflower hybrids of different genotypes (NK Oktava, ES Biba, ES Diagora, ES Ballistic, EGH 8925, PR 64 H 42) towards plant density has been investigated by different fungicide treatments in the crop-year of 2011 on a chernozem soil. 
In the crop-year of 2011 sunflower populations were infected by a... significant Diaporthe helianthi disease. The extent of this infection was significantly enhanced by the increment of plant density. However, regarding the average of the hybrids and plant densities the two times executed fungicide treatment has decreased the infection rate by 22%. The most susceptible hybrid was the ES Biba. Contrarily, the hybrid ECH8925 proved to be the most resistant hybrid towards this
disease according to our results. According to the results of the Pearson’s correlation analysis it has been revealed that stalk breakage and Diaporthe infection stand in a very close (r=0.782**) and middle close (r=0.523**) correlation resp. with plant density. The relationship between fungucude treatments and stalk breakage, just as Diaporthe infection showed to be middle and close respectively. Our results demonstrate the role of stalk and plate diseases (among them Diaporthe) in causing stalk breakage, for we have found a close positive correlation between stalk breakage and Diaporthe infection (r=0.624**) in our analysis.
From the aspect of yield amount the optimal plant density varied between 45 000 and 55 000 plants per hectare. Fungucude treatments enabled not only the use of higher plants densities, but they had a yield increasing effect as well. In the crop-year of 2011 the highest yield (4 559 kg ha-1) on a chernozem soil has been measured in case of the hybrid ECH8925.

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Examination of the American grapevine leafhopper (Scaphoideus titanus Ball) in Debrecen and Micske (Misca, West Romania)
Published November 2, 2014
77-81

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Grapevine flavescence dorée (FD) was detected first in Hungary in 2013 in Zala County (South-West-Hungary). The disease is a serious danger for grapevine growing and grapevine propagating production. In 2014, the pathogen has been found in several new places in Hungary, viz. in Vas and Fejér Counties, and it was also detected in the former location in Zala County. The american grapevine leafhopper (Scaphoideus titanus) is the main vector of the disease. This pest was detected first in Hungary in 2006 and then it has spread all over the country. Since we have not detailed distribution data of this pest in surroundings of Debrecen, therefore we made observations in this region in 2014. The presence of the pest was confirmed by yellow sticky cards in two locations in Debrecen and another site in West Romania near to Hungarian border. We found that S. titanus is present in each sampled sites that cause serious potential danger for the appearance and spread of Grapevine flavescence dorée (FD) in this region.

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The Effect of Forecrop and Plant Protection on the Pathology Parameters and Yields of Winter Wheat
Published December 6, 2005
84-89

We carried out our experiment in the cropyears of 2000/2001, 2001/2002 and 2002/2003, on calcareous chernozem soil, at the experimental site of the Debrecen University Farm and Regional Research Institute, at Látókép. We examined the disease resistance and the yield quantity of Mv Magvas variety by adopting different forecrops and plant prot...ection technologies, at 30+30 N level and at normal cereal row spacing. We applied two forecrops (wheat and pea) and two plant protection technologies (extensive and intensive). We measured the rate of infection by population survey in the first ten days of June.
In the course of our examinations, we found, that the rate of powdery mildew infection was higher in the thicker population sown after pea forecrop in all three years, as powdery mildew is not a typical cereal disease.
The infection rate of leaf mildew and DTR (Dreschlera tritici-repentis) was higher after wheat forecrop in all examined years, because these are typical wheat diseases and infection centres in the soil promote the spreading of these diseases. However, it was possible to parry the adverse effect of forecrops by intensive plant protection.
Due to the chernozem soil, wich has good water management features, and due to the good preparation of the seedbed, the effect of forecrops on yield quantity did not appear in the examined years. The quantity of the yield was only slightly larger after pea forecrop in the cropyears of 2000/2001 and 2002/2003 than after wheat. Nonetheless, the data of technical literatures state that the yield quantity can be larger, even by 15-20%, after pea forecrop.
In the course of intensive plant protection technology, we applied systemic pesticides, while in the course of environmentally sound technology, we used contact pesticides of sulphur content. In those populations that were treated with environmentally sound plant protection technology, infection rate was higher in all three years.
Yield quantities were somewhat lower in the course of applying extensive, environmentally sound technology, because diseases appeared in these populations to the higher degree. Powdery mildew does not, but leaf mildew and Dreschlera tritici-repentis have a significant yield decreasing effect. With appropriate, well-selected fungicides, we were able to keep every leaf diseases well in hand, and the rate of infection was almost independent of the influence of the breeding year.

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Sensitivity of maize hybrids to common smut under field artificial inoculation conditions
Published June 14, 2017
25-28

Common smut disease of maize is one of the most frequent diseases of crop. In the last decades the importance of disease has decreased in feeding maize production, however its importance increasing again nowadays, especially at sweet maize hybrids. The aims of this work was to find hybrids possess of resistance, and to evaluate which ones are m...ore or less susceptible under field artificial inoculation circumstances. Among feeding maizes the less susceptible hybrid was ‘P9578’, and the most susceptible ’NK Columbia’ hybrid, and differences in cob infection between them was significant (8.8%). At sweet corn hybrids the less susceptible was ’Prelude’, while the most susceptible was ’Jumbo’ with very high significant 74.6% differences.

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Examination of resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila infection on genetically different common carp variants (preliminary results)
Published November 24, 2008
7-11

Septicemia disease caused by the bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila is a major problem for fish farmers around the world. In our experiment resistance to the disease was investigated on carp variants with diferent genetical backgrounds. 96 different genetic variants(„families”) were created by crossing various individuals of 4 carp strains (2 w...ild and 2 cultured ones). Families were reared until reaching the size of 10 gramms and 100 fish of each families were marked with an individual electronic identifier. Marked fish were divided into 5 groups. Fish from one group were infected with A. hydrophila and mortality were registered during 2 weeks. Based on mortality data, the most resistant and most susceptible families will be selected using population genetics methods.

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Effect of two different cropyear and the agrotechnological factors on the agronomic characteristic of the winter weat in a lon-term experiment
Published December 16, 2012
143-149

We studied the effects of crop rotation, fertilization and crop protection technologies on occurence of the major ear- and leaf-diseases (powdery mildew, helminthosporiosis, leaf rust, Fusarium wilt) and the degree of lodging in the winter wheat variety Mv Pálma in two very different years (2006/2007=dry; 2009/2010=rainy). The experiments were... carried out at the Látókép Experimental Farm of the University of Debrecen CAAES in triculture (pea-wheat-maize) and biculture (wheat-maize) at five fertilization levels by applying three different crop protection technologies (extensive, average, intensive).
In the cropyear of 2006/2007, the disease severity of leaf diseases was higher than the average in both crop rotations in spite of the fact that the weather during the whole vegetation period was dry. Infection by powdery mildew, helminthosporiosis and leaf rust increased with increasing fertilization, the highest infection was measured at the highest fertilization level (N200+PK) in the extensive crop protection technology. According to the results, no infection of ears by Fusarium and no lodging occurred in either bi- or triculture due to the dry year. The extremely rainy weather in 2009/2010 was favourable not only for the vegetative development of the stand, but also increased the occurance of leaf-, stalk- and ear-diseases and a high degree of lodging was observed. The highest infection by powdery mildew was observed in the plots with the highest fertilizer dosage under an extensive crop protection technology. A much higher helminthosporiosis infection was measured than in the cropyear of 2006/2007. The wet weather and higher than average temperature promoted the occurence and spreading of leaf rust. Under an extensive crop protection technology, a leaf rust infection of 24% and 31% was detected after maize and pea as a forecrop, respectively, in the N200+PK treatment. As opposed to 2006/2007, the disease severity of Fusarium was 3–8% and 2–7% in the control after maize and pea as a forecrop, respectively. This value, similarly to that of other pathogens, increased with increasing fertilization levels. Due to the large vegetative mass, a significant lodging was observed in the wheat stands in both bi- and triculture (17–100%, 12–100%). 

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The bioactive compounds of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) with special regards to antioxidant activity and antioxidant density
Published September 14, 2005
83-87

Evidence suggests that a diet high in fruits and vegetables may reduce the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, and phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids from fruits and vegetables may play a key role in reducing chronic disease risk. Recent research has proven that sour cherry (Prunus ce...rasus L.) is a valuable natural source of some bioactive compounds important in human health preservation.
In our work, we identified the total antioxidant capacity and ”antioxidant density” of sour cherry varieties named ”Újfehértói fürtös”, ”Debreceni bõtermõ”, ”Kántorjánosi” and ”Érdi bõtermõ” and those of the ”Bosnyák” sour cherry clones. ”Antioxidant density” is a biological value indicator obtained in a synthetic way, which indicates the antioxidant capacity of the particular food, e. g. fruit and vegetable, per 1 Calorie.

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Examination of the plum psyllid (Cacopsylla pruni Scopoli), a vector of European Stone Fruit Yellows (ESFY) phytoplasma in the countryside of Boldogkőváralja (Hungary)
Published February 8, 2019
5-11

European Stone Fruit Yellows(ESFY) phytoplasma disease on apricot was identified by molecular methods for the first time in 1992 in Hungary. Currently, the pathogen is known as’ Ca. Phytoplasma prunorum’. Since, the pathogen become wide-spreaded and manyof the apricot-plantations had to be eliminated. In 2009 and 2010 in the countryside of ...Boldogkőváralja the infection of the apricot-plantations was about 77%. As the disease spreading and causing large damages, we studied the roleo fpossible vector,the plum psyllid (Cacopsylla pruni Scopoli) in the areas of Boldogkőváralja, North-East-Hungary. Studies were done in the year of 2016, monitoring the behaviour of the psyllids in four different areas, and caught 41 them for further examination. We collected plant samples from those apricot trees, on which the plum psyllids were caught.

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Laboratory diagnoses of the isolates of chestnut blight disease fungus Cryphonectria parasitica (MURR. BARR)
Published November 10, 2010
45-52

Chryphonectria parasitica, the casual agent of chestnut blight, is one of the most important fungal pathogens of chestnut (Castanea spp.) in Europe and Hungary. In this study, we analyzed the ITS region of five Cryphonectria parasitica strains isolated from different location of Hungary. The differences among the Cryphonectria parasitica isolat...es were not insignificant because only two sites were considered as informative for the parsimony analysis. As the differences among geographically different isolates were insignificant, we mean that the evolutionary distance by ITS sequences within Hungarian Cryphonectria parasitica isolates is too small to get well based consequences for the phylogenetic relationships.

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