The characterization of heavy metal polluted abandoned mining sites is a complicated assignment due to the variable spatial distribution of the pollutants, therefore complex integrated method is required in order to assess precisely the amount and the distribution of the contaminants. The examined area is flotation sludge reservoir of abandoned... Pb-Zn mining site with serious heavy metal contamination. located in Gyöngyösoroszi, Northern Hungary.
The hyperspectral image of the flotation sludge is obtained by using a Digital Airborne Imaging Spectrometer DAIS 7915, in the frame of DLR HySens first Hungarian hyperspectral flight campaign (21/08/2002). Parallel to the flight campaign heavy metal content of soil samples were examined from the area of the flotation sludge. The analysis of hyperspectral data was verified by the examination of mine tailing samples by FPXRF (Field Portable X-ray Fluorescence spectrometry) (NITON XL-703).
Determinations of heavy metal containing minerals are based on the spectral profiles of the pixels of the area with using USGIS standard spectral profiles of the examined materials (galena, pyrite, sphalerite, goethite and jarosit).
Applying the Spectral Angle Mapper with BandMax classification the distribution of minerals (galena, pyrite, sphalerite, goethite, jarosit) in the area was defined. The mineral formation occurs especially at the levees and the barren places of the Szárazvölgyi flotation sludge reservoir. Based on the statistic results of the samples, principal component analysis and correlation coefficient between the different metal content of the samples were calculated. The highest correlations were found between Pb-Zn, Fe-Zn and between Fe-Pb. This prove the results of the principal component analysis, where usually Pb, Zn, Fe introduce the main component.
Canopy analysis was also carried out with the hyperspectal image in order to classify the differences between vegetation types at the Szárazvölgy flotation sludge reservoir and analyse the applicability of it. Supervised classification methods were used to distinguish 8 vegetation types based on the spectral properties of the area. The results of the classifications were compared to a ground truth image, based on ortophoto, topographic map, and GPS based field data collection. According to results of the comparison, the paralellpiped classification method is proved to be appropriate method based on the overall accuracy of canopy classification, which was 54% due to heterogeneity of the vegetation.
The results of hyperspectral data and FPXRF analysis suggest that Pb, Zn and Fe containing minerals have similar spatial distribution in the examined and barren area.
Based on this study hyperspectral remote sensing is likely to be an effective tool for the characterization and modeling the distribution of Pb, Zn and Fe containing minerals at the examined heavy metal polluted sites. Further more, based on the vegetation analysis plant species for phytoremediation can be defined.
The first part of the paper treates possible ways of soil alkalisation and the differences due to the reaction of the medium, neutral or alkaline, respectively. Alkalisation may occur in any soil, independently of the type, or even in soil-like formations, if conditions are favorable. Alkali soils are so-called hydrogenetic formations, develope...d in part through water effects. Under conditions prevailing in Hungary two kinds of salt migration processes, opposite to one another, are observable, i.e.:
1. Leaching downward, causing decrease in the base content of the upper layers,
2. Capillary rise of salts, causing increases in base content of the upper layers.
Accumulation of soluble salts usually takes place in the transition zone where these two processes get into contact with each other (Fig. 1).
* A közlemény első ízben a Bukaresti Nemzetközi Talajtani Konferencián (1958. IX. 26-án) német nyelven: „Die genetische Klassifizierung der ungarischen Szikböden” címen hangzott el.
As precipitation amounts in the Hungarian lowlands from 500 to 550 mm and causes leaching, true saline soils do not occur, except on some spots.
Between the two extreme types – completely leached, and salinized where leaching is completely absent, respectively – there exists a long range of soils alkalised or salinized to various degrees. Thus the various types of alkali soils display an interdependence with one another as shown in Fig. 2.
This interrelations may perform a base for the genetical classification of alkali soils of various properties and peculiarities. Summarising the facts stated above the paper offers a roughly, elaborated scheme for the classification of Hungarian alkali and saline soils, shown in a comprehensive table, the particulars of which are dicussed in the text. Thus the foundation is laid down for a detailed classification of alkali soils that later may become incorporated into an internationally approved system of alkali soils. The so-called practical classes of alkali soils – determined according to methods of reclamation – may be inserted into the delineated genetical system.
Characterization of heavy metal polluted abandoned mining sites is complicated, as the spatial distribution of pollutants often changes dramatically.
In our study, a hyperspectral data analysis of the Gyöngyösoroszi abandoned Pb-Zn mine, located in northern Hungary, where Záray (1991) reported serious heavy metal contamination, was carrie
Spectral angle mapper (SAM) and BandMax classification techniques were applied to obtain rule mineral images. Each pixel in these rule images represents the similarity between the corresponding pixels in the hyperspectral image to a reference spectrum.
As a result of hyperspectral imagery the distribution of pyritic minerals (sphalerite, galena) in the area was defined. Both of the mineral formations occur, especially in mine tailings, the area of the ore preparatory, and the Szárazvölgyi flotation sludge reservoir. According to the results, jarosite and goethite have similar distributions to sphalerite and galena. The results showed that hyperspectral remote sensing is an effective tool for the
characterization of Pb, Zn and Fe containing minerals at the examined polluted sites and for modelling the distribution of heavy metals and minerals in extensive areas.
This classification method is a basis of further detailed investigations, based on field measurements, to map the heavy metal distribution of the studied area and to quantify the environmental risks caused by erosion, which include DEM (digital elevation model) and climatic and hydrological data sources. Furthermore, it can be used primarily to support the potentially applicable phytostabilization technique and to isolate hot spots where only ex-situ remediation techniques can be applied.
Buildings in industry, mining, transportation and for personal and commercial activities cover increasingly more valuable agricultural land. The increase of sub-urbanization and vehicular traffic and the spread of malls and other kinds of investments are causing serious harm for not only to human society, but to a whole national economy as well....
The law on agricultural land (1994:LV) contains legal rules for the preservation, use and classification of agricultural land. These rules define the temporary or permanent use of land for agricultural and non-agricultural purposes; the scale of the land-protection fee and the rules of the process on cases in which land is used for non-agricultural purposes without the consent of the land registry. In the field of land classification, the law prescribes the regulations which are to be followed in order to define the net income of agricultural land in Golden Crowns.
Hungarian land protection rules are unique in the European Union, because only few member-states have similar laws to ours. Community law does not regulate the member states, except in the case of land classification, because this is the basis of the tax paid on the agricultural lands, but even here, there are differences among the states.
...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Nowadays employment is a hot topic in Hungary. The rate of inactive people on the labour market is very high. Many kinds of supplies are provided by the State for example for the group “people living with disabilities”. It is very difficult to provide job for these people after their rehabilitation. Statistical figures show, that the highest ratio of “people living with disabilities” can be found in the North Great Plain Region of Hungary (30 per cent of the total number of “people living with disabilities”).
The use of remote sensing in forest management and agriculture is becoming more prominent. The rapid development of technology allowed the emergence of database suitable for precision application in addition to the previously used low-resolution and low data content images. The high resolution, hyperspectral images are not only suitable for sep...arating the different land use categories and vegetation types but also for examining the soil characteristics and biophysical features of plants (Blackburn and Steel, 1999; Condit, 1970). We processed a multispectral satellite image (Landsat 7 ETM+) and a hypespectral areal image (DAIS 7915) about a farm on the plains and evaluated the different image classification methods. During our examinations, we examined the geometrical and radiometrical characteristics of images first, then assigning the training areas, we determined the spectral characteristics of land use categories. We performed a multispectral analysis for checking land use, where we compared controlled and uncontrolled classification systems to check their reliability. We used areal and spectral reductions to make the classifications more accurate and to reduce the length of calculations.
The cosmopolitan Phoma genus contains mainly phytopathogenic, opportunistic parasites, and saprophyte fungal species. Up to now, the characterization of Phoma species and other taxa of Phoma has been determined on the basis of morphology on standardized media, and gene sequence analysis was only used as a confirmative or distinctive complement....
In this study, we tried to find molecular markers which can be used as phylogenetics markers in the molecular based classification in the Phoma genus.
We employed a part of the translation elongation factor 1 subunit alpha (EF-1α=tef1) containing both introns and exons and ITS region containing the internal transcribed spacer regions 1 and 2 and the 5.8S rDNA, as potential genetic markers to infer phylogenetic relationships among different Phoma taxa. Twelve different Phoma species sequences were analysed together with the closely related Ascochyta ones. The constructed phylogenetic trees, based on tef1 and ITS sequences, do not support the traditional Phoma sections based on morphological characterization. However, we managed to distinguish between the Phoma strains and Ascochyta species by comparing their tef1 sequences through parsimony analysis. We proved that a tef1 can be a useful phylogenetic marker to resolve phylogenetic relationships at species level in Phoma genus.
Both parsimony sequence analyses confirmed that the Phyllosticta sojicola species is identical to the Phoma exigua var. exigua species as Kövics et al. (1999) claimed. However, the evolutionary distance by ITS sequences within Phoma species is too small to get well based consequences for the phylogenetic relationships of Phoma genus.
Further investigations would be necessary to clarify whether the tef1 and ITS sequences as phylogenetic molecular markers are well suited for the classification of Phoma species.
The methodology for delineating water bodies on multispectral remote sensing imagery was examined and evaluated. A supervised approach is tested with the aim to accurately detect inland water, moisturised soil surface and swampy patches on the Landsat TM 7 scene. The goal of this research is to investigate whether the application of remote sens...ing image interpretation could further refine the possibilities of future soil conductivity measurement research. The methodologies used were the application of supervised classification algorithms based on the training data collected in the area. The achieved overall classification accuracy value of 83.0795% suggests that the methodology could be used as a successful strategy to incorporate remote sensing data interpretation into soil conductivity measurement planning and application. The main conclusion that can be drawn is that processing of multispectral data with further refinement of the presented methodologies can led to very useful outcomes for environmental measurements.
We wish to present a method to quantify the value modifying effects when comparing animal farms. To achieve our objective, multi-variable statistical methods were needed. We used a principal component analysis to originate three separate principal components from nine variables that determine the value of farms. A cluster analysis was carried o...ut in order to classify farms as poor, average and excellent. The question may arise as to which principal components and which variables determine this classification.
After pointing out the significance of variables and principal components in determining the quality of farms, we analysed the relationships between principal components and market prices. Some farms did not show the expected results by the discriminant analysis, so we supposed that the third principal component plays a great role in calculating prices. To prove this supposition, we applied the logistic regression method. This method shows how great a role the principal components play in classifying farms on the basis of price categories.
...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The summarizing data collection of our study has been carried out in the scope of the FP7-REGPOT-2010-1 ’UD_AGR_REPO’ project as a part of the cooperation with the University of Lincoln. The University of Lincoln is an important partner of the project, the knowledge transfer activities that have been carried jointly with them are multilateral. One of the most important cooperation areas is the analysis of rural areas, rurality itself, determination of breakout points, exploration of alternative income sources, diversification possibilities. Some part of the work of the University of Lincoln on the field of rural development is based on the assessment and documentation global similarities and differences of rural areas. Present study also contributes to that work, it has been prepared on the request of the University of Lincoln with the aim of providing insight into the special political and economic changes/processes that took place in Hungary, and through them into the structure and operation of the unique Hungarian rural areas.
the target for the European Union to make Europe the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world. In this process, the education and training are of great importance for the member states. The restructuring of higher education, the modernization of the universities cannot be achieved without new financial resources. They s...hould be ensured by increasing contribution of the private sector. However it is not enough to invest sufficient funds in the educational and training system, they must be expended efficiently. The free higher education itself does
not necessarily guarantee the equal access and maximal participation. The quality of higher education and equal opportunity can be improved, if the rising funds are expended on infrastructure development and creating an efficiently working student support system.
Quality, equal opportunity, efficiency – they are the most important views for the decision-makers in the higher education reform. In my paper, I would like to interpret definitions relating to higher education and in this way I attempt to evaluate the financing systems of the Hungarian higher education formed since the change of the regime, with special regards to the normative financial system combined with the payment of tuition fees. For classification, it is necessary to present the different basic financial models. Furthermore, on the basis of the above criteria, I try to make recommendations on how to improve the present financial model in order to achieve the Lisbon objectives.
The topic is important in our days, because tuition fees will be introduced in Hungary from 2008. The problem is very complex, although the analysts in most cases tend to approach the topic with prejudice, depending on their financial and political interests. My analysis may contribute to discernment in the tangle of the pros and cons.
The ecological restoration of surface water flows requires the use of complex GIS and hydrological models. The HEC -RAS and MIKE11 programs calculate the hydraulic characteristics of runoff using the geometry and bed resistance the of flows. The presentation of some possible applications made through an example of the Berettyó, which is an ext...remely regulated river. The river belongs to the meandering category by Parker's classification system, which uses the relationship of the slope-Froude number and the depth- width ratio. Three coefficient of the four determining factor (entrenchment ratio, slope of water level, width-depth ratio) also indicates a mediocre to high sinuosity, while the river regulations established nearly straight bed-line. The standard water flow rates and characteristics have been determined based on the modeled Froude and Reynolds numbers. The flow conditions shifted to the laminar type by the changed line drawing which is ecologically lower status. Based on the results the morphological and ecohydrological river rehabilitation is appropriate.
The rheological properties of dough are determined by the amount and proportion of gliadin and glutenin proteins. Extensibility and resistance to the extension of doughs which can be measured using the extensigraph or alveograph allow good assesment of the baking behavior under realistic conditions. In our study, we compared the extensigraph an...d alveograph parameters of 87 flour samples. The results showed that the alveograph parameters were different from the extensigraph parameters. The classification of wheat varieties was different, and the order of varieties, as well. The alveograph properties were affected by other factors than the extensigraph properties, except the W value. The two rheological tests did not give similar results, therefor neither test are replaceable.
According to the data of population density, 98% of Hungary’s territory has rural features. Gaining EU supports, in order to focus on developing the most underdeveloped communities, and in order to decrease – not to increase – the differences between communities, the establishment of priorities and determination of the rank of rural commu...nities based on their development potential is necessary. The claim of measurability arises because of comparison and classification. A possibility or a target area of measuring is analysing population retaining and income producing capability of rural areas.
To gain adequate, many-sided information about the development potentials of a given community, micro- or macro region, complex condition survey, as well as secondary information completed with empirical data and subjective value judgment is essential. The aim in every case is to gain experience of the present condition via determining the direction of change.
In this study, I deal with the clarification of the definition of population retaining ability and the ability to economically provide for a population and introduce the most important results of the inquiry with questionnaires completed in the frame of an empirical survey.
The more widely use of GIS, remote sensing technology provides appropriate data acquisition and data processing tools to build several national and international biodiversity monitoring system of environmental protection and natur conservation. The ChangeHabitats 2 is a similar international project, which uses airborne hyperspectral and airbor...ne laser scanning (airborne LiDAR) sources beyond traditional data collection methods to build a monitoring system of Natura 2000 habitats. The goal of our research, on one hand, was to separate the most typical species of trees which can be found in the largest coverage in the research plots of Debreceni Nagyerdő Nature Reserve from field and airborne remote sensing data, use image classification that based on spectral and geometry (height) characteristics of the trees. On the other hand our goal was to evaluate the efficient use of the integration of mobilGIS, airborne hyperspectral and airborne LiDAR data collecting methods to complement or substitut of the traditional, field data collecting methods. We used ArcGIS 10.2 and Exelis 5.0 GIS software for data evaluation, in which the mosaicing, the selection of plots and the spectral image processing were carried out.
In the field of alternative energy sources there is an argue in the comparison of its effects on the benefits and disadvantages to the economics and the environment. New studies are born which are in contradiction with each other. The demand for bioenergy feedstock is growing rapidly however there are the environmental problems caused by the ex...tending energy crop plantations. There is such a significant need for land to grow traditional energy crops on (rape, soy, palm-oil, sugarcane, etc.) that the food purpose agricultural capacity could be in danger. Probably the extensively
growing energy crops play a role in the very high prices of food. In some countries like China for example laws prohibit the use of food based crops such as corn for energie production. In the case of corn based ethanol production the cost only for the feedstock itself is over 60% of the whole preparation costs which significantly effects the entire economy of the energy productions process.
The microalgaes however have a huge biotechnological potential and their production is notably cheaper then the traditionaly grown food crops growing expenses. They play a significant role as feedstocks in todays industrial production in such fields as comestible production, cosmetics, pharmaceutics and biotechnology especially in biofule production. In the field of economy the major aspects here are also the technological designs
and the construction. For the future industrial production the closed type systems seem to have more advantages compared to the open, pond-type systems. For high value material production the more innovative and more easily developed closed photobioreactors are the profitable regardless the vast techological designs used in the construction.
Mycologists have recorded a few hundred thousand Latin names for fungi and these are thought to refer to 70 000 or so separate species. The use of molecular techniques in fungal taxonomy and systematics in the last 25 years has provided massive amounts of information to clarify phylogenetic relationships, encouraged grant support, and complicat...ed the jobs of classically-trained mycologists. Taxonomists have a reputation for being traditionalists, but the community has recently embraced the modernization of the nomenclatural rules by discarding the requirement for Latin descriptions, endorsing electronic publication, and ending the dual system of nomenclature, viz. teleomorph and anamorph names, which used parallel for the sexual and asexual phases of pleomorphic species. A group of taxonomists accepted ’The Amsterdam Declaration on Fungal Nomenclature’ and its basic principle the ’One fungus – one name’ has been incorporated in the Code of Nomenclature (’Melbourne Code’) in 2011. The next, and more difficult step will be to develop community standards for sequence-based classification. As the’One fungus – One name’ theory is a brand-new issue for the Hungarian plant doctors and practical specialists, it seems reasonable to review this to promote conversations between generations in Hungarian language.
Literature experience was utilised to develop a method for the extensograph analog testing of paste with a QTS25 Texture Analyser. 54 wheat flour samples from the same variety from variety-preservation experiments at the Szeged were tested with this method. A study was made to establish whether the method is suitable for the estimation of resul...ts derived by traditional classification (trial baking, farinograph and gluten tests).
A close and significant correlation was found between the hardness and area data measured with a QTS25 micro-extensograph, the farinograph values and the gluten spreading data, and also between the stretching index (BC/AC) and the water uptake capacity. These correlations correspond well with the findings from a previous experimental series on industrial flour samples. A close and significant correlation was likewise observed between the grain hardness established by the MININFRA method and all the QTS25 micro-extensograph data. In contrast with earlier QTS25 data, however a close correlation was not found between the QTS25 data and the loaf characteristics.
With the use of micro-extensograph data, the estimation of the baking industry value has been improved through stepwise variable selection, with the inclusion of several variables. The estimation of loaf volume could also be solved by means of stepwise variable selection with the inclusion of QTS25 and MININFRA data.
Hungary is rich in natural water resources, therefore investigation of these biotopes is an important task. The Szarvas- Kákafok deadarm is the largest horse-shoe lake of the Tiszántúl, its lenght is 28 km. It has an important role in recreation and agricultural utilization. The quality of the deadarm is influenced by the river Körös, but...also by communal and agricultural pollution. Our goals were to estimate the intensity of the
sedimentation processes, and the water- and the sediment quality as well. Also, we examined an artificial wetland system, constructed by the Fish Culture and Irrigation Research Institute, Szarvas.
The calculated sedimentation was 0.4-0.5 cm year-1, which indicated an intensive eutrophication process. The constructed wetland system was able to decrease the organic load of the intensive fish culture company. On the basis of our TOC measurements, the organic matter content of the effluent water remained whitin the water quality limits.
The changes of the material cycling could be more intense in the water body, then in the sediment. The oxido-reduction potential of the sediment could indicate the ecological state of the shallow lakes, therefore it could be an easily measurable indicator in the water classification.
Identity connected to the dwelling-place has been, and still is, shaped by many (regional, natural, cultural, administrative, and historical) factors. The Euro region of Hajdú-Bihar–Bihor can be considered as a sort of transitional region, which has a strong impact on the cultural identity of both individuals and small communities. The ident...ity construction of local inhabitants, however, does not necessarily follow the different geographical, ethnographical and historical borders of subregions. As a result, several transitional zones exist, which are now divided by a national border, too. Consequently, although many research theories and aspects have been conceived, no uniform method of approach has been created, which would define exactly the classification of folk culture in terms of small, medium and large region. The present short study examines problems posed by this question.
The hay saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is a sterile triploid plant, known in human culture only, with no fertile seeds produced. The origin of saffron is still a mist, however it is assumed to be an autopoliploid mutant or a hybrid. The recent classification and most of the former taxonomic publications define C. sativus to be derived from C. cart...wrightianus, a wild species. Because of the sterility of hay saffron it seemed to be reasonable to apply molecular biological methods to complete classical taxonomic studies in examining its relations. The DNA polymorphism based AFLP method has confirmed the close relationship between these species.
The extensograph is widely used in quality control and research laboratories studying wheat flour quality. The most commonly used measurements include Rm, the maximum resistance (maximum height of the curve); R5 the resistance at a constant extension of 5 cm; E, extensibility (total curve length); Rm/E, the ratio of maximum resistance to extens...ion; and A, the area under curve. The extensograph has proved useful in the classification and assessment of flours on the physical dough properties. Another important application is its use in wheat breeding programs. Furthermore, extensograph is an excellent tool to study the effects of a wide range of ingredients on dough properties of wheat flour (like oxidants, enzymes, salt and additives), and it can also be used measure the changes during the frozen storage. In the present study we provide a review of the scientific literature concerning the possible applications of the extensograph.
Romania is one of the largest producers of sunflower closely followed by Bulgaria, Hungary, France and Spain. The total sunflower production increased after 1990, due the increase of cultivated surface during the moderate yield average increasing rate. Last year, Romania was ranked first in the European Union (EU) for the area cultivated with s...unflower and the total production of sunflower seeds, according to the National Statistics Institute (INS). Romania's position on the map of sunflower producers area is supported by about 1 million hectares sown. In the segment of sunflower productivity, Romania has an unfavourable position, situated in the last places in the classification of the EU's most productive agricultures. In order to increase production per hectare, it is required to perform measures aimed at the elements of sustainable cultivation technology, including the stability of the production level by ensuring phytosanitary protection.