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  • Regional innovation: State of the art in the Észak-alföld region
    139-143
    Views:
    81

    Innovation and innovation performance is gaining increasing importance in European policy, as the targets determined by the Lisbon priorities related to innovation seem to be still far away from the reality in some European countries and at EU level as well. Although the economic crisis determined the priorities of economic development and made it more complicated to dedicate more budget of Research and Development, one of the five ambitious objectives of the EU’s growth strategy for the coming decade: Europe 2020: A strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth is still focusing on innovation. As the Lisbon Strategy determined the paths for national targets in the given areas, Europe 2020 will be adopted as well by the Member States. 
    In this context, the current work would like to give a short overview how Lisbon Strategy effected the national and regional innovation system in Hungary and will analyze its impact on Észak-Alföld’s region Research, Development and Innovation performance in the recent years and the transition of regional innovation governance system.

  • Need for measurement of the innovation at Hungarian SMEs
    5-13
    Views:
    135

    Competitiveness studies have shown that innovation could be breakout point for some economies, regions and enterprises. Knowledge acquisition, creation and exploitation of the knowledge base have been an essential element for economic growth. These knowledge-based economic processes come together with the innovation. Measurement of innovation by indicators has been playing a really emphatic role in making strategy whether it is national or EU planning.

    Enterprises have always tried to measure and quantify their innovation activities mostly through the results of their economic process. Companies have generally considered their products as part of the innovation. That was the reason that in most cases they only and exclusively focused on the finished product. Some of them was able to realize that details of the production process must be taken into account in order to the whole innovation activity could be measured.

    That is why I find it important to examine of what the innovativity of enterprises is made of, and in which way they can be measured.
    In addition I was looking for the answer to the questions that how much the measuring method allows you to compare enterprises for further examination.

    The development of measurement methods is an essential moment of the article. As it is compiled for me the most important aspect of innovation, according to the statistical document, the Oslo manual guides you through the measurement methods and operational processes They play a very important role in proving my hypothesis. Overall, our country’s innovation results show those areas where we have high endowments, and also those where are the weaknesses.

    Of course, systems and tools defined by the governing authorities of national economies will have the main role but the activity of the European Union will be the frame in the end, because without subsidies from the EU budget, national budget wouldn’t be enough to implement these aims.

  • Will there be a horticultural triangle (cluster)? Thoughts about the reconstruction of the Hungarian horticulture between two European regions
    21-27
    Views:
    99

    The authors of this study seek the answer to the question how to develop, in the first decade or decades of the 21st century, the university-level
    horticultural scientific training, the horticultural innovation and the scientific co-operation between companies and universities in Debrecen and
    in the North Great Plain Region and – in a wider sense – in Hungary to a standard being competitive even in European terms. With the synthesis
    of the prospects of past, present and future, they drew the following conclusions. The reconstruction of agriculture, horticulture and food industry
    is a part of reforming Hungary's countryside. Horticulture, producing high added value, will be able to decisively contribute to the plan whereas
    the value presently produced in an agriculturally cultivated area of 1,000 euros/hectare can reach 2,000 to 3,000 euros in the next two decades.
    A necessary and indispensable precondition to achieving this is the strengthening of the innovation output of the Hungarian horticultural sector.
    Despite the numerous technical criticisms formulated in connection with the serious problems of Hungarian agricultural and horticultural
    scientific innovation, no progress has been made in this field for the past one and a half decade. The scientific research of this topic hardly
    continued or did not continue at all, the up-to-date surveys and in-depth analyses were missing. The objective, basic principles and tasks of the
    Act CXXXIV of 2004 (TTI) enacted concerning research-development and technological innovation are clear and progressive. The co-operation
    between the National Research Technology Office and the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, the setting up of the Innovation Fund are heartening
    opportunities. These – along with the new Higher Education Bill to be passed – may as well be suitable for restarting the Hungarian agricultural
    and horticultural scientific innovation. In our opinion, this requires a new, well-considered national agricultural programme, which can be
    conceived in the framework of the "Ferenc Entz National Horticultural Plan" proposed by us for horticulture. In the most eastern Hungarian
    university knowledge centre, at the University of Debrecen, the continuing of the horticultural scientific innovation strategy started in the last
    decade may be the focal point and generator of the development of the so-called "Hungarian Horticultural Triangle”, or "Hungarian
    Horticultural Cluster". This region comprises the Northern and Southern Great Plain Regions and the area between the Danube and Tisza
    Rivers. Here, about 70 to 75% of the total Hungarian horticultural commodity stock is produced. The objective of the HORT-INNOTECH
    DEBRECEN programme planned in 2004 by the University of Debrecen, Centre of Agricultural Science is to establish the horticultural scientific
    research-development and technological innovation structure and knowledge base of the Hungarian Horticultural Triangle / Hungarian
    Horticultural Cluster. In harmony with this, the objectives are to bring about competitive, new horticultural products, to improve the conditions
    of utilising them, to enhance the competitiveness of enterprises based on technological innovation, to make use of the research-development and
    innovation opportunities available in the regions in an efficient manner, to as full extent as possible, to encourage the creation of places of
    employment producing high added value in the field of horticulture, to improve the technical skills of those employed in horticultural researchdevelopment and to promote their enhanced recognition by the society.

  • Andrological examination of Hungarian Large White and Landrace boars
    5-10
    Views:
    208

    The Hungarian Large White and Hungarian Landrace pig breeds have outstanding lifetime performance, production parameters and crossbreeding ability. Nevertheless, during the recent decades, these breeds could not compete with the West European hybrid pigs concerning on production results. In this study, we made a complex andrological evaluation of boars in different Hungarian nucleus breeding stocks. After taking blood and semen samples, performing gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) challenge, ultrasonic and thermographic examinations were done. Laboratory tests were accomplished in reproduction labs of NARIC ABNMS. Our goal was to determine the reproductive performances of boars and collect samples for future genetic examinations, respectively.

  • Economic aspects of innovation in sheep breeding
    33-36
    Views:
    65

    Innovation, as a factor influencing the success of farming, is of outstanding importance also in agriculture. Only those businesses (enterprises, companies) can be successful in the longrun which are able to adapt the new technological elements and to make their own developments occasionally and make them suitable for practical utilization.
    The innovation activities performed by the enterprises, business organizations can be evaluated at firm (microeconomic) and national economy (macroeconomic) levels. In the case of sheep breeding also, a complex evaluation system should be applied, since this is a sector, which has significant rural development and social impacts. The innovation processes are analysed from the identification of the problem inducing research and development until the return of the invested resources.

  • The development of the scientific bases of horticulture and the history of horticultural innovation in the Northern Great Plain region and in Debrecen
    17-20
    Views:
    75

    It can be told about the second half of the XXth century that, apart from preferring the large-scale growing of field plants and the largescale
    livestock farming, corresponding to the central political will of the communist era, the significance and innovation output of
    horticultural education in Debrecen was rather of follow-up trait, of secondary importance. The Tobacco Research Institute continued the
    research work, and then even this activity was stopped. According to a survey finished in 1997, the mentioned institute had no invention,
    granted patent, protection for registered model or any application for patent in progress at the Hungarian Patent Office. Until this time, invention activity at the University of Agricultural Sciences was of medium standard. In the National Patent Office, seven patent applications related to agricultural production and nine patent applications for other fields submitted under the inventors’ names were recorded. In the same period, the Cereal Research Institute (Szeged) led the absolute innovation list of Hungarian agricultural R+D institutions and university education institutes by submitting 164 own patent applications. Both in domestic and international terms, the horticultural innovation conducted at the University of Agricultural Sciences, despite the individual research results and achievements deserving recognition, without appropriate background – remained unnoticed. Let us put it this way: for the past decades, the light of the Debrecen Flower Carnival has not been thrown on the horticultural teachers and researchers of Debrecen.

  • Development of an InDel marker set to establish hybridization between wild boar and domestic pig (Sus scrofa) breeds
    21-25
    Views:
    239

    Wild boar and domestic pig breeds belong to the same species (Sus scrofa), so they can easily have viable offspring. This could be a problem in preserving the genetic lines of wild boars, keeping clean the food industry from lower-grade hybrid boar meat, and „producing” ethically questionable trophies, too. The aim of our study was to develop a cost-efficient, fast, easy and accurate marker set which can separate the wild boars from hybrids and domestic pig breeds.

    The InDel markers were developed using 59 full pig genomes of 17 different breeds (e.g. Duroc, Large White, Landrace, Mangalica, wild boar). Sequence differences between the genomes of wild boars and domestic breeds were identified in variant call files, and verified using the IGV software. Wild boar, mangalica and duroc specific primers to amplify the chosen InDel regions were designed using Primer3.

    After preliminary tests five markers were chosen, three wild boar specific, one Mangalica specific and one Duroc specific one. Fluorescently labelled primers were used to make the valuation easier and more accurate with capillary electrophoresis instead of gel-electrophoresis. The markers were optimised individually and in multiplex conditions and tested in samples of 11 breeds.

    In conclusion, a new, faster and cheaper set was developed to separate the wild boars from the hybrids and domestic breeds. Based on the preliminary testing on wild boars, duroc and mangalica breeds zero samples resulted false negative, so it is 100% accurate. In addition, it is a much more cost- and time-effective way than testing every single sample with STR sets.

  • The R&D and innovation activity of agribusiness enterprises in Hajdú-Bihar County
    67-71
    Views:
    125

    Economic changes have significantly accelarated in the 21th century. In this turbulent market environment enterprises are forced to adapt continously as they must be flexible in order to meet changing market needs. To achieve flexibility companies require innovation. The economic relevance of innovations is significant in every market sector and agriculture is no exception. Re-dynamizing agricultural innovations is a possibility for the outburst of the Hungarian agriculture. Agricultural enterprises have to face competitors as well and they should give priority to efficiency, sustainability and competitiveness in order to preserve their position in BOTH global and domestic markets. This study examines the innovation potential of the agricultural enterprises in the North Great Plain region based on own databases and case studies.

  • Acquisition practice prior to commercial use in the European Union
    153-158
    Views:
    72

    The target of 3% of GDP spent on R&D by the Lisbon priorities seems to be still far away from the reality in some European countries and at EU level as well. The economic crisis determined the priorities and it makes more complicated to dedicate more budget on Research and Development. New methods, new measures are needed in the European Union. Measures that supporting the demand side of the innovation and generates market-pull affects. The Europe 2020 Innovation Union Flagship Initiative dedicates a special role to precommercial procurement for the upcoming 10 years. Nowadays, there are more and more European countries running pilot projects adapting the American SBIR (Small Business Innovation Research) programme.

  • Improvement of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) growing under marginal site conditions in Hungary: case studies
    129-133
    Views:
    317

    In Hungary, black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) is considered as an important exotic stand-forming tree species growing mostly under unfavourable ecological conditions for forest management. Due to climate change effects, its importance is increasing in many other countries, too. As a result of a selection programme, new black locust clones were tested in clone trials. Juvenile growth of 12 micropropagated black locust clones in two plots series established at different dates were evaluated in central Hungary under marginal site conditions. At age of 7 the clone R. p. ‘Bácska’ (‘KH 56A2/5’), at age of 10 the clones R.p. ‘Homoki’ (‘MB17D3/4’) and ‘PV201E2/4’ appeared to be especially promising for mass production. Based on the data obtained from the performed trials, it can also be concluded that tissue culture can be considered as a suitable tool for propagating superior individuals and offers new prospects for the rapid cloning of selected genotypes used for plantation forestry.

  • Innovation activity of the agricultural enterprises in the North great Plain region
    237-240
    Views:
    83

    Economic changes have significantly accelarated in the 21th century. In this turbulent market environment enterprises are forced to adapt continously as they must be flexible in order to meet changing market needs. To achieve flexibility companies require innovation. The economic relevance of innovations is significant in every market sector and agriculture is no exception. Re-dynamizing agricultural  nnovations is a possibility for the outburst of the Hungarian agriculture. Agricultural enterprises have to face competitors as well and they should give priority to efficiency, sustainability and competitiveness in order to preserve their position in BOTH global and domestic markets. This study examines the innovation potential of the agricultural enterprises in the North Great Plain region based on public databases and case studies.

  • Emerging sectors in rural development
    65-72
    Views:
    117

    This paper focuses on the innovativeness of rural economy and in particular on the way rural entrepreneurs in endogenous and exogenous sectors make use of their rural environment. building upon the sustainable innovation framework, key strategies for rural development are formulated. the described data refers to the rural innova region (10 rural eu regions). The results show that rural innovation is essentially a process of valorising endogenous potentials by connecting them with exogenous assets.

  • The presence of the undertaken social and economic role in the university's strategy-making
    93-96
    Views:
    112

    It is vital to examine the strategic plans and leadership insights of the university, the faculties, the departments and the institutions in the research of the „third mission” of the universities. Because of the undertaken social-economic role in the region it is indispensable to know the turbulently changing environment (hazards – opportunities), to map the competencies available in the university (strengths – weaknesses) and to recognize the relations between the external and internal environment. It is an important factor to define the strategic directions of the departments, examining them in direction dimension (pro-active – adaptive) and in role dimension (top-down – bottom-up). The main objective of this research is to recognize the formal and informal strategic visions of the institutes and departments in the Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economic Sciences of the University of Debrecen, and to examine how these visions are related to the university's role in the regional innovation system.

  • Innovation Potential and Regional Competitiveness studies in the Northern Great Plain region
    223-228
    Views:
    98

    1.5 million people live in the large region containing 3 counties, which makes it the second most populated region after Central Hungary. Its economy and land use are still defined by agriculture and it has been the least developed region in the country for a long time. In the country this region has the second lowest GDP per capita and employment rate. In contrast to the low values of the economic indicators the region has high potential for innovation. The University of Debrecen is located in the region having one of the widest range of education and intensive research and development is also a characteristic of the region.

  • The role of mediation resources in the operation and development of knowledgeintensive small and medium enterprises
    109-113
    Views:
    119

    Address social and economic processes of social capital system between universities and the business sector – because of their special and similar characteristics – major emphasis will be displayed. Knowledge-intensive companies would be hard to imagine functioning without established links with tertiary education institutions and universities can now functions would be unthinkable without displaying the corporate sector sectoral specificities of knowledge and strategies of the university.

    Because of the development of knowledge-intensive business activities based on innovation-oriented economic development which are specific to innovative SMEs, funding sources and opportunities. In a typical operating environment of innovation, with sectoral, spatial and temporal factors are constantly changing. These factors are decisive elements in the innovation opportunities, and through this indirectly the success of these enterprises. The resources involved in mediating the markets perceive a high risk to price this innovation activities and their funding. Under the study to try to answer that by optimizing the functions of universities, how and in what form they may have a role in mitigating financial risks.

  • Pre- and postharvest technologies to extend the shelf life of Prunus cerasus
    85-89
    Views:
    209

    Fresh tart cherry consumption cannot be increased without the development of an appropriate technology for its elongated storage. This requires the development and optimization of the pre- and postharvest treatments. Currently, we have only limited knowledge about tart cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) postharvest technology, however, related studies on sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) may be adopted. In this article, we have collected the most important research results in this topic.

  • Formation of Food Clusters in Europe
    55-59
    Views:
    86

    In the dictionary of foreign words and phrases we can find the word “cluster” with the following sense: aggregation, group and in a wider meaning: association, integration.
    By explaining the geographical concentration of economical and innovation processes in the food processing sector, clusters, and especially
    business clusters, play an important role. This essay deals exclusively with business clusters, so the term cluster is used also for business cluster.
    I tried to collect the most relevant indicators determining the formation of clusters in the Food Processing Sectors and to analyze whether a
    correlation can be found among the analyzed indicators.

  • Optimising intensive apple crown pruning by IT improvements
    165-173
    Views:
    147

    Prunig is a key element of fruit production technology and is affected by a number of subjective factors. Putting research findings into practice is often hindered by bad and harmful habits that make plantations and trees heterogenious in terms of growth and fruiting features, which can even lead to significant financial losses. Having identified this challenge, in this publication we aim to present some guidelines for those who are open to new ways and believe in the power of innovation. The 21st century is undoubtedly the century of unstoppable IT innovations filtering through into our everyday lives. The fact that our project is based on IT innovations is not only essential due to the subject matter itself but also because it makes it easier to address younger generations. Whichever tool they choose to use (smartphone, tablet, laptop), all registered students have access to our web contents, making it super easy for them to practice pruning techniques. Students don’t just read texts in our training materials but have access to a pool of pictures and images to illustrate the different procecces and phenomena. All the different phrases have explanations against them, so anyone can understand the ins and outs of why and how to prune or remove the different crown parts (5-year-old and above crown parts, 2–4-year old parts or 1-year-old parts) to achieve specific results, whether it be apple, pear or cherry trees etc. Our database comprises thousands of pictures that will walk you through the entire fruit tree pruning process, without you even having to leave your desk. There is an old proverb that also applies to pruning: „The wise man learns from the mistakes of others, the fool has to learn from his own”. Our program aims to help students by presenting a number of bad examples along with their corrections as well as photos of ideal ways to prune multiple different crown shapes. Using our web-based tool eliminates time and space limitations, i.e. you can access our interactive contents to gain or extend your pruning skills, irrespective of the pruning time and location.

  • The economic structure and the tertiary ecucation of the function of transformation Hungary 19th and 20th century of in economic integration periods
    115-122
    Views:
    106

    Knowledge-intensive businesses sectoral nature of the operation and the specific attributes of the innovation life cycle processes, different needs and different needs induce. These features can also differentiate time that their activities when and what type of resources they require. The availability of capacity in terms of a network co-benefits for those businesses that are creating the possibility that such resources are available to ensure the realization of goals that are not individually owned. These factors and the availability of local availability is also motivated by the small and medium enterprises willingness to cooperate.

    Regional supply of resources necessary for the operation of the business of insurance, universities play a key role. The functions of universities in innovation as a business service can be understood as an activity that mediate high added value to other organizations and companies. Questions arise as to the innovative nature of the business industry and sector weights would differentiate whether the R&D&Iintensive areas of expertise.

  • The European Research Area: in quest of the Lisbon goals
    73-79
    Views:
    68

    strong educational and scientific knowledge basie is one of Europe's traditional key assets that has made it possible for our continent to become world class in several research fields. Despite these great achievements, the position of the European research and technological development (RTD) potential is currently being challenged by a rapidly changing global competition, including the two main rivals, the US and Japan. The European Union (EU) is behind these countries as regards research and innovation output. Moreover, European research is faced with the
    implications of globalisation of markets and industries, digitalisation and new technologies, as well as a need to address societal issues such as an ageing population or climate change.
    At the same time, the European Union (EU) is facing the uneven distribution of RTD capacities and excellence within its own borders, especially the EU12 countries are lagging behind in this
    respect.
    In order to meet this twofold challenge the EU has to step up its efforts for the creation of a legitimate "European Research Area" that will make the EU more competitive on the international scene, and also encourage the less developed EU member states to invest more and better into research and innovation.

  • Promising Leuce poplar clones in sandy ridges between the rivers Danube and Tisza in Hungary: a case study
    111-113
    Views:
    214

    An intensive integrated research and development work has been carried out on the improvement of Leuce poplars including primarily the native white poplar (Populus alba L.) and its natural hybrid grey poplar (Populus × canescens). More than 70 percent of the Leuce poplar stands can be found on calcareous sandy sites in the Danube–Tisza region, so they play a significant role in the poplar management of this part of the country. The most important task ahead of Hungarian poplar growers is to improve the quality of poplar stands and plantations based on selecting new clones and cultivars. The growth and yield of four promising Leuce poplar clones was evaluated on a marginal site in central Hungary. The clones ‘H 425-4’ (Populus alba L. × Populus alba L.), and ‘H 758’ (Populus alba L. Mosonmagyaróvár 124) seem to be suitable for wood production, while the ‘H 427-3’ (Populus alba L. × Populus alba L. cv. Bolleana) and ‘H 422-9’ (Populus alba L. × Populus grandidentata (Michx)) clones (with decorative stem form) could be better used for tree lines and ornamental plantations.

  • Open Method of Coordination in the European research policy
    182-187
    Views:
    69

    Research, development and innovation (R+D) are of great importance nowadays as regards the competetiveness and economic growth of any given country. In the European Union the Lisbon Strategy considers R+D as a crutial means to enhance european competetiveness. The EU is substansially lagging behind its main competitors (USA, Japan) in this domain, furthermore developing countries (China, India) have recently been making
    great progress, thus posing additional challanges to our continent.  The EU needs to assess the present situation as soon as possible and meet the latest challenges in the most efficient way. In order to achieve this objective, the concept of the European Research Area (ERA) has been elaborated with the aim of reorganising, regrouping and integrating existing structures. The open method of coordination (OMC) is playing an important role in the implementation of this common area. It constitutes an alternative policy-making merthod to pure „intergovernmentalism” and the
    „community method”. The OMC in the field of research policy is coordinated by the Scientific and Research Committe (CREST), which provides a forum for member states to share their experience and reach their common goals.

  • The effect of feeding different glycerol sources on the performance of lactating sows
    99-103
    Views:
    159

    Glycerol is a by-product of the biodiesel industry and it might be a good alternative to moderate the energy deficiency of sows during the lactation period. Preliminary experiments were carried out to test the effect of a powder, solid based “food grade” glycerol source with 72.9% glycerol content (Trial 1) and a liquid “feed grade” glycerol source with 86% glycerol content (Trial 2) on the performance of lactating sows and their litters. Trial 1 was conducted with 5 Hungarian Large White×Hungarian Landrace sows/treatment (313±24.9 kg) and Trial 2 with 12–12 DanAvl (323±17.0 kg) sows and their litters/treatment. Neither the solid, powder based glycerol (Trial 1), nor the liquid glycerol source (Trial 2) had significant effect on the feed intake, reduction in live weight and back-fat thickness, and weaning-tooestrus interval (p>0.05) of lactating sows. In Trial 2, on the 14th, 21st and 27th days of lactation the milk samples were collected and it was found that 50 kg/t glycerol decreased the protein content of milk samples (p<0.05). Glycerol supplementation had no effect on dry matter, fat, lactose content of milk samples (p>0.05). In Trial 2, no significant difference was found between control and experimental sow groups in triglyceride concentration of blood samples and in the activity of liver enzymes (ALT, AST, GGT; p>0.05), but the concentration of plasma glucose and cholesterol increased tendentiously (p<0.10).

    Based on our preliminary results, it can be concluded that additional dose trials are needed to perform in order to study the effect of glycerol supplement on milk production and on metabolic processes of lactating sows.

  • Simulation of optimizing decisions and risk analysis in investment plans
    160-164
    Views:
    85

    Investments always contain risks, as data referring to the future are planned and uncertain. Therefore, besides feasibility analyses we need to perform risk analyses, as well. Through statistic simulation methods, our aim is to examine how uncertain and prospective data as risk factors affect investment-profitability indices. On the other hand, our aim is to find out the optimal innovation – financing decisions by using decision optimizing
    methods.

  • Differentiation of enterprises headquarters and activities
    55-59
    Views:
    114

    The University of Miskolc – as part of a needs assessment – took up contact with businesses that have the nature of the industry in line with the strategic objective areas of the institution. The survey focused on industry-wide is so limited, most of the knowledge-intensive company was that the knowledge economy is distinguished by relevant stakeholders through innovation activity.

    The research results of the questionnaire are within the framework of this study, we intend to review how the knowledge-intensive small and medium enterprises differentiate implantation of the headquarters and activities their scope.

    There are two types of embeddedness adapt the functions of universities with the aim to investigate the geographic scope of their activities in the extent of whether there is any impact on the local embedded and engagement.