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Mitigation of the effect of secondary salinization by micro soil conditioning
Published May 20, 2020
115-119

This research has the general goal to meet the customization of agriculture in small scale farming. We are developing a technique using micro doses of soil conditioners and organic material applied in the root zone of vegetable crops. We expected to change the physical and chemical properties of the affected soil, which has been irrigated w...ith salty water. Two different soil conditioners were tested. A lysimeter experiment including 8 simple drainage lysimeters was set up in the Research Institute of Karcag IAREF University of Debrecen in 2017. The main goal was to study the effect of different soil conditioners on the soil endangered by secondary salinization induced by irrigation with saline water. In order to compare the difference between the treatments, we collected soil samples, water samples, and determined the yields. Chili pepper (Capsicum annuum) was used as an indicator crop during one specific agricultural season. The technique called micro soil conditioning is rational because several reasons. The roles of the technique are various, for example it can serve as a source of carbon or a container for soil amendments and can minimize evaporation. We found this technique not to interfere with the chemical reaction or the interaction with the plants. However, the micro doses of soil amendments had the role to minimize the risk of soil degradation and do not significantly influence soil respiration. In addition, by improving soil properties, soil conditioning increases the leaching of the excess of salts from the root zone. In fact, this technique can decrease the cost of the inputs and improves the production of vegetables, and at the same time mitigates the effect of secondary salinization.

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Previous data on the relationship between the intensity of pruning and the degree of damage in integrated and organic applegrowing systems
Published May 27, 2001
47-52

In Hungary, fruit growers are increasingly interested in environmentally friendly growing methods, such as organic and integrated systems. Vital is the establishment of a strengthened system of cultivar-pruning-plant protection in production technology. Consequently, our aim was to examine the susceptibility of apple cultivars to diseases and p...ests and the effect of pruning technique on diseases and pests in organic and integrated growing systems.
Two pathogens (Venturia inaequalis, Podosphaera leucotricha) and two pests (Leucoptera malifoliella, Pannonychus ulmi) were observed in organic and integrated systems under „strong” and „weak” pruning techniques. Our results on six cultivars showed that the pathogens and pests infested the trees more in the organic system, as compared to that of integrated production. The pruning technique affected mainly the susceptible
cultivars to diseases and pests. The „weak” pruning technique caused a higher level of diseases and pests infestations than the „strong” pruning technique, especially in the organic growing system. The likely reason is that the shoots grow fast and powerfully under “strong” pruning technique. This supports better preservation of the trees supported by susceptibility of plant tissues to diseases and pests.

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Defining agricultural cluster’s conceptual framework with Delphi technique
Published May 16, 2012
63-66

The cluster concept is well defined in the literature, but its agricultural adaptation has not been detailed. A method is needed, which involves 
experts into the study, who are able to confirm that the modell is correct and help to define the conceptual gaps. The Delphi technique is suitable
for the task. This is a well-structure, i...terative future foresight technique, based on experts opinion about the research topic. The method leads to consensus by all means, but it also can have a negative outcome of the researcher's point of view, that's why we have to formulate scenarios.
The aim is not statistically significant result, but to build in new ideas into the modell with brainstorming.

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The Possibilities of Futures and Option Hedge in Price Risk Management for GrainProduction
Published November 26, 2003
72-80

The greataest risk tograin production is fluctuation in market prices, which is over 50% over the course of a year; and year by year, as well. There are real market circumstances in the grain market, instead of state guaranteed fix prices, which was the norm under the former political system.
According to the general opinion of producers, lo...sses come from their defencelessness against buyers. The real situation is that price risk can be managed by suitable market strategy, and loss production can be avoided.
Hungary has a futures market (which is organized according to the CBOT system) in the grain sector, which is an unique institute in Europe. This organisation is suitable for hedge businesses and it has convenient technical and institutional background.
There are two possibilities to make hedge business. One of them is the short hedge with futures contract when the producer sells his product for long term if an acceptable profit is included in market price. In this case seller can protect himself against low market prices.
This technique can be considered as professional for price risk management, but possibly has financial cost because of the weak financial situation of Hungarian producers this solution seems expensive for them.
There is an other possibility in the Commodity Exchange for manage price risk, that is the option technique. This solution is suitable for insure prices as well, and has an other additional advantage, namely: there is no financial costs in this case.

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Novel Applications of Microwave Techniques in the Food and Environmental Industries
Published March 4, 2005
29-34

During the microwave processing, despite the conventional heating, the material heats consistently inside. This property of microwave is utilized by drying and dehydration processes. The thermal sensitivity of raw materials of food industry requires development of gentle, fast and controllable technologies, which is realizable by means of combi...nation of conventional and microwave techniques. The other important application area of the microwave technique is food industrial practice is enhancing the microbial safety of products, mainly by pasteurization processes. In recent time the strict environmental regulation necessitate developing more effective treatment of wastes, waste waters and sewage sludge. Because a part of these techniques are heat and power demanded, the microwave technique may be an alternative process in execution of sludge conditioning, drying or gasification and pyrolysis.

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Opportunities of utilization of real-time ultrasound technique in beef cattle breeding
Published December 21, 2009
45-52

The goal of the authors was to evaluate the repeatability and  accuracy of real-time ultrasound technique under Hungarian conditions. Ribeye area was measured at first time on live animals, before the day of slaughtering with Falco 100 ultrasound equipment in Charolais fattening bulls. Ultrasound pictures were traced at two times by the sa...me operator. After slaughtering, ribeye area (REA) was measured on the carcass by planimeter at the same anatomical point like ultrasound measurements. Statistical analysis was carried out to examine the relationship between carcass and ultrasound REA. After it, repeatabilty was established by comparing the ultrasound pictures twice.

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Development of seed analyses by means of various matrix solutions and the MALDI-TOF MS technique
Published May 23, 2019
53-57

The earth's population is growing steadily, currently accounting for about 7.3 billion people. Population growth causes food demand to rise, approximately 36 million people die each year due to starvation or related diseases. One solution to this problem is the continuous examination and development of the agricultural economy. In this study, m...atrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MALDI -TOF MS) were used to analyse of sunflower, soybean and hemp. In order to analyse the protein of maize, this method has already been applied. However, for sunflower, soy and hemp, it is necessary to develop a sample preparation method. Choosing the optimal matrix solution for ionization the traget molecule is an essential part of developing the method. Our aim is to compare two different matrix solutions (α-HCCA, SA matrix), based on the properties (intensity, noise ratio, value of spectra) of the spectra.

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Fruit melanotic ringspot (FMRS) – a disease of resistant Capsicum genotypes infected with Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) on the fruits
Published October 30, 2011
64-69

Etiology of pepper fruit melanotic ringspot (FMRS) disease (Salamon, 2009) was studied on fruit samples collected in forced pepper populations. It was noticed that in spite of heavy thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) infestations and of TSWV epidemy detected in the forcing houses, FMRS occurred only in plants having healthy foliage. Symptomato...logical surveys strongly suggested that FMRS appeared exclusively in specific pepper genotypes. The size of melanotic ringspots has been observed to grow at room temperature during postripening of diseased fruits. A mechanically transmitted plant virus was isolated from symptomatic parts of 9 white pepper fruits affected by FMRS. On test plants each of the virus isolates caused systemic symptoms characteristic to TSWV. Using cDNA/PCR technique and TSWV N-gene specific primers a ca. 300 bp long DNA fragment has been amplified from total nucleic acid extracted from symptomatic tissues but never from asymptomatic parts of the fruits showing FMRS. Plant progenies grown from seeds of FMRS diseased fruits segregated in respect of resistance and/or susceptibility to TSWV infection. TSWV was also detected in and isolated from three fruits showed non-melanotic yellow rings (one of them was infected with a tobamovirus, too). Seedlings derived from these fruits proved to be susceptible to TSWV. Based on the above results we could conclude that the FMRS disease developed on fruits of “cecei” type white peppers that carry a TSWV resistance gene, most likely the Tsw gene in heterozygous form. These fruits were infected with thrips transmitted TSWV and FRMS appeared as a hypersentive reaction (HR) manifested in fruits.

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Application of laparoscopic artificial insemination in conventional Lacaune sheep farm using frozen-thawed semen
Published December 1, 2020
133-138

The complex anatomical structure of the ewe reproductive tract accompanied with low quality of frozen ram semen for artificial insemination, resulted in a challenge with regard to using superior genotypes for reproductive ovine performance. Hence, improved genetics in ovine management has not been efficiently and widely used especially in u...ndeveloped countries. Therefore, intrauterine semen deposition by laparoscopic insemination should be adopted in the current sheep production systems. Thus, this study aimed to assess the pregnancy rate and lambing rate of ewe inseminated by laparoscopic insemination techniques using frozen-thawed semen. The research used imported frozen semen from two rams of the Lacaune breed. Ewes were grouped according to age in years (1, 2 and 4). Before insemination, the semen was examined microscopically for its motility and viability and thereafter the laparoscopic artificial insemination technique was performed to 19 Lacaune breed ewes using frozen-thawed semen. The overall pregnancy and prolificacy rates were 31.57% and 42.10% respectively. Out of 2 ewes in the 1-year age group that were inseminated, only 1 ewe lambed representing 50%. However, from 16 ewes inseminated of four-year age group, 5 ewes lambed representing 31.25%. Significant difference based on age group was not evaluated due disproportionate of the data, (such that the data included 2 ewes in one-year-old age, 1 ewe in 2-year-old age and 16 ewes in 4-year-old age). Based on the ram semen, 33.33% and 30% of the inseminated ewes were pregnant from ram A and ram B semen respectively. However, in the case of prolificacy rate, 44.44% and 40 % of the ewes lambed from using semen of ram A and B, respectively. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in pregnancy and prolificacy rates based on semen from the two rams. In conclusion, in this research study, ram semen had no significant effect on pregnancy and prolificacy rates using laparoscopic AI on Lacaune sheep. This could be due to the fact that the rams had very good quality semen. Evaluation of ram semen, accompanied with appropriate ewe selection based on age and rightful deposition of semen could lead to better and more consistent results. Overall this could contribute to the successful application of laparoscopic artificial insemination in Lacaune sheep production systems for enhanced productivity.

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Classification of a diffuse heavy metal polluted mining site using a spectral angle mapper
Published July 16, 2007
119-123

Characterization of heavy metal polluted abandoned mining sites is complicated, as the spatial distribution of pollutants often changes dramatically.
In our study, a hyperspectral data analysis of the Gyöngyösoroszi abandoned Pb-Zn mine, located in northern Hungary, where Záray (1991) reported serious heavy metal contamination, was carrie...d out using ENVI 4.3. In this area, galena (PbS), goethite (FeO(OH)), jarosite (KFe3(SO4)2(OH)6), sphalerite ((Zn, Fe)S) and pyrite (FeS2) were the predominant minerals in the alteration zones was chosen as the target mineral.
Spectral angle mapper (SAM) and BandMax classification techniques were applied to obtain rule mineral images. Each pixel in these rule images represents the similarity between the corresponding pixels in the hyperspectral image to a reference spectrum.
As a result of hyperspectral imagery the distribution of pyritic minerals (sphalerite, galena) in the area was defined. Both of the mineral formations occur, especially in mine tailings, the area of the ore preparatory, and the Szárazvölgyi flotation sludge reservoir. According to the results, jarosite and goethite have similar distributions to sphalerite and galena. The results showed that hyperspectral remote sensing is an effective tool for the
characterization of Pb, Zn and Fe containing minerals at the examined polluted sites and for modelling the distribution of heavy metals and minerals in extensive areas.
This classification method is a basis of further detailed investigations, based on field measurements, to map the heavy metal distribution of the studied area and to quantify the environmental risks caused by erosion, which include DEM (digital elevation model) and climatic and hydrological data sources. Furthermore, it can be used primarily to support the potentially applicable phytostabilization technique and to isolate hot spots where only ex-situ remediation techniques can be applied.

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Comparison of sample preparation methods for the identification of Staphylococcus Aureus by MALDI-FOF MS
Published May 23, 2019
9-14

Coagulase-positive staphylococci include 3 species, Staphylococcus aureus, S. hyicus and S. intermedius. Of these three species, S. aureus is the most well-known human pathogen. S. aureus is part of the human and animal normal microbiota, however, it is capable of producing several staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) that cause intoxication sympt...oms of varying intensity in humans after consuming contaminated food. Selective media which are used for the determination of coagulase-positive staphylococci from foods are not able to identify isolates at a species. With the MALDI-TOF MS technique, we can identify S. aureus cheaper and faster than by using molecular methods. This paper describes the results of the study of the presence of coagulase-positive staphylococci and S. aureus in many food products, and the application of three sample preparation methods: direct sample preparation, formic acid suspension and ethanol extraction.

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Correlations Between the Crown Sizes, Pruning Times and Fruit Quality of Sour Cherry Cultivars
Published December 6, 2005
90-94

To increase the intensiveness of sour cherry production, i.e. the use of smaller trees, it is necessary to adopt growth-moderating techniques rather than using dwarfing rootstocks. Apart from the traditional technique of using rootstocks that support stronger growth, new or rarely-used techniques and methods must be adopted. Pruning should be c...arried out in the summer rather than in the winter, the optimal period being 1-3 weeks after harvest.
A combination of the increase in favourable exposure-time and smaller crown sizes make higher tree densities (tree/ha) and better utilisation of the crown (specific cropload) possible.
The systematic use of summer pruning leads to better quality fruit.

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Studies on the Fusarium stalk rot infection of the maize genotypes using the Findex percentage and a computerised image analysis program
Published October 30, 2011
45-51

In a continental climate, the pathogens causing the most serious problems are species belonging to the Fusarium genus. When the pathogen attacks the stalk, the plant dies earlier, reducing grain filling and resulting in small, light ears. In addition, the stalks break or lodge, resulting in further yield losses from ears that cannot be harveste...d. During the three years of the experiment, 14 inbred lines were examined. The genotypes were sown in a two-factor split-plot design with four replications, with the genotypes in the main plots and four treatments in the subplots: two Fusarium graminearum isolates (1. FG36, 2. FGH4), 3. sterile kernels, 4. untreated control. The results experiments showed significant differences between the genotypes for resistance to fusarium stalk rot. Among the inbred lines the best resistance to fusarium stalk rot was exhibited by P06 and P07, both of which were related to ISSS. The precision and sensitivity of disease evaluations carried out visually and using image analysis software were compared in the experiment, and with two exceptions the CV values were lower for the image analysis. As the CV for measurements can be considered as a relative error, it can be stated that image analysis is the more precise of the two methods, so this technique gives a more accurate picture of the extent of stalk rot. The extent of stalk rot developing in response to natural infection is extremely environment-dependent, so the use of artificial inoculation is recommended for selection trials. 

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Comparison of the technological background of aquaponic systems
Published May 20, 2020
47-52

Aquaponics is the combined culture of fish and plants in recirculating aquaculture systems, an ecologically sustainable horticultural production technique with long traditions.

The objective of this study is to compare flood-and- drain, and the water crossflow system and examine the differences in the water quality, fish yi...eld and plant growth parameters for Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and basil (Ocimum basilicum). During the study, water quality parameters of two treatments were compared in temperatures, pH, EC and NON were significantly different (p <0.05). Leaf area of the basil plants grew to an average of 20.37 cm2 (± 9.02 cm2). The plants’ biomass production was significantly different (p< 0.05) in the two systems. The biomass production showed lower yield, 458.22 g (± 214.59 g) in the constant flow system that in the flood- and- drain system 692.9 g (± 175.82 g). Fish Growth parameters were better in constant flow system (FCR 5.48 g/g ± 0.19). However, the specific growth rate (SGR) demonstrated that fish grew faster in flood- and- drain system 1.38 %/day (± 0.29).

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Examination of repeatability of ultrasound scanning technique in young bulls
Published November 24, 2008
43-48

The author’s goal with the methodology examination was to determine repeatability of taking and evaluating ultrasound images. In the trial an operator person took two images about the ribeye area and rump fat thickness (P8) of every young bull, which were measured by the same person in four repetitions. Also, we had altogether eight images ab...out the same part of the body. Images were collected using Falco 100 (Pie Medical) real-time ultrasonic scanner equipped with an ASP 3,5 MHz, 18 cm linear array transducer.

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Definition antioxidant activity of selenium-enriched food sprout, as well as their microbiological analysis
Published March 20, 2013
25-30

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">In this present study, we prepared selenium-enriched food sprouts, where the antioxidant capacity was analysed, we also determined their microbiological status. We took into account the fact, we choose micronutrients to our treatment, that selenium can be delivered to the body by a small amount with the most widely consumed food.

We focused during our research to determine that the increasing concentrations of selenium treatment, in which we used sprouts, knowing fully well that it has an impact on aboriginal antioxidant capacity of sprouts, which is mainly due to high vitamin content of sprouts.

Furthermore, we think it is important to make microbiological analysis, because germination conditions, for example temperature, pH, all this will create an ideal environment for the growth of microorganisms. So we had goal to determine, how the used selenium concentration affect the total plate count, coliform bacteria count and Staphylococcus aureus count of sprouts.

We determined the aboriginal water-soluble and lipid-soluble antioxidant capacity of sprout with the PHOTOCHEM chemiluminometer and we applied pour plate technique for the mapping of the mycrobiological state of sprouts.

Experimental results are evaluated, we state that increasing concentrations of selenite or selenate treatment, is primarily water-soluble antioxidant capacity of sprouts was affected. The water-soluble antioxidant capacity of wheat sprout was much higher than the measured values in pea sprout, this may be linked to what we measured. That is much higher ascorbic acid content in case of wheat sprout, which is well known as one of the most important antioxidant properties compounds of wheat sprout.

We conclude from the results of the microbiological, that the highest concentrations of selenite or selenate treatment has a relative significant anti-microbial effect in case of wheat sprouts. Coliform and total plate count showed no clear decreasing tendency, although the values of treatments in both cases obtained were below the control values.

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Age of puberty and conception rates of Hungarian Merino, (Merino x Somali) F1 and (Merino x Barbados Blackbelly) F1 ewes
Published December 16, 2012
15-19

The aim of our examination was to detect the puberty of the Hungarian Merino and its hairsheep crossbred ewes, and also to determine their average conception rates after having ram exposed in May and June. Hormon diagnostation was used to evaluate the exact date of the very first ovulation. Ultrasound technique was used for checking the concept...ion rates of ewes. The pregnancy detection was applied after a month of the date of taking off the ram.
We evaluated the ages of ewes at puberty. Statistical deviation and standard error were calculated. The results proved the Hungarian Merino x Somali (N=10), ((x ± s) = 173 ± 43) and also the Hungarian Merino x Barbados Blackbelly crossbred genotypes (N=7), ((x ± s) = 186 ± 19) have their puberty much earlier as compared to the fullbred Hungarian Merino ewes (N=10), ((x ± s) = 231 ± 95). We experienced the highest conception rate in the group of the (Hungarian Merino x Somali) F1 ewes after exposing the ram in the „out-of season” period of time.

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Comparative studies to model bioavailability of pesticides in distinctive soil types
Published February 23, 2008
17-23

Bioavailability of pesticides is determined by two major factors: soil characteristics and pesticides’ chemical feature. These factors result in a definite adsorption capability whose extent varies on a large scale. By revealing interactions between pesticides and soils it is of high interest to model bioavailability of widely used pesticides..., as it is a key element in terms of prospective toxicological aspects. Our work signifies steps forward improving pesticide soil mobility prediction models as we created model systems representing correctly natural relations. Comparison of different solvent extraction methods proved to be an efficient tool to gain information on the bioavailability of some widely used pesticides as well as to model actual environmental processes.
Comprehensive comparison has been made between different experimental methods by applying 5 extraction models showing diverse efficiency in extracting capability of pesticides. In some cases chloroform excelled in mobilizing pesticides from soil, however mostly application of humic acid solution as extraction model was found to be at least as efficient as methanol, chloroform or CaCl2-solution.
Four chemically much different pesticide (simazine, acetochlor, chlorpyrifos and diuron) were applied to two soil types (both sandy and brown forest). The extracted amounts were determined by GC/MS technique. Adsorption coefficients (Kd) were also calculated for the examined samples.
Obtained results for Kd indicated that chemical feature of pesticides seemed to be of utmost importance in terms of soil binding capability preceding the relevance of soil characteristics. Adsorption capability of chlorpyrifos proved to be the most pronounced preceding simazine and the least prone to bind to soil acetochlor and diuron

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Managing risk using real options in company’s valuation
Published April 8, 2014
125-132

The valuation of company is very important because provides information about the current value/situation of company, and through this, provide the opportunity of choosing the best company’s growth alternatives. The future strategic decisions are characterized by lack of knowledge, information, so all measures of company’s growth are closel...y linked with uncertainty and risk. The company’s valuation process is also related with uncertainty and risk. The risk may result both from the assessed assets and the technique used. In literature, we could find three approaches for risk management: capital budgeting based method, methods based on portfolio analysis and real options approach of risk management. Among them, the real options based methods is the most revolutionary approach for risk management. The advantages of the method, consists in the fact, that the process of establishing strategic decisions integrates the possibility of reversibility, delay and rejections, which isn’t it possible at two previous methods. The method also takes into account the total risk of company, so both the company-specific and systematic risk. In this study, I have used one of the best-known real option based method, the Black-Scholes model, for determining the option’s value. Determination of option value is based on the data of enterprise, which was tested Monte Carlo simulation. One of the basic assumptions of the Black-Scholes model is that the value of option is influenced by several factors. The sensitivity of option’s value could be carried out with so-called “Greeks”.. In the study the sensitivity analysis, was carried out with indicators Delta (Δ), Gamma (Γ) and Vega (ν). The real options based risk management determinations were performed in the R-statistics software system, and the used modules are 'fPortofio' and 'mc2d'. By using of real options method, I have calculated the average value of company capital equal with 38.79 million. By using simulation was carried out 1000 runs. The results of this show a relatively low standard deviation, small interquartile range and normal distribution. In the calculation of indicator Delta, could be concluded the value of company moves in 0.831 proportion to the price of options, the standard deviations of index is low, so the real option based method could be used with success in company’s value estimation. The Gamma index shows the enterprise value is sensitive just for large changes. The result of Vega reflects the value of option, so the company’s value volatility, which is small in this case, but this means a volatility of value. In summary, we can conclude that the call options pricing model, well suited for the determination of company’s value.

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Comparison of RAPD and AFLP Analysis in Some Maize (Zea mays L.) Lines and Hybrids
Published October 11, 2006
3-7

The use of molecular markers to enhance plant breeding efforts is being widely studied. DNA-based fingerprinting technologies (RAPD and AFLP) have proven useful in genetic similarity studies. We estimated different maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines and hybrids originated from mutant ones based on their genetic differences.
We carried out RAPD... analysis with different primers and the 707 (CCCAACACCC) and 792 (CAACCCACAC) primers with 50% similarities provided quite good DNA fragments. By applying the DNA based-AFLP technique, we had very dense DNA fingerprinting. We differentiated 15-32 polymorphic bands, the highest number of bands were found in P-T/H-CA (32). AFLP seems to be the more efficient method of comparing genetic similarities/differences among different genotypes.

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Quality analysis of the near-infrared spectra of wheat samples
Published July 31, 2012
97-100

The near infrared spectroscopy is widely used in the different industries as a rapid, non-invasive analitical tool. It is suitable for identification, qualification and quantitative analysis as well. As this technique is indirect, to make accurate calibration equations we need a proper sample population. Before the quantitaive analysis, develop...ing calibiration modells we have to collect and examine the spectra. In our study we examined wheat samples with known origins to find if there is any effect of the growing area on the NIR spectra.

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Interaction of yield stability and year in major agricultural crops
Published September 7, 2001
41-46

The effect of hydro-meteorological extremities on plant cultivation is the result of the correlation of many factors. These may increase or decrease the effects of hydro-meteorological extremes. The degree of this variance depends on the professionality of treatments, on the quality of the applied technique and technology and also on the soil...s water management characteristics.
The water management characteristics of Hungary’s arable land are mainly unfavorable or medium. In the past two decades the conditions of originally good soils, from a water management aspect, have significantly deteriorated in the critical 0-60 cm soil layer. This is mainly due to unprofessional land use, a lack of deepening cultivation and neglected organic cultivation. At the same time, hydro-meteorological extremities occur more frequently and the sensibility of plant cultivation has increased.
The sensibility of plant cultivation is type and location specific, yet, it also effects both the quality and quantity of the result.
The stability analysis, which covered the period of four decades and incorporated 6-7 agro-ecological areas proves and highlights the following:
• Winter wheat only reacted to extensive cultivation and unfavorable environmental conditions to a small degree. On the other hand, the effect of hydro-meteorological extremities increases.
• The stability analysis of maize, which is sensitive to cultivation technology and the location of cultivation, proved just the opposite. Good soil and adequate technology significantly reduces the effect of any particular year.
• From the years examined, the most favorable proved to be the one with average precipitation. Maize reacted to both extremities in a similar way. Winter wheat reacted to more precipitation with less yield.
• The yield quality of winter wheat was negatively effected by drought. The negative effect of precipitation is limited to the period of ripening and harvest, so the likelihood of such an effect is not significant.
• The yield of sunflower – due to pests – significantly reduces in years with high precipitation, while a difference between dry and average years cannot be pinpointed out. The oil content in both dry years and in years with high precipitation is evident, compared to years with average precipitation.
• The root yield of sugar beet is reduced by drought while the sugar content depends on soil characteristics and climatic extremities. A difference could also be noted by location, whether in Western Hungary and on the Great Plain. Great sugar content can be achieved in years with high precipitation in Western Hungary, while the same result occurred with average precipitation on the Great Plain. Drought did not have a positive effect on sugar content in either location.

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Relation of availability and barley uptake of some potentially toxic elements
Published February 23, 2008
7-10

A small-plot microelement load field trial was set up on brown forest clay soil with eight elements (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn), on 3 levels each (0/30, 90, 270 kg element ha-1). The soil was treated with soluble salts of elements once at initiation (1994). In the seventh year of the experiment (2001) winter barley was the test plant. The ...total element content was determined in plant samples (shoot, straw, grain) after microwave digestion using cc.HNO3+cc.H2O2. The element composition of the prepared samples was determined using ICP-MS technique. In the experiment toxic effects of treatments and yield loss could not be observed. Zn and As contents in barely shoots were only moderately increased by increasing microelement loads. Effects of Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb and Al treatments could not be observed. On the other hand, Cd accumulation was significant in the shoot. Cd content was also increased both in straw and grain. Results of this experiment prove that Cd remains mobile in the soil-plant system for a long time. Its accumulation can be observed both in vegetative and reproductive parts of plants without toxic symptoms and yield loss.

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Seed biology and possibility of improvement of seed germination capacity on Virginia mallow (Sida hermaphrodita L. Rusby)
Published February 25, 2014
71-76

Sida hermephrodita or Virginia mallow is a perspective perennial herb in the Malvaceae family able to yield a biomass crop through the last two decades. Additionally, the plants have a lot of uses and benefits for instance it can use as a fodder crop, honey crop, ornamental plant in public gardens. It has favourable features like fast growing a...nd resistance against the disease and climatic fluctuations, etc. Sida is in the beginning phase of domestication therefore it has a serious disadvantage: the low and slow germination as a big part of wild plants. Due to the expressly low germination percent the need of seed showing of driller is should tenfold, 200 thousand seeds/acre instead of 10–20 thousand what is not available and expensive Therefore practical purposes of our research of seed physiology was to increase the seed germination percent in a available, basically wild Sida population. In the first stage of our experiments we examined two factors relating to seed germination percent and seed germination power during our research: the influence of hot water treatment and the effect of exogenous or endogenous infection of seed. However, in our germination tests, utilizing scarified seeds with hot water (65 oC, 80 oC, 90 oC), from 29,3% to 46% germinated from those samples which were collected from the population of Sida hermaphrodita in Debrecen. The average germination for all season was 5–10% without treatment and rinsed using hot water up to almost 50%. When physically scarified used, the oldest seeds showed the best germination (46%) after the hot water operation in spite of the previous studies. We discovered that apparently there are close relationship between the seed fresh weight or water uptake capability and the percentage of infection. Following these recognition we modified our technique,in such a way that we fractionated the seeds based on their fresh weight/or relative density before we carried out the treatment. When we filtered the floating seeds on the surface of water, the hot water treatment was performed considerably better on the sunk seeds after separation. Therefore, by this special priming process we were able to reach 80% germination capacity of Virgina mallow seeds under laboratory conditions (26 oC without illumination).

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Spatially Discrete GIS Analysis of Sampling Points Based on Yield and Quality Analysis of Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L.)
Published March 4, 2006
32-37

Fulfilment of the increasing quality requirements of sugar beet production can be analysed with sampling of plants and soil at the cultivated area. Analyses of the spatial characteristics of samples require exact geodetic positioning. This is applied in practice using GPS in precision agriculture. The examinations were made in a sample area loc...ated in north-western Hungary with sugar beet test plant. According to the traditional sample taking procedure N=60 samples were taken in regular 20 x 20 m grid, where besides the plant micro and macro elements, the sugar industrial quality parameters (Equations 1-2) and the agro-chemical parameters of soils were analysed. Till now, to gain values of mean, weighted mean and standard variance values, geometric analogues used in geography were adapted, which correspond to the mean centre (Equation 3), the spatially weighted mean centre (Equation 4), the standard distance (Equation 5), and the standard distance circle values. Robust spatial statistical values provide abstractions, which can be visually estimated immediately, and applied to analyse several parameters in parallel or in time series (Figure 1). This interpretation technique considers the spatial position of each point to another individually (distance and direction), and the value of the plant and soil parameters. Mapping the sample area in GIS environment, the coordinates of the spatially weighted mean centre values of the measured plant and soil parameters correlated to the mean centre values showed a northwest direction. Exceptions were the total salt and calcium-carbonate contents, and the molybdenum concentration of the soil samples (Table 1). As a new visual analysis, the spatially weighted mean centre values of the parameters as eigenvectors were projected to the mean centre values as origin. To characterize the production yield, the raw and digested sugar contents of the sample area, the absolute rotation angles of the generated vectors were determined, which indicate numerically the inhomogenity of the area (Figure 2). The generated spatial analogues are applicable to characterise visually and quantitatively the spatial positions of sampling points and the measured parameters in a quick way. However, their disadvantage is that they do not provide information on the tightness and direction of the spatial correlation similarly to the original statistical parameters.

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