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The irrigation influence under the soil, microclimate and plants in maize from Crişurilor Plain
Published October 5, 2010
180-186

The paper is based on the researches carried out in the long term trial placed on the preluvosoil from Oradea in 1976, for establishing
the soil water balance. In the irrigated variant the soil moisture was determined 10 to 10 days for maintaining the soil water reserve on
irrigation depth (0 – 50 cm for wheat and bean, 0 – 75cm for m...aize, sunflower, soybean, sugarbeet, potato and alfalfa 1st year and 0 – 100
cm for alfalfa 2nd year) between easily available water content and field capacity. Thus, an average irrigation rate of 2560 m³/ha was used
in the 9 experimental crops. The average of the annual rainfall for the 1976 – 2008 period was of 625.0 mm. The technologies used were
correlated with the needes of the crops, such as melioration crop rotation, chemical fertilizers in accordance with the chemical export on the
yield, manure (40 t/ha) was used in potato and sugarbeet. After 33 years of the irrigation use the soil structure degree (38.62%) did not
decrease when compared to the unirrigated maize – wheat crop rotation (37.01%). Bulk density, total porosity, penetration resistance and
hydraulic conductivity have worse values than the ones in the unirrigated variant. The humus content is very close to the humus content
determined in 1976, the phosphorus and the potassium content increased very much in comparison with the initial content (117 ppm vs 22.0
ppm); (180.0 ppm vs 102 ppm). The use of the adequate fertilization system and of the irrigation water with a good qaulity did not determine
a decrease of the pH value of the soil. The irrigation determined the improve of the microclimate conditions, the increase of the plant water
consumption, yield gains very significant statistically and higher protein content of the maize grains.

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Theoretical and comparative study regarding the Galerkin-Vlasov method use for study the free vibrations of wood flat plate
Published October 5, 2010
223-228

As for the historic record of the problem related to the study of flat plates, the first results were out for publishing at the end of the 18th century, the beginning of the 19th century, having Chladni E, Strehlke, Konig, R, Tanaka S, Rayleigh L, Ritz W and later on Gontkevich V, Timoshenko S, Leissa as pioneers. Each of the above mentioned au...thors have had significant contributions regarding the development of methods in order to solve the plates and establish some rigurous solutions of their differential equations of equilibrium. 
The making of constructions, machines and different high-perfomance appliances, whose functioning should take place in safety conditions, have required theoretical studies of rich complexity, as well as practical experiments, within which the problem of their free and forced vibrations represent an important category in the respective theme of research.

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3
Tulip bulbs preparation by heat treatment for forced culture in green house
Published October 5, 2010
70-72

Tulip can be grown in parks as ornamental plant and cut flowers, or possibly in protected areas for cut flowers during winter and early
spring.
An important condition for the successful cultivation of tulips is the quality of the bulbs that are going to be planted and their
biological preparation.
Under the quality aspect bulbs have... to be uniform and large, preferably with circumference greater than 11 cm and must have good
phytosanitarical status.
Preparation of organic bulbs for ensuring the continuation of the differentiation process of germs (floral), is made during the storage.
It is known that the preparation of organic bulbs are made in interaction with environmental factors, among which temperature plays an
important role. At the beginning and throughout the process of biological preparation, temperature is maintained at a higher level then the
temperature must be low until planting.
The temperature level and the duration of treatment varies by followed objective respectively early or late flowering and staggered
flowers production over a longer period of time.

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Study of plant production modells with different intensity in winter wheat production
Published December 21, 2008
51-60

The effects of crop rotation, nutrient supply and plant protection technologies were examined on the yield of Mv PÁLMA winter wheat variety and on the most important diseases of ear and leaf. Our experiments were carried out on chernozem soil in the Hajdúság in 2006 and 2007, and three plant protection technologies (extensive, average, inten...sive) and three irrigation variations (without irrigation, irrigated with 50 mm, irrigated with
100 mm) were applied in different crop rotation systems. 
In the triculture crop rotation a higher rate of infection was observed than in the biculture crop rotation, because the vegetative growth was more expressed after pea and these microclimatic factors were favourable for the development of pathogens.
In the triculture crop rotation (pea – wheat – maize) the powdery mildew, DTR and leaf rust of wheat were present in both examined years (powdery mildew 5-15%, DTR 14-42%, leaf rust 8-37% in cropyear 2005/2006, powdery mildew 12-32%, DTR 9-29%, leaf rust 8-26% in cropyear 2006/2007). Fusaria could be observed in 2006 (depending on the plant protection technologies and nutrient supply in the biculture 7-27% and in the
triculture 5-19%). With higher amounts of fertilizers the rate of infection increased and reached its maximum at the highest dose of nutrient supply (N200 +PK).
We observed the highest rate of infection by ear and leaf diseases in the case of the extensive technology, while this rate could be considerably reduced by the application of the intensive technology.
Both in 2006 and 2007, yields were the highest at the N100-200+PK levels in the triculture after pea (6028-7939 kg ha-1 in cropyear 2006, 6578-8690 kg ha-1 in cropyear 2007 depending on plant protection technologies), and at the N150-200+PK levels in the biculture after maize (6096-7653 kg ha-1 in cropyear 2006, 4974-8123 kg ha-1 in cropyear 2007 depending on the plant protection technologies). The highest yield maximums were
reached when pea was the forecrop. The yields on the experimental plots of the intensive plant protection technology was 224-2198 kg ha-1 higher (depending on the forecrop) compared to the plots where the extensive technology was used.
The highest yield without irrigation was at the N150+PK both in biculture and triculture crop rotation. Among the irrigated variations Ö2 and Ö3 at N200+PK fertilisation resulted in the highest yield in the biculture crop rotation, while the N100+PK level in triculture system. In the biculture crop rotation the extra yield was 14-51% higher (575-1225 kg ha-1 depending on plant protection technology) when 50 mm water was irrigated, and
15-54% higher (778-2480 kg ha-1) if 100 mm irrigation was applied comparing to the non-irrigated versions. The yield was  7-17% higher (560-1086 kg ha-1) in the Ö2 irrigation variation, and 8-23% (691-1446 kg ha-1) higher in the Ö3 irrigation variation compared to Ö1 irrigation variation (non-irrigated).
A correlation analysis was made to reveal the connection between the yield, the amount of fertilizers, the rate of infection, the plant protection technologies and the forecrops. Strong positive correlation (0.846) was found between year and fusaria infection. Strong positive correlation was observed between fertilization and powdery mildew infection (0.525), fertilization and DTR (0.528), fertilization and yield quantity (0.683). Lower
correlation was found between fertilization and leaf rust infection (0.409), and forecrop and yield (0.472), recpectively. Negative correlation was calcutated between plant protection technologies and DTR (-0.611), and plant protection technologies and leaf rust (-0.649).

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The effects of agrotechnological factors on winter wheat yield in humid cropyear
Published October 5, 2010
162-167

The effects of crop rotation, nutrien supply and crop protection technologies, as well as the appearance of the main ear- and leafdiseases
(powdery mildew, helminthosporium leaf spot, leaf rust, fusarium) were studied on the crop yields of winter wheat variety MV
Pálma during the 2009/2010 crop year. The experiments were conducted in tri...culture (pea – wheat – corn) and biculture (wheat – corn), at
five nutrition levels, with the use of three crop protection technologies (extensive, conventional and intensive) at the Látókép Research Site of
the University of Debrecen, Centre of Agricultural Sciences. Our results proved that the appearance of leaf- and ear-diseases were
significant in the wheat cultures during the 2009/2010 crop year, because of the rainy, warmer than usual weather, the lodging, and the huge
vegetative mass developed. The most severe infections by the four examined diseases after pea and corn pre-crops were observed at
extensive crop protection levels, when fertilizers were used at the highest dose.
Following corn pre-crop, in the case of all the three crop protection technologies the maximum rate of wheat yield results were achieved
at N150+PK level. The highest yield was reached at intensive crop protection level (6079 kg ha-1). In triculture, in case of all the three crop
protection technologies the maximum yields were achieved at N50+PK level; in extensive technology 5041 kg·ha-1 yield, in conventional
technology 6190 kg ha-1 yield was realised, while in the intensive technological model the yield was 7228 kg ha-1.
The relationship between yield and fertilizer amounts, the rate of pathogen contaminations, crop protection technologies and pre-crops
was defined with correlation analysis in case of different crop rotations during the 2009/2010 crop year. Based on the results of the
experiment, we found that in stands after corn pre-crop strong positive correlation was established between the crop protection level and the
crop yield (0.543), the nutrient levels and the emergence of the four examined pathogens, and between the nutrient levels and the yield
(0.639). Extremly strong positive correlation was observed between crop protection and yield (0.843) in triculture. Strong positive
correlation was detected between the nutrient levels and the presence of the four examined pathogens, as well as between nutrient and
lodging (0.688). Strong negative correlation was between the crop protection level and the four examined diseases both in biculture and
triculture.

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Preliminary data on the effect of semi-synthetic baits for Noctuidae (Lepidoptera) on the non-target Lepidoptera species
Published June 2, 2015
71-80

Noctuidae are one of the most important Lepidoptera groups containing dangerous pest species. Monitoring and detection of these pest species is routinely performed by traps baited with sex-pheromones. Baits that attract both males and females were developed for improved pest management. First the effectiveness of different synthetic compounds w...as evaluated. We also tested semi-synthetic baits that contained both synthetic and natural components (wine and beer). These were more attractive for moths considering species richness and abundance. Disadvantage of this increased effectiveness is that the traps catch more non target, rare and even protected species. In this study we analysed the effect of semi-synthetic baits developed for Noctuid moths containing wine on other non-target Lepidopterans. In the six sampling sites traps caught 17158 individuals of 183 Lepidoptera species. The number of Noctuidae species was 124, while their proportion was 84.4%. The traps caught 813 individuals of 9 protected and 20 valuable species, which was only 4.7% of all Lepidopterans. In contrast the mean proportion of 33 dangerous and potential pest species was 31.3% (5375 individuals). Number and abundance of both protected and pest species were affected by landscape structure. The risks of catching non-target species was higher in species rich natural and semi-natural landscape. In homogenous arable lands the number and proportion of valuable Lepidopterans was not significant.

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Dr. Oszkár Tóth awarded by „Antal Gulyás medallion for crop protection“ in 2011 (laudation)
Published October 30, 2011
11-15

The Public Utility for Development of Crop Protection Teaching (NOFKA) and The Hajdú-Bihar County Regional Association of Hungarian Chamber of Crop Protection Specialists and Plant Doctors (Chamber) established a joined Award Committee in September of 2011, which intend to serve as moral appreciation to prominent persons with excellent achieve...ments by awarding the „Antal Gulyás medallion for crop protection” which are available for outstanding teachers, researchers, and practical crop protection specialists. The biography of late Antal Gulyás distinguished professor of plant pathology is available in a separate article of this issue. 
The first person to be decorated with the „Antal Gulyás medallion for crop protection” is Dr Oszkár Tóth retired reader of plant pathology for his excellence in teaching crop protection. Dr Oszkár Tóth had been involved in teaching - by delivering both lectures and practical lessons - crop protection, namely plant pathology in the legal predecessor institute of Debrecen University for more than 30 years where generations of crop protection specialists were encouraged to get a thorough knowledge in plant pathology. The one-time students of the splendid teacher welcome and congratulate to the award, moreover wish him peaceful and happy years.

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Irén Dobos horticulturalist-teacher plant protection engineer expert awarded by Antal Gulyás medallion for crop protection" in 2015 (laudation)
Published June 2, 2015
8-10

The Public Utility for Development of Crop Protection Teaching (NOFKA) and The Hajdú-Bihar County Regional Association of Hungarian Chamber of Crop Protection Specialists and Plant Doctors established a joined Award Committee in 2011, which intend to serve as moral appreciation to prominent persons with excellent achievements by awarding the ...Antal Gulyás medallion for crop protection” which are available for outstanding teachers, researchers, and practical crop protection specialists. In 2015 dr. Irén Dobos horticulturist- teacher and plant doctor has been decorated with the „Antal Gulyás medallion for crop protection” for her “excellence in integrated plant protection practical research activity and effective knowledge transfer”.

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Economics of hail protection net installation in super intensive apple orchards
Published February 18, 2016
27-35

The main objective of this study was to determine and organize beneficial and detrimental effects of hail protection nets, and as far as possible to quantify their economic impact. The main factors were determined, through which hail protection nets can affect the costs and incomes of the production, and as their sum the economic result. Consid...ering these factors together with the investment cost and the annual maintenance costs allows the economic evaluation of purchasing of hail protection nets. The analysis was carried out using a deterministic simulation model based on primary data collection from apple producing businesses. Installing hail protection nets as additional technological elements of intensive apple orchards can be concluded by all means as an economic investment – trough their protective effect. However, to achieve really favourable economic indicators, definitely bigger tree height is needed making possible the realisation of around 8.0 t ha-1 extra yield. The main root of this phenomena are obviously the extremely high investment costs of hail protection nets, which result in a large mass of fixed costs during the production period. Therefore the basic economic interest is reaching higher yields and thereby higher profits per unit area.

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The influence of biostimulators in the growth of some shrubs
Published October 5, 2010
49-52

More sensitive than Mimosa pudica and more beautiful than any adornment detached from nature by man, the azalea (Azaleea
indica) gathers through its shapes a real symphony of colours and enchanting hues, of elegant shapes, having no rival in the flower world.
The azalea can multiply through seeds and vegetatively: seedlings, grafting, lay...ering.
The widest reproduction method remains that through semilignified seedlings, a method that can be used throughout the year
avoiding the months less favourable for propagation by seedlings, with poor light: November and October. The best results are given by the
spring propagations by seedlings (February-March) and the summer propagations by seedlings (July-August). The rooting can last for 12-14
weeks until the seedlings can be transplanted in flower pots without risks.
A wide application in horticultural practice is the use of growth substances, that take part in the faster formation of roots and in a
higher percent for species of plants, that, normally, root with difficulty through seedlings. Under this aspect, many synthetical compounds
have proved to be very active (IAA, NAA, IBA, 2,4,5-T acid etc.) (3,4).

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Adequate responses to plant protection policy
Published October 30, 2011
33-35

The head of crop protection in the Central Agricultural Office offers a survey of the lately reconstructured official structure, outlines the sections of Central Directorate, sketches the roles of County Government Bureaues. To keep the standard of knowledge changes are necessary to make in the higher education of plant protection specialists. ...The prersentation will concern the contacts between researches made on universities and agricultural official directorates. It is analized the regulation of present and future pesticide usage, the possible alternatives of reduced quantity pesticide usage including the application of Integrated Plant Management (IPM) as well. The tasks of national activity according to the EU direcives about sustainable pesticide usage touch the problems of plant protection machinery and environment safety. It is summarized the tasks of official directorate, chamber of crop protection specialists, moreover practice of plant protection for the nearest future.

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The Effect of Forecrop and Plant Protection on the Pathology Parameters and Yields of Winter Wheat
Published December 6, 2005
84-89

We carried out our experiment in the cropyears of 2000/2001, 2001/2002 and 2002/2003, on calcareous chernozem soil, at the experimental site of the Debrecen University Farm and Regional Research Institute, at Látókép. We examined the disease resistance and the yield quantity of Mv Magvas variety by adopting different forecrops and plant prot...ection technologies, at 30+30 N level and at normal cereal row spacing. We applied two forecrops (wheat and pea) and two plant protection technologies (extensive and intensive). We measured the rate of infection by population survey in the first ten days of June.
In the course of our examinations, we found, that the rate of powdery mildew infection was higher in the thicker population sown after pea forecrop in all three years, as powdery mildew is not a typical cereal disease.
The infection rate of leaf mildew and DTR (Dreschlera tritici-repentis) was higher after wheat forecrop in all examined years, because these are typical wheat diseases and infection centres in the soil promote the spreading of these diseases. However, it was possible to parry the adverse effect of forecrops by intensive plant protection.
Due to the chernozem soil, wich has good water management features, and due to the good preparation of the seedbed, the effect of forecrops on yield quantity did not appear in the examined years. The quantity of the yield was only slightly larger after pea forecrop in the cropyears of 2000/2001 and 2002/2003 than after wheat. Nonetheless, the data of technical literatures state that the yield quantity can be larger, even by 15-20%, after pea forecrop.
In the course of intensive plant protection technology, we applied systemic pesticides, while in the course of environmentally sound technology, we used contact pesticides of sulphur content. In those populations that were treated with environmentally sound plant protection technology, infection rate was higher in all three years.
Yield quantities were somewhat lower in the course of applying extensive, environmentally sound technology, because diseases appeared in these populations to the higher degree. Powdery mildew does not, but leaf mildew and Dreschlera tritici-repentis have a significant yield decreasing effect. With appropriate, well-selected fungicides, we were able to keep every leaf diseases well in hand, and the rate of infection was almost independent of the influence of the breeding year.

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Phytoplasma infection status survey in plum psyllid (Cacopsylla pruni) population
Published December 15, 2019
45-48

European Stone Fruit Yellows (ESFY) phytoplasma disease causes an increasing amount of damage. This is especially true to the Gönci growing region. The insect vector of the disease, which has been shown to have a vector role during transmission experiments, is the plum psyllid (Cacopsylla pruni). In 2018, during the swarming period of plum psy...llid, in 3 different settlements (Boldogkőváralja, Nagyvárad and Bekecs) 265 psyllidswere collected, from which 165 were plum psyllid. Molecular biology studies showed 106 individuals infected with phytoplasma, of which 20 were males and 86 were females.

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The influence of the fertilizing system on the petroleum residues biodegradation on a preluvosoil under control polluted
Published October 5, 2010
251-254

The paper presents the partial results of researches regarding the agrochemical melioration of soils under control polluted by petroleum residues that took place at the Agricultural and Research and Development Station in Oradea, Bihor County.
The experimental device was made out of 1 m2 microparcels, spread out in subdivided parcels, in fou...r repetitions, having tree factors: A - the pollution by crude oil from Suplacu de Barcău, B – the mineral fertilization, and C – the organic fertilization.
The experience was set out on a preluvosoil în the year 1993 and the soil was cultivated with millet in the first 3 years and with spring wheat in the last 7 years of research.
The researches carried out in Oradea had the objective of establishing the effects of the fertilizing system on the petroleum residue biodegradation on a preluvosoil under control polluted with crude oil from Suplacu de Barcău, Bihor County.

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The effect of fertilization and plant protection in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) production
Published December 15, 2019
57-63

 Sunflower is the most important oil crop in Europe which is grown on the biggest area of all the oil crops. The area of producing sunflowers in Hungary was changing to 524–704 thousand hectares in the past decade in comparison with approximately 100 thousand hectares in the 1970’s. In our experiment different sunflowe...r hybrids were examined. The doses of fertilizers were the following in 2017 and 2018: 0–30–90–150 kg ha-1 N, 0-50-90-90 kg ha-1 P2O5 and 0–70–110–110 kg ha-1 K2O. Three different treatments of plant protection were used in the experiment to protect them from fungal infections. A rise in the dosage of nitrogen resulted in increasing infection. The biggest fungal infection was identified in 150 kg ha-1 N, 90 kg ha-1 P2O5 and 110 kg ha-1 K2O treatment. The largest infection was measured on plots without plant protection at the highest N doses, both in leaf and disc diseases. We measured the highest 41.25% in 2017 and 53.1% in 2018 Diaporthe helianthi infection, and 24.5% in 2017 and 25.5 % in 2018 Sclerotinia sclerotiorum disc infection in these plots. kg ha-1

Average yield was changing between 2.96–4.67 t ha-1 in 2017/2018. The lowest yield was obtained in the absolute control plot (without plant protection and without nutrient) in both years, which was 2.96 t ha-1 in 2017 and 3.14 t ha-1. The yields increased due to growing nutrient supply and excellent plant protection. The highest yields were 3.67 t ha-1 in 2017 and 4.67 t ha-1 in 2018 (150 kg ha-1 N, 90 kg ha-1 P2O5 and 110 kg K2O active substance). Purpose of the experiment at analysing the impact of different treatments on the profitability of sunflower production.

 

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Effect of two different cropyear and the agrotechnological factors on the agronomic characteristic of the winter weat in a lon-term experiment
Published December 16, 2012
143-149

We studied the effects of crop rotation, fertilization and crop protection technologies on occurence of the major ear- and leaf-diseases (powdery mildew, helminthosporiosis, leaf rust, Fusarium wilt) and the degree of lodging in the winter wheat variety Mv Pálma in two very different years (2006/2007=dry; 2009/2010=rainy). The experiments were... carried out at the Látókép Experimental Farm of the University of Debrecen CAAES in triculture (pea-wheat-maize) and biculture (wheat-maize) at five fertilization levels by applying three different crop protection technologies (extensive, average, intensive).
In the cropyear of 2006/2007, the disease severity of leaf diseases was higher than the average in both crop rotations in spite of the fact that the weather during the whole vegetation period was dry. Infection by powdery mildew, helminthosporiosis and leaf rust increased with increasing fertilization, the highest infection was measured at the highest fertilization level (N200+PK) in the extensive crop protection technology. According to the results, no infection of ears by Fusarium and no lodging occurred in either bi- or triculture due to the dry year. The extremely rainy weather in 2009/2010 was favourable not only for the vegetative development of the stand, but also increased the occurance of leaf-, stalk- and ear-diseases and a high degree of lodging was observed. The highest infection by powdery mildew was observed in the plots with the highest fertilizer dosage under an extensive crop protection technology. A much higher helminthosporiosis infection was measured than in the cropyear of 2006/2007. The wet weather and higher than average temperature promoted the occurence and spreading of leaf rust. Under an extensive crop protection technology, a leaf rust infection of 24% and 31% was detected after maize and pea as a forecrop, respectively, in the N200+PK treatment. As opposed to 2006/2007, the disease severity of Fusarium was 3–8% and 2–7% in the control after maize and pea as a forecrop, respectively. This value, similarly to that of other pathogens, increased with increasing fertilization levels. Due to the large vegetative mass, a significant lodging was observed in the wheat stands in both bi- and triculture (17–100%, 12–100%). 

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Woolly cupgrass (Eriochloa villosa /Thunb./ Kunth), a recently occured invasive weed in Trans-Tisza Region and a trial for control in maize
Published June 2, 2015
53-57

To the effective control of invasive weeds are essential to prevent establish, if has already happened obstacle to massive accumulation, and promoting the efficient and rapid eradication, if it is possible. The Woolly cupgrass (Eriochloa villosa /Thunb./ Kunth) belongs to weeds which “hard to control” especially in corn. One of the difficul...ties of effective control is the prolonged emergence causing avoidance of several individuals the contact with pre-emergent herbicides. Another problem arises due to the intensive use of post-emergence herbicide products with short duration of action. To optimalize of timing of treatment is essential for successful control of later emerging weeds. The recently established Woolly cupgrass in Hungary shows resistance or reduced susceptibility to substantial portion of herbicides used in corn. The data collected from small-plot trials demonstrates that application of sulfonylurea or selective monoctyledonous herbicides can be effective against the Woolly cupgrass.

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Modern methods to determine vitamin E in foods and feeds
Published October 5, 2010
53-58

Highly specific and sensitive, the proposed fluorometric method for determining α-tocopherol is robust and fairly fast. It
has been tested in parallel with a conventional thin layer chromatographic method on foods and feeds. The only necessary
cleanup is the usual saponification. The unsaponificable fraction can be extracted with ethyl e...ther or, preferably, with
Extrelut columns. Reagents and their solvents are added to the isooctane solution before each successive reaction and are
then eliminated by partition with water. The α-tocopherol (α-T) derivative always remains in isooctane. The first step is
nitrosation and elimination of tocopherols and tocotrienols other than α-isomers. α-T is then oxidized to α-tocored (α-TR)
with a mixture of sulfuric acid, ferric chloride, and iodine bromide. Α-TR is then condensed to a new reagent: 4,5-dimethylo-
phenylenediamine. The phenazine formed is strongly fluorescent. Iodine and bromine add to the double bonds of α-
tocotrienol present and quench the fluorescence of its phenazine.

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Agronomic research in Martonvásár, aimed at promoting the efficiency of field crop production
Published November 13, 2012
89-93

The effect of crop production factors on the grain yield was analysed on the basis of three-factorial experiments laid out in a split-split-plot design. In the case of maize the studies were made as part of a long-term experiment set up in 1980 on chernozem soil with forest residues, well supplied with N and very well with PK. The effects of fi...ve N levels in the main plots and four sowing dates in the subplots were compared in terms of the performance of four medium early hybrids (FAO 200). In the technological adaptation experiments carried out with durum wheat, the N supplies were moderate (2010) or good (2011), while the P and K supplies were good or very good in both years. Six N top-dressing treatments were applied in the main plots and five plant protection treatments in the subplots to test the responses of three varieties. 
The results were evaluated using analysis of variance, while correlations between the variables were detected using regression analysis.
The effect of the tested factors on the grain yield was significant in the three-factorial maize experiment despite the annual fluctuations, reflected in extremely variable environmental means. During the given period the effect of N fertilisation surpassed that of the sowing date and the genotype. Regression analysis on the N responses for various sowing dates showed that maize sown in the middle 10 days of April gave the highest yield, but the N rates required to achieve maximum values declined as sowing was delayed. 
In the very wet year, the yield of durum wheat was influenced to the greatest extent by the plant protection treatments, while N supplies and the choice of variety were of approximately the same importance.  In the favourable year the yielding ability was determined by topdressing and the importance of plant protection dropped to half,  while no  significant difference could be detected between the tested varieties. According to the results of regression analysis, the positive effect of plant protection could not be substituted by an increase in the N rate in either year. The achievement of higher yields was only possible by a joint intensification of plant protection and N fertilisation. Nevertheless, the use of more efficient chemicals led to a slightly, though not significantly, higher yield, with a lower N requirement. 

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Remembrance of Bognár Sándor (1921-2011)
Published October 30, 2011
16-20

Dr. Sándor Bognár was a distinguished cultivator of the horticultural entomology and a determining personality of the higher education of Hungarian crop protection. Training of the scientific and extension specialists of Hungarian agricultural entomology would have been unimaginable without him. He was researcher of the Plant Protection Insti...tute, innovator of the crop protection training’s essential and organisational standard at the Horticultural College and Faculty, who sacrificed his life’s work for developing the crop protection and for the tracking of the history of Hungarian crop protection. He dealt with the Pimplinae (Ichneuminidae) at the very beginning of his carrier and later with the difficulties of soil dwelling pests (Elateridae) but he dedicated a lot of time to the pests of rice and the pest-assemblages of fruit trees and grape. It is important to mention his activity on the phytophagous mites, thus one can call him as one of the founders of the Hungarian agricultural acarology. One top of his educational work was the wonderful manual „Agricultural Entomology” written with László Huzián in 1974 and 1979. László Szalay-Marzsó said of this book that it was impossible to write a better one. He has been right. In spite of his advanced age he participated systematically in the conferences in Hungary and shared the knowledge gained during his long life, and the morals and patriotism got from his models and developed considerably.

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Urgent agricultural issues of soil protection
Published June 30, 2018
169-172

The primary aim of this study is to draw attention to the importance of legal problems of soil protection. The basis for my study is the ombudsman’s 2016 principle of soil protection. This resolution summarizes the most pressing soil protection measures in 15 points that need to be taken as soon as possible to preserve soil resources. To narr...ow the wide range of topics, I will examine three points: (1) preservation of soil resources, (2) soil sealing, (3) brownfield instead of greenfield. Hungary is in a special position concerning this most ancient natural resource, as only 11% of all the land covered area of Earth consists of soil, the EU average is less than 30%, while in Hungary it is more than 60%. Despite the existing protective legal requirements, soil degradation is a constant issue. The persistence of population growth spells the need for more arable land, but as a result of the stressful impacts caused by people we are running out of useable topsoil.

Assessing both the short and long term process of land reclamation, it can be stated that more and more farmland becomes permanently and imperviously covered for other purposes each year, and as the arable land area decreases, the impervious surface area grows despite all respective decisions, regulations and prohibitions.

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The Importance of Environmental Research of the Great Hungarian Plain
Published March 4, 2006
9-16

The research of the Great Hungarian Plain has been going on for a long time and there are a lot of information could be used by environmental protection too. The connection between the two topics are diversified, that is why it is necessary to choose a few subject to explain. The chosen subjects are:
The protection of the geological media ca...nnot be solved, either practically and legally, with the protection of the separated elements of that, just if we see it as a system.
The prevention, which is the most effective (and also the most inexpensive) way of environmental protection, can be supported by the compilation of vulnerability- and risk maps (i.e. risk of inland water, erosion vulnerability, deflation vulnerability, contamination sensibility).
Survey on the environmental state containing indispensable geological information for the optimal land use and country planning of a region, county or settlement.
Marking out of the possible areas for waste depositing.

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”FOR CROP PROTECTION” Establishment medallion in honour of Antal Gulyás (1884-1980)
Published October 30, 2011
5-10

The Public Utility for Development of Crop Protection Teaching (NOFKA) and The Hajdú-Bihar County Regional Association of Hungarian Chamber of Crop Protection Specialists and Plant Doctors (Chamber) established a joined Award Committee in September of 2011, which intend to serve as moral appreciation to prominent persons with excellent achieve...ments by award Antal Gulyás medallion for crop protection“ which are available for outstanding teachers, researchers, and practical plant protectionists. 
The members of Committee: dr. István Szarukán, president, dr. György Kövics, secretary, dr. István Dávid member (Public Utility), dr. László Kiss, president, dr. Gábor Tarcali, secretary (Chamber). Handing over of medallion, charter and gold badge will be happened generally once a year in a special ceremony. The award was established in commemoration of Antal Gulyás, who was the first eminent professor of plant protection in Debrecen and reached outstanding achievements in the field of teaching of agronomists for more than 30 years, and research on plant pathology. He became one of the first Honoris Causa Doctors of Debrecen Agricultural University in 1978. The Committee made its decision on the first meeting that the first medallion will be award to dr. Oszkár Tóth retired reader of plant pathology for his excellence in teaching plant protection in 2011. His laudation is available in a separate article of this issue. 

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Causes of floods and flood protection in Subcarpathia
Published May 23, 2006
72-75

Subcarpathia is one of the richest regions in surface waters in the Ukraine. Due to its geographical, relief and climatic conditions, it belongs to the active precipitation zone, where great floods frequently occur. As a result of many years of observation, it can be concluded that the interactions of many natural factors can lead to various fl...oods in the catchment area of the river Tisza. These are mostly hydro-meteorological factors, which can lead to great floods with the characteristics of the formed flow. Human activity also significantly influences the occurance of floods: clearing, which can accelerate the process of the runoff, ploughing in the catchment area, which can lead to erosion and the utilisation of areas endangered by floods for various economic sectors.
A series of questions arose in recent years regarding the formation of floods: what could be the causes of floods and what actions need to be made to prevent them. The evaluation of floods made us conclude that passive protection by using dams does not always ensure protection against floods as these were constructed in different times for different water levels. Many factors can affect the whole process which cannot be foreseen, therefore the development of new solutions and new technologies is necessary in flood protection.

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18
Distribution of the American grapevine leafhopper (Scaphoideus titanus ball 1932) in west Romania
Published December 15, 2019
127-130

The vector of Grapevine Flavescens Dorée phytoplasma, the American grapevine leafhopper (Scaphoideus titanus) has been in Europe since 1924. In Romania, the first populations were detected in 2009 in the central, eastern and southern part of the country. Later, the leafhopper was found also in West Romania in 2014. In 2015 and 2017, altogether..., 14 sampling sites were studied in two vine regions of this area. The Scaphoideus titanus could be detected in 10 of them with relatively small abundances. During the studies, the yellow sticky traps proved more effective methods than sweep netting. To prevent vineyards from disease, we should do everything against the vector from prevention to chemical protection.

 

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