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Effect of season and sowing time on the moisture loss dynamics and yield of maize
Published July 16, 2007
255-265

The effect of sowing date on maize development and yield was studied in field experiments. The experiment was set up at the experimental garden of the University of Debrecen Centre of Agricultural Sciences Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Plant Sciences in 2005 and 2006 on calcareous chernozem soil. Six hybrids with different genetic chara...cteristics and vegetation period were tested (Sze 269, DK 440, PR37D25, NK Cisko, Mv Maraton, PR34B97) at three different sowing dates.
2005 was a very wet year. The amount of precipitation in the vegetation period was about 150 mm higher than the average of 30 years. No significant differences were observed in temperature. However, the number of sunny hours was much lower during the summer than as usual. This had an influence on yields.
In 2006, there was no risk of inland water in spite of the large amount of precipitation at the beginning of the year. The amount of water available for plants was satisfactory during the season due to the favorable amount of precipitation. Therefore, plants suffered less from the heat in July. However, hail on 22 July caused significant damage. The number of sunny hours in the summer was high enough. The warm, dry autumn helped the water release of plants.
In 2005, the results of the third sowing date could not be evaluated due to the large number of missing plants. The yield of hybrids ranged between 12-14 t/ha for the first sowing date. For the second sowing date, yields ranged between wider boundaries. The hybrid PR37D25 has a very high yield in the case of the second sowing date, and its seed moisture content was favorably low. The yield of hybrid PR34B97 was the lowest at the later sowing date, the prime reason of this was damage caused by Diabrotica virgifera. The seed moisture content at harvest varied between 16-24% for the first sowing date. In the case of the second sowing date, higher values were measured. Hybrids Sze 269 and NK Cisko had favorable water release characteristics. The maximum value of leaf area index was the best in the case of the first sowing date (5-5.5 m2/m2).
In 2006, yields for the first sowing date ranged between 8-10 t/ha. At the second sowing date, more favorable results were obtained. The reason for this is probably that hail caused a higher damage in hybrids with the early sowing date. Plant stock with later sowing date could recover more successfully. Hybrid PR37D25 had very high yields for the second and third sowing dates. The high-yielding hybrid PR34B97 also had high yield, but this was accompanied by higher seed moisture content. Due to the warm, sunny autumn weather, the hybrids had good water-release dynamics and were harvested with a lower seed moisture content than in the previous year. For the first sowing date, the seed moisture content was around 13-14% except for hybrid PR34B97. For the second and third sowing dates, higher values were observed. Leaf area index was significantly reduced in August for all three hybrids due to the hail in July. For the first two sowing dates, the leaves of hybrid Sze 269 were the first to dry similarly to the previous year.
Year had a strong effect on the results in both years.

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Sour cherry as a functional food
Published February 25, 2014
41-47

The antioxidant capacity of ’Debreceni bőtermő’, ’Újfehértói fürtös’ and ’Érdi bőtermő’ cultivars were determined by FRAP (Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma), DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity) and photochemiluminescence method. In sour cherry, the most antioxidant effects of natural bioactive... compounds are anthocyanins. Our results show that the photochemiluminescence method out of applied assays is ratheris suitable to determine the antioxidant capacity of red soft fruits and tart cherries. The correlation is good between the determined anthocyanin concent by this technic and pH-differential spectrophotometry. However, both FRAP and DPPH assays are inaccurate.

The anthocyanin composition of ’Debreceni bőtermő’, ’Újfehértói fürtös’ and ’Érdi bőtermő’ ’Csengődi csokros’ sour cherry varieties were analised. There are big differences between the accumulation of anthocyanan compounds of cultivars. ’Csengődi csokros’ produce melatonin in large quantity. On the evidence of the results, we can say that the hungarian sour cherry cultivars are suitable for functional food development.

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Development of an InDel marker set to establish hybridization between wild boar and domestic pig (Sus scrofa) breeds
Published May 23, 2019
21-25

Wild boar and domestic pig breeds belong to the same species (Sus scrofa), so they can easily have viable offspring. This could be a problem in preserving the genetic lines of wild boars, keeping clean the food industry from lower-grade hybrid boar meat, and „producing” ethically questionable trophies, too. The aim of our study was to devel...op a cost-efficient, fast, easy and accurate marker set which can separate the wild boars from hybrids and domestic pig breeds.

The InDel markers were developed using 59 full pig genomes of 17 different breeds (e.g. Duroc, Large White, Landrace, Mangalica, wild boar). Sequence differences between the genomes of wild boars and domestic breeds were identified in variant call files, and verified using the IGV software. Wild boar, mangalica and duroc specific primers to amplify the chosen InDel regions were designed using Primer3.

After preliminary tests five markers were chosen, three wild boar specific, one Mangalica specific and one Duroc specific one. Fluorescently labelled primers were used to make the valuation easier and more accurate with capillary electrophoresis instead of gel-electrophoresis. The markers were optimised individually and in multiplex conditions and tested in samples of 11 breeds.

In conclusion, a new, faster and cheaper set was developed to separate the wild boars from the hybrids and domestic breeds. Based on the preliminary testing on wild boars, duroc and mangalica breeds zero samples resulted false negative, so it is 100% accurate. In addition, it is a much more cost- and time-effective way than testing every single sample with STR sets.

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The Role of Trichoderma in the Rhizosphere of Tomato Plants
Published May 11, 2003
67-69

It is well established that microorganisms are closely associated with the roots of plants can directly influence plant growth and development. Species of Trichoderma, on the other hand are primarily studied for their ability to control plant disease. The ability of species of Trichoderma to directly promote or inhibit plant growth has been not...ed for many years.
Tomatoes were treated with different Trichoderma strains by seed treatment and soil inoculation. The Trichoderma were grown on malt-agar medium and conidia were washed off by sterile water for making suspension which contained 107 CFU/ml (colony forming unit/ml). The suspension was used for seed treatment and for the soil inoculation by watering as well. The artificial soil inoculation was made by Trichodermas growing on grounded maize were mixed in mould and tomato seed were sown in it. Tomato seeds were also sown in bags made of close-meshed material which allowed the soil microorganisms to colonize the roots but it simultaneously protected the roots from soil contamination. Roots were put on Trichoderma selective medium to check the root colonization of the Trichoderma.
The tomato plants were bedded out in a field in four repetition. After harvesting by hand the results supported by statistics shown that there was significant differences between the yield of the untreated and treated tomato plants by Trichoderma strains.

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The effect of water-stress on the mineral nutrition of fruit plantations
Published October 5, 2010
187-192

Besides agro-techniques the climatic conditions play an important role in agricultural production. Weather extremes are
significant hazards to many horticultural regions all over the word. It has a profound influence on the growth, development and yields of a
crop, incidence of pests and diseases, water needs and fertilizer requirements i...n terms of differences in nutrient mobilization due to water
stresses. Nowadays, the weather extremes cause more and more problems and significant hazards to many horticultural regions in Hungary.
The aim of this study is to explore the problems of nutrient uptake followed from climatic anomalies and response it. In this study
we focus on water supply problems (water-stress).
Reviewing the effects and nutrient disorders caused by climatic anomalies, the following statements can be taken:
· Nutrient demand of trees can be supplied only under even worse conditions.
· The most effective weapon against damage of climatic anomalies is preventative action.
· Proper choice of cultivars, species and cultivation should provide further possibilities to avoid and moderate the effects of
climatic anomalies.
· Fruit growing technologies especially nutrition should be corrected and adjusted to the climatic events as modifier factors.
· The role of foliar spraying, mulching and fertigation/irrigation is increasing continuously.
· Urgent task of the near future is to correct and adjust the tested technologies of fruit growing according to these climatic events as
modifier factors.
Optimal nutrient supply of trees decreases the sensitivity for unexpected climatic events. To solve these problems supplementary, foliar
fertilization is recommended, which adjusted to phonological phases of trees. Moreover, mulching is regarded as an excellent water saving
method.

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Evaluation of the Green bean variety candidate BU-16
Published July 28, 2008
75-81

This study presents the results of the variety comparison trials conducted with the French bean variety candidate BU-16 on sandy soil, during two years at the Research Center of the University of Debrecen.
The outstanding characteristics of this variety candidate are the early maturity, the showy pods (yellow, straight, cylindrical cross-sec...tion „pencil bean”) and the high yield potential.
The experiments were conducted with a randomized design, with five varieties and four replications. The varieties (of which two are foreign and three are domestic) were as follows: BU-16 fj, Maxidor, Paridor, Hungold and Budai piaci. The individual plots were 2 m wide and 4 m long. The seeds were sown at a density of 30 germs per m2, with a row spacing of 50 cm.
The following parameters were taken: time of flowering, time of green maturity, plant height, height of the lowest pod above ground level, number of pods per plant, distribution of the pods by the state of development (20 plants), usable pod length (1 kg of standard crop-yield), yield per hectare based on the number of plants per plot. The experiments were evaluated statistically with Excel and SPSS softwares.
Results obtained with the variety candidate BU-16:
– The time from the emergence to green maturity is 45 to 46 days, which is short as compared with the other cultivars studied.
– Plant height is 38cm (two years average), which is among the highest ones, together with Paridor.
– The pods are set high above the ground level similarly to Paridor, the height of the lowest pod is 19 cm.
– The average number of pods per plant is 13 (two years average) similarly to Paridor and to Maxidor.
– The distribution of pod size in 2007 is as follows: 68% of the pods of BU-16 is of the standars size, which is a good rate. The value of this trait for the other varieties is 60 to 63%, except for Paridor, the value of which is similar to that of BU-16.
– The usable pod length (10 to 14 cm) is 63% in 2007 and 84% in 2006. Similar pod length rates were obtained for Maxidor, while the rate for Paridor is as high as 91%.
– The total yield and the standard yield of BU-16 is among the highest ones.
According to the results obtained and presented above, the variety candidate BU-16 is the earliest maturing among the varieties tested with high yield potential which, however, is not significantly different from that of the others. Significant differences can only be detected in plant height and the number of pods per plant. Considering the results, BU-16 is to be further tested.

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The imact of crop rotation and fertilisation on the SPAD values of winter wheat on chernozem soil in a long-term experiment
Published March 11, 2014
123-126

We have carried out our outdoor field experiments at the Látókép Experimental Farm of the CAS of the University of Debrecen in the cropyear of 2012/2013 on chernozem soil in a long-term experiment. We have studied the effects of two different preceding crops (sweet corn, sunflower) on the development of the SPAD values of wheat varieties of ...different genotypes in the cases of control, N60+PK and N120+PK fertilizer treatments. According to our research results, we have concluded that the preceding crop, the fertilizer application and the variety selection influenced the SPAD values. According to our data, we have measured higher SPAD values after sweet corn preceding crop, the standard deviations were in a smaller range in the case of the studied varieties. After sunflower preceding crop, smaller averages were experienced with wider standard deviation range. In the case of favourable preceding crop, the differences between the varieties are more pronounced than in the case of unfavourable preceding crop. The maximal SPAD values were measured in milky ripening in the case of N120+PK fertilizer treatment.

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Evaluating of soil sulphur forms changes in long-term field experiments of Látókép
Published December 15, 2019
71-76

The aim of this work was to evaluate the changes of different sulphur forms (soluble, adsorbed) in chernozem soil in a long-term field experiment supplied with increasing doses of NPK fertilizers for a long time. In addition, other objective of this study included the examination of the applicability of recommended extractants of the different ...sulphate fraction in Hungarian soils. A long-term field experiment was established at the Research Station of Látókép of the University of Debrecen in 1984. In addition to control, two levels of NPK fertilizer doses have been used with irrigated and non-irrigated variants. Winter wheat and corn were cropped in a crop rotation on plots. Soil samples were collected in three different development stages of winter wheat, at the stage of stem elongation (April), flowering (May) and ripening (June of 2018) from the topsoil (0–20 cm) of experiment plots. Water-soluble inorganic sulphate was extracted with 0.01M CaCl2 solutions. The soluble plus adsorbed sulphate was extracted with 0.016M KH2PO4 solution. Sulphate was measured by turbidimetric method. 0.01M CaCl2-SO42— ranged between 0.293–1.896 mg kg-1 and the 0.016 M KH2PO4-SO42- varied between 5.087–10.261 mg kg-1. The values of KH2PO4 SO42- was higher than that of CaCl2-SO42-, because KH2PO4 extracted the adsorbed and soluble fractions of sulphate, while CaCl2 extracted the soluble sulphate fraction. The amount of absorbed sulphate was calculated by the differences of KH2PO4- SO4 and CaCl2-SO4. The KH2PO4 characterizes mainly the adsorbed sulphate fraction much more than the water-soluble fraction. KCl is the most widely used extractant for the determination of plant available sulphate content of soil in Hungary; therefore, KCl-SO42- fraction also was determined. The KCl-SO42- ranged between 0.328–2.152 mg kg-1. The CaCl2-SO42- and KCl-SO42- fractions were compared and based on Pearson's linear correlation, moderate correlation was established (r=0.511) between them. In all three extractant (0.01M CaCl2, 1M KCl, 0.016 M KH2PO4) higher sulphate fractions were measured in the fertilized plots where superphosphate had been supplied for ages until 2010. The arylsulphatase activity of soil also was determined and ranged between 9.284 and 26.860 µg p-nitrophenol g-1 h-1. The lowest value was observed in the treatment with highest NPK2 dose, both in irrigated and non-irrigated areas.

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Examining the competitiveness of the Great Plain region through a few basic indicators
Published May 23, 2006
35-40

There are significant differences in the level of economic development and social relations between the various regions of Hungary, consequently, their competitiveness is also dissimilar. The term ’competitiveness’ has recently gained a regional meaning from various aspects. The unified interpretation of ’competitiveness’ is applicable ...to all basic units of the economy in a flexible way, and is therefore applicable on regional level as well. Regional competitiveness is measured against four economic categories: regional income per capita, work efficiency, employment rate and age composition. In addition to an overview of the region, this study will analyse the above components of regional competitiveness based on data describing the region.

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Examination of the impact of sowing technology models on the ear, constiuent and yield parameters of the yield formation elements of maize hybrids of different genotypes
Published March 20, 2013
17-23

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Production year 2012 has been characterised by climatic extremities. The weather of this year can be considered very contradictory in terms of maize production. The droughty conditions of the winter and spring months had a negative effect on both germination and starting vigour. The favourable weather of May-July created ideal conditions for intensive growth and generative processes; however the lack of precipitation in August and September had a damaging effect on the development of yield composing elements and grain saturation processes as well. Under such circumstances, the sowing date models caused significant differences in the yield and quality of the hybrids belonging to different growth periods. The growing period of the maize hybrids has been shortened as a result of the unfavourable climatic conditions.

Based on the trial results, it is verifiable that short growing period hybrids can be securely sown in draughty years even with a later sowing date, however using a later sowing date in the case of longer growth period hybrids may result even in a yield loss of 2–3 t ha-1. In the case of early and average sowing dates, with given yearly conditions the hybrids of the observed FAO 370-390 hybrid group provided the best result (12.40 t ha-1, 10.99 t ha-1), while in the case of the third, late sowing date the yield dominance of the FAO 290-350 hybrid group is the most significant (10.08 t ha-1).

The analysis of the yield composing elements found that the P9578 hybrid has the highest shelling ratio, while its cob is the shortest. The P9494 hybrid has a high yield and the highest thousand grain weight, while the DKC 4983 has the longest cob and its thousand grain weight is above 300 g.

The results confirm the fact that DKC 4590 has the highest yield potential and starch content, while in terms of oil and protein content the Szegedi 386 and NK Octet hybrids are the most important.

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Production technology development of millet at different ecological conditions
Published March 5, 2015
63-67

The millet is a very special plant with good adaptation that gives the possibility for the late sowing and secondary production. However the effects of late sowing modifies the efficiency of the agrotechnological elements. The exainations – focused on this aspect – was conducted in the DU RINY and DU RIK in small plots in four replications ...in 2014. Among the examined factors (sowing time, nutrient supply, growing area) sowing time had the largest effect. The effectiveness of the agrotechnological elements decreases under unfavourable circumstances caused by the late sowing.

The agrotechnical elements modifies the yields in the examined genotype. Sowing time had the biggest effect on the yields of millet. The genotype „Maxi” had the highest yield in the different treatment variations.

The yield differences were significant between the sowing time and plant density variations, but the nutrient supply had not significant effect (the rate of precipitation was unfavourable in 2014 season).

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How can we determine the expected prices for lambs? – Analysis of the Hungarian and Italian lamb prices
Published July 28, 2008
59-67

The Hungarian sheep sector has become a one-market sector, almost the whole amount of slaughter lamb went to Italy, which increased its defenselessness. In addition to the sole Italian market showing a permanent demand for Hungarian lambs, it would worth to exploit possibilities in other European markets considering the seasonal differences in ...Italian prices. Such markets can be the Spanish and Greek for ”light” and the French, German and English markets for ”heavy” lambs. Both the Italian and Hungarian prices have three major periods: Easter, Ferragusto and Christmas. Due to the changes in the prices, the producers often suffer great losses, therefore, the temporal adaptation of production, market research, technological and development activities need to be improved. It is important that the living of Hungarian sheep breeders should not be dependent solely upon the Italian market, distribution of products should be ensured in other markets too, so that the safety of sales be increased and higher prices and higher income could be achieved. The European lamb prices are characterized by large seasonal fluctuation and the degree and timing of changes are different in the different countries. Study of the literature and the results obtained in my study on lamb sales called for an analysis and study of the possibilities of price forecasting. In my study, I performed a forecasting of lamb prices in Hungary and Italy for the period between 1996 and 2006 based on the data of the European Committee. Among the forecasting methods, seasonal decomposition and SARIMA models are the most precise, producers can achieve a better market position by using these in the practice.

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Comparison study of student with special educational need in elementary school
Published April 8, 2014
71-76

The aim of this lecture is to observe the status of students with special educational needs (SEN) in Europe and Hungary. The European Union has made tough decisions in financing and educating disabled people, so they can be integrated into the society. According to the European directives, Hungarian jurisdiction and educational politics tend to... follow the pedagogical processes. The relevant juridical and economical laws for SEN students have already been implemented. The number of students with SEN in Europe increases permanently, so it is reasonable to detect their controversy. Despite this fact, differences can be experienced in teaching methods among primary schools, as a result development of SEN students can be different. The aim of this study to compare the motor skills of SEN students in two different primary schools, with different pedagogical program. My research base were the Ferenc Móra primay school and Gyermekház alapítvány primary school in Budapest. My main question was, if a specially developed program targeted SEN students can increase their motor skills. Studying the girls in the 2 age-groups, we have not experienced significant differencies out of the 3 motor tests between the control and the experimental groups.
Studying the boys in the 2 age-groups, we have experienced 3 significant differencies out of the 3 motor tests between the control and the experimental groups. SEN students, who have been taught in segregated form with the help of ’Alapozó Terápia’ – a special therapy – achieved better motor skills. The study makes recommendation to primary shools how to organise trainigs for these students.

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Sensitivity of maize to herbicides in experiments in Martonvásár in 2015
Published June 2, 2015
47-52

The phytotoxic effect of herbicides applied post-emergence was investigated in a herbicide sensitivity experiment set up on parental maize genotypes in Martonvásár. A total of 48 Martonvásár inbred lines and 12 single line crosses were included in small-plot experiments set up in two replications. Ten herbicides were applied at the normal a...uthorised rate and at twice this quantity. Compounds intended for pre-emergence application were applied when maize was in the 3–4-leaf stage and post-emergence herbicides in the 7–8-leaf stage of development. The extent of phytotoxicity was scored two weeks after treatment. Some of the herbicides tested are not authorised for use in seed production fields, but it is important to know how the parental genotypes respond to all types of herbicides. Phytotoxic symptoms of varying intensity were only observed on a third of the 60 parental genotypes examined; the majority of the lines exhibited no reaction to any of the herbicides. Averaged over the 60 genotypes the level of phytotoxic damage was less than 10% for the single dose. When the double dose was applied somewhat more severe damage was induced by products containing Mesotrione + Nicosulfuron or Foramsulfuron + Isoxadifen-ethyl, but this was still below 15%. The herbicide dose had a three times stronger influence on the intensity of the symptoms than the type of herbicide. With the exception of Topramezone, there was a significant difference between the effects of the normal and double doses. The greatest dose effect differences, in decreasing order, were observed for Mesotrione + Nicosulfuron, Foramsulfuron + Isoxadifen-ethyl. Nicosulfuron and Mesotrione + Terbutylazine. The Mesotrione + Terbutylazine active ingredient combination only caused mild (<10%) symptoms on a total of 11 genotypes, while the Mesotrione + Nicosulfuron combination induced more severe phytotoxic symptoms on 26 lines. When Nicosulfuron was applied alone it caused milder symptoms on fewer genotypes than in combination with Mesotrione. Among compounds of the sulphonyl-urea type, the least severe symptoms on the fewest genotypes were recorded in the case of Prosulfuron.

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Comparison of the physiological responses of an oil-pumpkin cultivar and hybrid under different nitrogen supply conditions
Published December 15, 2019
65-69

Cucurbita pepo var. styriaca is known as a medicinal crop among other cucurbits. The benefits of cucurbits fruits are very important in terms of human health, purification of blood, removal of constipation, digestion and supplying energy. The mutant styrian oil-pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. convar. Pepo var. styriaca Greb.) exposes a complete lack... of lignification of the seed testa. For this reason, this kind of naked pumpkin seed is more consumable as snack than other seeds. The vegetative growth of plants is crucial for fruit production. Nitrogen is the most imperative element for the proper vegetative growth and development of plants which significantly increases and enhances yield and its quality by playing a vital role in the biochemical and physiological functions of plants.

Field studies were conducted to study the effect of nitrogen nutrition on certain physiological parameters and their differences between the styrian oil pumpkin hybrid and cultivar (Gleisdorfi Classic cultivar and GL Rustical hybrid). The small block experiment was carried out based on a factorial experiment with a completely randomised block design and four replications in the Research Institute of Nyíregyháza during the summer period of 2017 and 2018. Three different concentrations of nitrogen fertiliser was applied at sowing. Photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll-a, -b and carotenoids) were analysed as one of the basic factor of efficient photosynthesis. The yields of two genotypes were also measured in all treatments as seed-weight. The contents of photosynthetic pigments were higher in the oil-pumpkin hybrid, mainly the carotenoids in 2018. The vegetation period of 2018 was drier than in 2017, the hybrid oil-pupmkin was more efficient in stress tolerance than the cultivar with higher carotenoids pool. The obtained yield was more pronounced in the oil-pumpkin hybrid than the cultivar in all examined years. The hybrid GL Rustical was more sensitive to nitrogen treatment than the cultivar Gleisdorfi Classic.

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Examination of the effects of the cropyear and the nutrient supply on the quality of winter wheat with the help of Győri’s Z-index
Published October 5, 2010
121-125

In the case of winter wheat,the knowledge of several quality features is needed to be able to determine precisely the real quality of the given
wheat. Several systems have been worked out on the qualification of the winter wheat in Hungary and other countries as well. Evaluating the
quality is being made more difficult because the differe...nt quality features take part in the development of the quality in different degrees and
the values of the several quality features are in different intervals and these data are different dimension values. On the evidence of the
results, in the case of considering several features,it can be difficult to rank into one concrete quality cathegory. Researchers are trying to
develop complex quality index numbers in order to be able to define the quality more precisely. One of these complex quality index numbers
is Gyıri’s, so called, Z-index.
In three years from 2006 and 2008, we examined the change of the quality features of nine varieties of winter wheat with the help of the
Z-index under the influence of the effects of the different cropyears and the fertilizer treatment. The results show that the Z-index of the
examined varieties of winter wheat were influenced by several factors. Examining the data of the three different breeding years together we
can observe the corrective effect of the different cropyears on the Z-index, and if we examine the three years separately and together, the
differences of the quality features of the different varieties differentiate very well, and with the help of the Z-index the comparison of the
types is easier and perspicuous, and the Z-index represents the different nutrient reactions of the different types as well. On the average of
the three years, the types gave the best results at N120-150+PK nutrient level. Among the nine varieties the best results were given by Mv Suba,
GK Békés and Mv Mazurka in the case of both low and higher nutrient levels.

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5
Interpretation of rurality and the situation of land use in Hungary
Published September 18, 2014
79-85

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The summarizing data collection of our study has been carried out in the scope of the FP7-REGPOT-2010-1 ’UD_AGR_REPO’ project as a part of the cooperation with the University of Lincoln. The University of Lincoln is an important partner of the project, the knowledge transfer activities that have been carried jointly with them are multilateral. One of the most important cooperation areas is the analysis of rural areas, rurality itself, determination of breakout points, exploration of alternative income sources, diversification possibilities. Some part of the work of the University of Lincoln on the field of rural development is based on the assessment and documentation global similarities and differences of rural areas. Present study also contributes to that work, it has been prepared on the request of the University of Lincoln with the aim of providing insight into the special political and economic changes/processes that took place in Hungary, and through them into the structure and operation of the unique Hungarian rural areas.

The study first positions the definition of rurality and rural areas into context on the basis of official EU and Hungarian legal classification. Then it covers the important agricultural nature of Hungary, which significantly determines the possibilities and properties of Hungarian rural areas. The further description of rural areas is completed by some historical summary, the introduction of ownership changes, detailed description of employment and income conditions and finally by the listing of breakout points of rural areas as a conclusion.

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The impact of employment and income circumstances on the development of regions
Published July 24, 2014
15-19

The economic condition of an area is fundamentally determined by the extent of employement, as well as the size and composition of its active population. No sustainable economic growth is possible without the necessary amount of employees with the proper skills.

As regards the proportion of employees, i.e. economically active people is ...significanlty lower in Hungary than not only in Western Europe, but also countries which joined the EU recently. One of the reasons for this fact is the low amount of part-time employment and the other is the phenomenon that the number of agricultural employees – who had a significant role – greatly decreased in the county.

The employment level of the population in the county is nearly identical as that of the North Great Plain region and it is lower than the country average. The activity proportion, i.e. the joint proportion of employees and unemployed people in the population between 15–74 years of age is 3 percentages lower than the country average. The proportion of unemployed people greatly varies depending on the small regions of the county. The proportion of registered unemployed people in the population of active age is the lowest in Debrecen and the highest in the Hajdúhadház small region. The unemployment of career-starters is a further problem to deal with.

The composition of employees in the county is different than the country average. When compared in terms of different economic sectors, it can be observed that agriculture, game management, forestry and fishery are more significant than the country average. Of the provider sectors, the proportion of financial activity, real estate matters and economic services is lower, while that of accommodation services and hospitality is higher than the country average.

There are regional differences similar to unemployment in terms of the income size which is the basis of personal income tax per taxpayer.
The income level in the North Great Plain region is lower than the country average mainly in terms of income paid for work, where this difference is 23%, while it is only 5% in the case of social income. Altogether, the income and expenditure data of the North Great Plain region are not favourable.

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Examination of the vegetative and generative accomplishment of new apple varieties
Published March 11, 2014
29-34

Our research focuses on apple varieties, what are planted expansively in the development apple orchards of Western-Europe, but about the production characteristics of these varieties we don't have or just few practical experiences in Hungary. These varieties can be described with regular and high yields, aesthetic and alluring appearance in the...ir origin places, what ensure profitable producing for the growers. In our climate what tends to be often extreme (hard cold winters, late spring frosts, summer drought, heat stress) these varieties may behave differently, so before the substantial planting it is expedient to carry out variety evaluations to avoid the later failures. The place of our experimental is located in the Nyírség, what presents adequately the ecological conditions of the surrounding areas, so the gained results can be easily adapted in the biggest apple production site of Hungary. Regarding the vegetative and the generative parameters of the 14 examined varieties ('Schniga', 'Jugala', 'Fendeca', 'Galaval', 'Fengal', 'Red Cap', 'Early Red One', 'Jeromine', 'Crimson Crisp', 'Red Topaz', 'Red Jonaprince', 'Red Idared', 'Fuji SW', club variety) we found significant differences, which is the result of the genetically coded characteristics of the varieties, the effects of the vintage, the different training methods and the correlations of these factors.

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