Sensitivity of maize to herbicides in experiments in Martonvásár in 201547-52Views:148
The phytotoxic effect of herbicides applied post-emergence was investigated in a herbicide sensitivity experiment set up on parental maize genotypes in Martonvásár. A total of 48 Martonvásár inbred lines and 12 single line crosses were included in small-plot experiments set up in two replications. Ten herbicides were applied at the normal authorised rate and at twice this quantity. Compounds intended for pre-emergence application were applied when maize was in the 3–4-leaf stage and post-emergence herbicides in the 7–8-leaf stage of development. The extent of phytotoxicity was scored two weeks after treatment. Some of the herbicides tested are not authorised for use in seed production fields, but it is important to know how the parental genotypes respond to all types of herbicides. Phytotoxic symptoms of varying intensity were only observed on a third of the 60 parental genotypes examined; the majority of the lines exhibited no reaction to any of the herbicides. Averaged over the 60 genotypes the level of phytotoxic damage was less than 10% for the single dose. When the double dose was applied somewhat more severe damage was induced by products containing Mesotrione + Nicosulfuron or Foramsulfuron + Isoxadifen-ethyl, but this was still below 15%. The herbicide dose had a three times stronger influence on the intensity of the symptoms than the type of herbicide. With the exception of Topramezone, there was a significant difference between the effects of the normal and double doses. The greatest dose effect differences, in decreasing order, were observed for Mesotrione + Nicosulfuron, Foramsulfuron + Isoxadifen-ethyl. Nicosulfuron and Mesotrione + Terbutylazine. The Mesotrione + Terbutylazine active ingredient combination only caused mild (<10%) symptoms on a total of 11 genotypes, while the Mesotrione + Nicosulfuron combination induced more severe phytotoxic symptoms on 26 lines. When Nicosulfuron was applied alone it caused milder symptoms on fewer genotypes than in combination with Mesotrione. Among compounds of the sulphonyl-urea type, the least severe symptoms on the fewest genotypes were recorded in the case of Prosulfuron.
Effect of different production types on the yield and ß-carotene content of sweet potato /cultivar Ásotthalmi- 12/45-49Views:124
Production of sweet potato is extending in Hungary, despite the fact that there is no field-specific production technology. Therefore, many growers cannot utilize potential yields and quality. The goal of this study was to determine the optimal production method of the Ásotthalmi 12, a Hungarian sweet potato cultivar which can adapt to the Hungarian climate. The effect of single and twin rows production on the yield of this cultivar was examined. The planting was carried out on June 24th, the harvesting on October 20th and the growing-season was 120 days long. Uniform nutrient supply was applied to the whole field experiment. During basic fertilization, 206 kg Knd 20 kg N, 36 kg P ha-1 were used on the soil. While forming the ridges, we used an additional 25 kg N, 45 kg P and 62.5 kg K ha-1. We adopted drip tape irrigation on the experimental field. After the planting, from the 8th week of the vegetation, another 21 kg ha-1 K, 10 kg ha-1 MgSO4, and 2 kg ha-1 Ca(NO3)2 was added in one dosage weekly, until the 13th week of vegetation. At the evaluation of the experiment, we examined the yield regarding the whole experimental plot. SPAD and fluorescence measurements were carried out on 08.16. 2019, 08.28.2019, and on 09.13.2019, during the watering break. To demonstrate the difference between the dates, we applied ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc tests. For the measurement of phytonutrients HPLC, a liquid chromatograph was used, where the carotenoid content of the Ásotthalmi 12 cultivar was determined in connection with the different production methods. Test results showed that twin rows production leads to a nearly 30% greater yield, than single row production. We determined, that the growth of yield correlates negatively to the ß-carotene content of the Ásotthalmi 12 cultivar sweet potato.
Grain Moisture of Maize Hybrids in Different Maturity Groups at Various Harvesting Dates24-25Views:80
The experiments were designed to determine the extent to which late harvesting helped to achieve low grain moisture content. The grain moisture contents of 24 hybrids from each of four different maturity groups were recorded during the last decade of September and the first decade of November over a period of three years (1999-2001).
The data indicated that late harvesting led to a substantially smaller difference between the hybrids. While in late September the difference between the grain moisture content of the earliest (FAO 200) and latest (FAO 500) hybrids was 8.9%, this value dropped to 1.5% over the average of three years when measurements were made in early November. With the exception of the earliest group, the grain moisture content in all the maturity groups declined during October. The later the hybrid, the greater the decline.
This change in the grain moisture content during October exhibited a considerable year effect. When the weather in October was warm, with little rain, the decrease was greater, while in cool, wet years the grain moisture content declined to a lesser extent, or in some cases even increased.
Field Tests on the Herbicide Tolerance of Various Maize Genotypes21-23Views:67
Investigations were made in Martonvásár on the herbicide tolerance of 22 inbred maize lines and 3 parental single crosses when treated with one herbicide applied after sowing, prior to emergence, and with seven applied post-emergence in the 6-8-leaf stage. Visible damage was scored 14 days after the treatment.
An analysis of the phytotoxic effects led to the conclusion that a single dose of the tested herbicides did not cause any damage to the genotypes investigated, with the exception of one inbred line, which was extremely sensitive to herbicides of the sulphonyl carbamide type and moderately sensitive to both rates of dicamba. In many cases, a double dose of the herbicides caused mild or moderate symptoms on the maize lines.