Piglets in commercial intensive pig husbandry are often abruptly weaned between 3 and 4 weeks for economic reasons. The process of weaning is a multifactorial stressor, in which nutritional, social, physical and psychologic stressors are combined. Piglets are often exposed to unfamiliar piglets around weaning which results in a period of vigoro...us fighting. Stress plays an important part in welfare research. Traditionally glucocorticoids are measured in blood samples but their use is often limited as the act of sample collection may stress an animal. Measurement of faecal cortisol/corticosterone metabolites is a non-invasive method for evaluation adrenocortical activity. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of litter’s let-together system (“kindergarten”) in the farrowing house by measuring faecal cortisol metabolites. According to our results the “kindergarten” system has no stress effect on sows and piglets, respectively.
Sow milk production is the major factor limiting pig growth to weaning. Although the milk production of the sows incremental many environmental factors affect the actual performances. The supplemental milk replacer can be an appropriate solution to ward off disparities and try to equalize the available milk quantity to the piglets according to...their appetite, to enlarge the weight of pigs at weaning, ultimately. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of liquid milk supplement on weight development and litter performance of the piglets during the suckling period. Data were collected from 60 farrowings, the weight of 649 piglets in a total were measured at birth, 14 days old and at weaning (28 days), respectively. In the control group (n=319) the piglets were suckled and got prestarter feed from day 10. In the experimental group (n= 330) the piglets had got liquid milk replacer in 10.71% solution, from day 10 after birth together with suckling and prestarter feed, as well. Based on the Duncan's multiple range tests, there were no significant differences in birth weight between the control and experimental group but we found significant differences between the 14 days weight and the weaning weight, subsequently. Based on the CV% of weight the experimental group became more homogenous, in contrary to the weight of the control group at the end of suckling period. The milk supplementation can be an appropriate solution to ward off disparities and to equalize the available milk quantity to the piglets according to their appetite, to enlarge and uniform the weight of pigs at weaning, ultimately.
However, reproduction in sheep is seasonal, many breeds of sheep are able to mate not only in autumn, but out-of-season as well. The main factor determining seasonality is the photoperiod, but other factors can influence reproductive pattern, such as genetics, management practices and social cues. The fertility of spring and early summer breedi...ng is usually lower; this imposes the need for alternative methods (e.g. hormonal treatments, biotechnological practice), to increase the conception rate.
The author summarize the main practical techniques and biotechnological methods for controlling reproduction completed with some own experimental results in connection with different topics.
This study aimed to examine whether litters’ let-together system before weaning (‘kindergarten-system’) has any stress effect and effect on post-weaning behavior, respectively. One week before weaning piglets were socialized by removing four adjacent farrowing crate walls. After weaning, piglets from the same experimental groups were...housed in the same rearing crates. The piglet’s body weight was measured at birth than weekly till the 7th life-week. Fecal cortisol metabolites were measured for evaluation of the adrenocortical activity. Personal observation and evaluation were carried out for behavioral analyses after weaning. There were no significant differences in weight development and cortisol metabolite levels between the control and experimental groups. Behavioral analysis showed that pigs grow up in a socialized system, rapidly evolve ranking in the rearing crates, and the self-maintenance and social behavior were more pronounced. In control groups, the activity involving movement (exploring, walking, and running) was much more decisive. Recent work suggested the beneficial effect of the ‘kindergarten’ system in the farrowing house in animal welfare aspects.