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Top-dressing of paprika transplants in trays with fertilizers of phosphorus- and nitrogen surplus
Published April 14, 2003
47-49.

By our experiments, we wished to answer the question: may top-dressing with nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers, respectively, improve the quality of transplants grown in trays on a substrate enriched by 2 kg/m3 of retarded fertilizers?

The experiments started in spring and autumn 2002, in a large volume plastic house. The se...edlings were grown in trays. Seed was sown directly into KITE trays of 187 cells (28 cm3 volume per cell, 779 seedlings per square meter). The trays were filled by "loose filling" (without packing) with the following soil mixture: 50% Baltic highmoor peat, 50% 'Nitrite lowmoor peat, 1,5 kg/m3 feed chalk, 2 kg/m3 slow acting chemical fertilizer of phosphorus overweight, 2 kg/m3 superphosphate. The test plant was the vegetable paprika variety `Tizenegyes'.

The trials were made in order to clear up if top-dressing done once or twice improves the quality of the seedlings. For this purpose, perfectly soluble fertilizers of phosphorus or nitrogen surplus were used. 3 I fertilizer solution of 0.2% concentration was given per square meter on every single occasion. The control plots received no top-dressing.

The following parameters were registered: stem diameter, plant height, fresh weight of the top, dry matter content of the top, fresh weight of the root system per plant, dry matter content of the roots.

The experimental results with top-dressing have clearly proved the insufficiency of mixing 2 kg/m3 of retarded fertilizer into the substrate, as usual in raising paprika seedlings in trays, because of the long period of transplant raising. According to our experiments the additional nitrogen fertilization influences positively the development of green parts of plants, while the multiple application of fertilizers with higher phosphorus-content helps to develop a strong root system. We suppose, that the more often applied additional fertilizers, maybe the combination of fertilizers with nitrogen and phosphorus amount could give use even better results.

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Nutrient demand of stone fruits
Published June 24, 2003
19-23.

Effects of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilization were investigated on the change of nutrient content, vegetative and generative production of apricot, peach and sour cherry trees, as well as on frost hardiness in long term experiments. Nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization increased only the concentration of these elements in cherry ...leaves without effect on growth and yield. Consequent potassium effect was proved on these stone fruit species. Effect on yield appeared following the first higher crop load.

Potassium supply has positive effect on frost hardiness of apricot and sour cherry flowers and peach flower buds.

In peach, the lime content of soil decreased the yield but it could be compensated by potassium dressing to some extent. Favourable nutrient boundary values were determined for soil and foliage.

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Effect of N, P, K and Mg fertilizers on some vegetative and generative parameters of a sweet cherry cultivar
Published July 29, 2020
27-30.

This two-year-study was aimed to provide results on the effect of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and magnesium fertilizer treatments (control, NP, NPK, NPKMg) on vegetative and generative features of the sweet cherry cultivar ‘Carmen’. Examinations were performed in an orchard planted in 2012 on Prunus mahaleb rootstock with spaci...ng of 5 x 2.5 m. All treatments improved the vegetative features of the sweet cherry trees in both years of 2016 and 2017. Fertilizer treated trees increased trunk cross section area (TCSA) with 51.3-63.1%, while control trees showed 48.3% trunk growth increase. Yields of control trees were lower in both years (5.9-7.2 kg/tree), than that of the fertilized trees (7.8-11.3 kg/tree). Treatments also increased the phosphorus (16-22%), magnesium (12-20%) and potassium content (3.5-18%) of the fruits compared to control treatments.

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210
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The effect of soil mixtures of different consistence and phosphorus content in tray transplant-growing by lettuce
Published April 14, 2003
71-76.

The transplant-growing with root balls gets more and more popular and time to time the only method even in high-quality lettuce transplant-growing. To work out the technology of transplant-growing in trays it was needed to define the accurate physical and chemical consistency of applied soils.

The transplant production in trays could be...come a good method in field-grown lettuce technologies. The production of transplants of good quality with this technology could be realised only by accurate soil mixtures.

The matter of transplant-growing substrates could be a low-moor turf. Its qualities could be positively influenced by adding minerals like bentonite in amount of 5 (or 10) V%.

To ensure enough phosphorus for the demands of transplants we have to add more fertilisers. The best results by lettuce we got by adding 4 kg/m3 superphosphate to the soil mixture.

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Response of alternate bearing of “Badamy sefid” Pistachio cultivar to foliar application of some macro and micro elements
Published January 3, 2010
109-112.

Response of “Badamy sefid” Pistachio trees to spraying of fertilizer was studied over two years (2006–2007). The boron and zinc fertilizer were used just on swelling time of female flower bud in compare to no fertilization (control). Also nutritional solution combined of nitrogen (400 ppm), phosphorus (P2O5) (380 ppm), potasium (K2O) (520... ppm), Fe (5 ppm), Cu (2 ppm), Zn (2 ppm), Mn (2 ppm) in 1000 liter water per hectare sprayed at first week of May, third week of June and July). The concentration of some macro and micro elements in flower bud and in leaves, also productivity (g/shoot sectional area) mean nut weight, fresh weight of nut per cm2 branch cross sectional area, blanks nuts %, non-split nut %, new shoot growth length after cessation of growth and remained flower bud (%) at the next spring were recorded for the different treatments. The results showed that boron and zinc concentration increased in the bud of sprayed trees in compare to control. Application of nutritional solution decreased the flower bud abscission, also resulted in increased vegetative growth, nut weight, and productivity of trees. In conclusion, spraying of fertilizers in the suitable time to the pistachio trees might be a useful method in decreasing flower bud abscission and mitigating the alternate bearing.

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Effect of nitrogen dressings to Jonathan apple trees in a long-term experiment
Published February 23, 2000
128-130.

During the last three decades, diverse effects of nitrogen application on the performance of apple trees were studied in field and pot experiments at the Experimental Station of University of Horticulture and Food Industry. The basic experiment, using different rates of nitrogen in kg/ha (check, N-50; N-100; N-200; N-400; and N-800), was carrie...d out for a period of 13 years, thus including almost the whole bearing period of Jonathan apple trees on M.9 rootstocks.

The need of nitrogen in apple orchards on M.9 rootstock and soils with moderate humus content can be decreased considerably. Nitrogen application significantly increased leaf nitrogen and magnesium, but depressed leaf phosphorus and potassium content. With increasing doses of nitrogen fruit nitrogen content significantly increased and parallelly phosphorus and potassium content decreased. Even the lowest rate of nitrogen application decreased the red colouration of fruits. A direct negative correlation between nitrogen fertilzation and fruit firmness was not proved. No close and significant correlation between fruit quality parameters and the nitrogen content in leaves, sampled at different dates, was revealed.

 

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88
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Organic versus integrated apple growing: I. differences in soil and leaf parameters
Published September 2, 2009
57-60.

The aim our study was to establish whether significant differences in nutrients uptake and quality of soil and leaf exist between organic and integrated grown apples. The study was performed at the orchard Fruit Research Station, University of Debrecen, at Debrecen-Pallag during 2002–2004. Macro and micro elements were measured in soil and pl...ant samples. Analyses of variance of soil nitrogen data indicated highly significant differences between the two management systems (P < 0.001) for each examined nitrogen fraction. Analyses of variance of soil phosphate data indicated significant differences (P < 0.05) between the two management systems for orto-PO4 3– contents. Our data indicated that highly significant differences between the two management systems (P < 0.001) for magnesium, copper, and zinc; while significant differences between the two management systems was at P = 0.007 for calcium. Three year’s data of leaf phosphorus, sulphur and zinc were not shown significant differences between production systems. Nevertheless manganese and copper contents of leaves were higher in the organic orchard compared to the integrated one.

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Evaluation of the quality of Sorbus fruits belonging to different species
Published May 18, 2005
37-41.

The interest in wild growing fruits was increased considerably by the pharmaceutical industry, the cosmetics as well as by the food industry. (Stefanovits-Bányai et al., 2004). Elderberry (Sambucus nigra L), sand thorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.), cornet (Cornus mas L.), dog rose ...>(Rosa canina L. bearing hips) and the Sorbus species (Sorhus ssp.) have been well known medicinal and/or ornamental plants since long. Recently, precious substances have been detected in their fruits, which are indispensable in healthy foods. Several species and micro-species of the genus Sorbus are components of the native flora of Hungary, and the fruit of some of them have been consumed traditionally, however, they are preferably considered as ornamentals. The nursery of Alsótekeres (Balatonvilágos) maintained some 16 clones of Sorbus species, which are mainly apomictic "micro species" of. the collection. In 2003, a comprehensive analysis of sorb fruits born on apomictic micro species was initiated in order to find those, which will be suitable to establish plantations. It turned out that considerable differences exist between the fruits of individual taxa, however, it is largely influenced by seasonal effects. According to physical measurements, a scale of mean fruit masses could be established. As for chemical ingredients of the fruits, those are of special interest, which are involved mainly in anti-oxidant activities of the organisms (calcium, potash, phosphorus, copper, magnesium).

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Content of mineral- and sulphur compounds in Hungarian and French garlic varieties
Published July 25, 2013
61-65.

In our days about 2 million tons of garlic are grown in the world. Garlic was used as medicine already in ancient Egypt. It contains approx 33 sulfur compounds, several enzymes, 17 amino acids and minerals. We determined the content of diallyl sulfone, boron, calcium, copper, iron, potassium, magnesium, natrium, phosphorus and zinc in fi ve gar...lic varieties (3 French, 2 Hungarian). We searched if there were signiffi cant differences between the varieties.

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Organic and mineral fertilizer effects on the yield and mineral contents of carrot (Daucus carota)
Published April 25, 2012
69-74.

A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of ammonium-nitrate, food waste compost, bacterial fertilizer (EM-1) and their combinations on production and nutrient contents of carrot. The study was conducted on a calcareous chernozem and acidic sandy soils in a randomized complete block design with 8 treatments and four ...replications. NH4NO3 in chernozem soil increased the weight of carrot leaves only, while in sandy soil resulted in reduced yield and highly increased NO3-N content of roots. Sandy soil showed higher response of biomass production to food waste compost application than chernozem soil. The highest carotenoid content of roots was measured with compost treatment. Combined application of compost and NH4NO3 in chernozem proved to be good combination but in sandy soil have turn out to be less favourable than sole compost treatment. Bacterial fertilizer (EM-1) did not cause marked effect on the yield parameters, but caused increased phosphorus content of plant. In chernozem soil the maximum yield parameters were achieved with the combined treatment of ammonium-nitrate+compost+EM-1. In sandy soil the most favourable treatment proved to be the compost treatment. Results suggest that application of food waste compost as a nutrient source could be a promising agrochemical practice especially in soils having low organic material and low nutrient supply.

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The salt tolerance of vegetable paprika varieties
Published April 14, 2003
39-45.

In our experiments, we have chiefly tested the salt sensitivity of sweet pepper varieties. In cold forcing, 0.3 1/plant nutrient solutions of different NaCI content were given twice weekly. EC of the nutrient solutions containing 0.25% Volldünger Linz complex fertilizer was made up to 6, 10, 14 and 18 mS/cm, respectively, by 2.51/9.17/17.97/26....76 g/m2 doses of pharmacopeal NaCI every week. The solution used for the control treatment contained Volldünger only (EC 4.4 mS/cm). Irrigation was made with pure water (EC 0.6 mS/cm) when necessary.

The varieties chosen for the experiments were the following: Feherözön, HRF F1, Syn. Cecei (of white, conical fruit), Boni (of white, blunt, infolded fruit), Titan F1 (of pointed, hot fruit) and Pritavit F1 (of tomato shaped fruit).

In general, the symptoms caused by NaCI treatments (with doses higher than 10 g/m2 weekly) have been the following:

  • They have reduced the leaf area, the height of the plants, the total and the early yield, the number of fruit set per square meter, the average weight of the fruit (and, in some measure, fruit length, too) and the thousand seed weight.
  • They have increased the calcium and the chlorine content of the leaves and fruits and the dry matter content of the fruits.
  • They haven't affected the dry matter content of the leaves, the nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content of the leaves and fruits, and the germinating ability of the seed.
  • The effect on stem diameter and on seed production per fruit has been contradictory in some cases.

The effects of the intermediate treatments haven't been explicit in several cases.

The results of the examination of cuticular secretion have indicated the increase of the sodium and chlorine content of the leaves. This can be important in field growing where the rainwater may wash out a part of sodium and chlorine from paprika leaves.

The hot, pointed variety and the tomato shaped paprika haven't shown clearly higher salt tolerance than the varieties of white fruit colour.

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