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Ecotoxicology of Copper in Horticultural Soils: A Review
Published March 3, 2013
7-18.

Nowadays, the world is facing the problem of environmental pollution because of the increase of man’s needs requires development in life activities, progress industrialization, transportation tools, enhancement of agriculture and exploitation of natural resources. Soil and water resources are extremely exposed to pollution from different aspe...cts. Agrochemicals in particular, have created severe problems, since they release thousands of chemicals to the environment. Several studies on the effect of environmental pollutants on agroecosystem have been carried out. On the other hand, the importance of trace elements as environmental pollutants is well known and well documented in literature. Cu contamination to agricultural soils has been accelerated due to its wide and repeated use in agriculture and horticulture as fertilizers or fungicides to protect vines, citrus trees, and other fruit crops against fungus diseases. Applied Cu from different agrochemical sources to agroenvironment may be adsorbed and are transported to the groundwater table and pollute it besides polluting the soils. The use of Cu-based fungicides in vineyard soils is widely documented worldwide. It has been found that many countries contain concentrations in excess of 100 mg kg−1. Importance of study of transport of Cu arises due to the fact that Cu is absorbed in soils and also reaches the groundwater table, thus polluting both soil and ground water. It is often more important to be able to estimate the mobile fraction, the readily soluble fraction, the exchangeable fraction, or the plant available fraction of Cu content of a soil as a more direct indication of the likelihood of deleterious or toxic effects on soils and groundwater. Therefore, the aim of present work was to highlight the behavior and ecotoxicological effects of copper on horticultural soils.

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Organic versus integrated apple growing: I. differences in soil and leaf parameters
Published September 2, 2009
57-60.

The aim our study was to establish whether significant differences in nutrients uptake and quality of soil and leaf exist between organic and integrated grown apples. The study was performed at the orchard Fruit Research Station, University of Debrecen, at Debrecen-Pallag during 2002–2004. Macro and micro elements were measured in soil and pl...ant samples. Analyses of variance of soil nitrogen data indicated highly significant differences between the two management systems (P < 0.001) for each examined nitrogen fraction. Analyses of variance of soil phosphate data indicated significant differences (P < 0.05) between the two management systems for orto-PO4 3– contents. Our data indicated that highly significant differences between the two management systems (P < 0.001) for magnesium, copper, and zinc; while significant differences between the two management systems was at P = 0.007 for calcium. Three year’s data of leaf phosphorus, sulphur and zinc were not shown significant differences between production systems. Nevertheless manganese and copper contents of leaves were higher in the organic orchard compared to the integrated one.

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New simple and efficient method of DNA isolation from pear leaves rich in polyphenolic compounds
Published September 26, 2006
21-24.

This study aimed to establish a new protocol for DNA isolation from the Pyrus genus to get high quality DNA that is suitable for the generation of molecular markers, such as RAPD and AFLP. This method is based on modified CTAB extraction procedure (Aldrich & Cullis, 1993). For isolation of high-quality DNA we used copper (II) aceta...te treatment that enabled fixation and removing of tannins, present in abundance in Pyrus. DNA yield from this procedure is high. DNA is completely digestible with restriction endonucleases and amplifiable in the PCR, indicating freedom from common contaminating polyphenolic compounds.

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Comparison of apples from organic and integrated farming
Published May 10, 2010
15-18.

Prima’, ‘Gala’, ‘Remo’, ‘Topáz’, ‘Idared’, ‘Releika’, ‘Resi’, ‘Rubinola’, ‘Rajka’, ‘Rewena’ and ‘Florina’ apple cultivars, both from organic and integrated farming, from Pallag and Újfehértó, were compared. Average size, weight, soluble solids, titratable acidity, total polyphenols, free radical sca...venging capacity expressed as Trolox equivalent (TEAC), copper and zinc were determined at harvest and after cool storage. Organic apples were more acidic, while integrated fruits had mostly higher copper and zinc content. Total polyphenols and TEAC values did not show a significant difference as a function of farming technology. A principal component analysis shows the separation of provenances as well as stored and fresh apples. Results are considered as preliminary.

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Some aspects of disease management of cherry leaf spot (Blumeriella jaapii) with special reference to pesticide use
Published January 3, 2010
45-49.

In this review, some aspects of disease management of cherry leaf spot (Blumeriella jaapii) are summarised with special reference to pesticide use. In the first part of the review, we show the non-chemical control approach (e. g. removal of fallen leaves, planting resistant cultivar) against leaf spot. In the second part of the review, the effe...ct of pesticides including fertilizers (urea) and fungicides on cherry leaf spot are discussed. Special attention are given to the fungicides of copper, dodine, captafol, captan, benomil, chlorothalonil, sterol demethylation inhibitors (e.g. fenarimol, fenbuconazole, myclobutanil, tebuconazole), and strobilurins about their effectiveness against cherry leaf spot. In the final part of the review, possibilities of cherry leaf spot control are discussed in integrated and organic cherry orchards.

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Composition and storage of pear cultivars from Nagykanizsa
Published March 15, 2011
63-68.

The composition of five pear varieties (‘Abate Fètel’, ‘Bosc’, ‘Williams’, ‘Conference’, ‘Packham’s Triumph’) grown in Nagykanizsa was investigated in three consecutive years (2008, 2009, 2010). A storage experiment was performed in 2008. Four winter pear cultivars were kept in an ULO store for four months and their param...eters measured after two and four months. The parameters tested were: size, weight, water soluble solids, titratable acidity, glucose, fructose, sucrose, water soluble pectin, total polyphenols, free radical scavenging capacity, copper and zinc content. The fruits of ‘Conference’ and ‘Bosc’ varieties were found to contain the highest sucrose and total sugar content, while ‘Abate Fétel’ had the lowest sucrose and highest glucose levels among cultivars tested. ‘Williams’ pear was the most acidic. Brix, total sugar, sucrose and water soluble pectin were decreased during storage. Titratable acidity slightly decreased in fruits of Conference pear. Polyphenols and free radical scavenging capacity did not show a significant change during storage.

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Composition and sensory properties of sour cherry cultivars
Published May 10, 2010
19-23.

Fruits of different sour cherry varieties cultivated, in 2008 and 2009, under organic farming and integrated cultivation conditions were analysed for their quality attributes, antioxidant activity and subjected to sensory evaluation.. Average size, weight, soluble solids, titratable acidity, total polyphenols, free radical scavenging capacity e...xpressed as Trolox equivalent (TEAC), copper and zinc were determined in freshly harvested fruits. The obtained results indicated that, the principal component analysis can separate and distinguish the seasons of fruit production. The farming system seemed to have slight effect on quality the fruit as compared to varietal factors (genotypes). However, the total polyphenol content was uniformly less in 2009. Total polyphenols and free radical scavenging activity were significantly higher in Bosnian type sour cherries, and outstanding in Amarelle type cultivar ‘Pipacs’. There was no statistically significant difference between the sensory properties of cultivars tested by panels, except the case of ‘Pipacs’. The organolaptic investigation showed marked preference to the fruits of Eva and Petri cultivars.

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Comparison of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. juglandis isolates from walnut trees grown in Romania and Hungary
Published April 22, 2014
65-69.

Among diseases that affect walnut, bacterial blight is considered the most important one in all walnut growing areas both from Hungary and Romania. For the determination of susceptibility/resistance of walnut cultivars in our posterior work planned, 61 bacterial isolates were collected from walnuts showing symptoms of blight, with the purpose o...f isolating Xanthomonas arboricola pv. juglandis (Xaj). The characteristic Xaj colonies, frequently present as saprophytes in the infected plant tissues, were separated from other bacteria according to their morphology, yellow colour, hydrolysis of starch, and oxidation of glucose. All isolates were tested for pathogenicity by hypersensitive reaction on tobacco leaves (Nicotiana tabacum L.), bean pods (Phaseolus vulgaris L) and unripe nuts (Juglans regia L.). Determination of taxonomy of the selected isolates denotes a possible subdivision (races, biotypes) of Xaj occurring in different geographical areas, API 20NE and API 50CH kits were used. Hungarian and Romanian strains showed a high degree of similarity of carbohydrate utilization but slightly differed from the type strain. All were Cu-sensitive.

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Possibilities of brown rot management in organic stone fruit production in Hungary
Published June 20, 2006
87-91.

In this study, possibilities of environmentally-friendly plant protection against two brown rot species was summarized for organic stone fruit orchards. Symtomps of the two most important brown rot species (Monilinia fructigena (Aderh. & Ruhl.) Honey and Monilinia laxa (Aderh. & Ruhl.) Honey) were described an...d then cultivar susceptibility to brown rot was discussed. Several sustainable plant protection methods were selected and discussed in details such as mechanical, agrotehcnical, biological, and other control possibilities (elemental sulphur, lime sulphur and copper).

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Content of mineral- and sulphur compounds in Hungarian and French garlic varieties
Published July 25, 2013
61-65.

In our days about 2 million tons of garlic are grown in the world. Garlic was used as medicine already in ancient Egypt. It contains approx 33 sulfur compounds, several enzymes, 17 amino acids and minerals. We determined the content of diallyl sulfone, boron, calcium, copper, iron, potassium, magnesium, natrium, phosphorus and zinc in fi ve gar...lic varieties (3 French, 2 Hungarian). We searched if there were signiffi cant differences between the varieties.

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Review on rain induced fruit cracking of sweet cherries (Prunus avium L.), its causes and the possibilities of prevention
Published June 20, 2006
27-35.

The rain induced fruit cracking is a big, serious and costly problem for cherry growers. Cracked fruits lose their value and they are not marketable because of the poor fruit quality. Cracked fruits have different storage diseases and shorter storage and shelf life.

There are many influencing factors of the cherry fruit cracking such as...: water uptake; fruit characteristics (fruit size, fruit firmness; anatomy and strength of the fruit skin, stomata in fruit skin, cuticular properties, osmotic concentration, water capacity of the fruit pulp, growth stage of the fruit,); orchard temperature and other environmental conditions;

The most effective protection technique is the plastic rain cover over the tree rows. The installation of these equipments is too expensive for the cherry growers. That is the reason why researchers tried to find other less expensive and sufficiently effective ways against the Lim induced fruit cracking.

Several calcium formulas: calcium chloride (CaC1,), calcium hydroxide (Ca (OH)2) and calcium nitrate (Ca(NO3)2 ) can be sprayed in appropriate concentration. Spraying with other mineral salts (aluminium and copper salts, borax) and PBRs (Plant Bioregulators) may be also effective to reduce fruit cracking.

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Some aspects of reduced disease management against Monilinia spp. in sour cherry production
Published January 3, 2010
50-53.

The aim of this study was first to test the in vitro effeicacy of some fungicides against brown rot of sour cherry, and secondly to evaulate the effectiveness of reduced spray programmes against brown rot in integrated and organic sour cherry orchards. In vitro efficacy of 7 fungicides (Champion 50 WP, Kocide 2000, Nordox 75 WG, Olajos rézkén..., Kumulus S, Rézkén, Rézoxiklorid) and another 6 fungicides (Score 25 EC, Efuzin 500 SC, Systane, Folicur Solo, Zato Plusz, Rovral) approved in organic and integrated production systems, respectively, were tested against brown rot of sour cherry. Altogether four spray programmes were performed i) standard integrated: sprays followed by forecasting systems during the season, ii) reduced integrated: sprays followed by forecasting systems but only 75% of the spray numbers used during the season-long spray programme, iii) standard oragnic: sprays applied every 7–14 days during the season and iv) reduced organic: 60% of the spray numbers used during the season-long spray programme. In vitro results showed that fungicides (with active ingredients of copper and sulphur) applied in organic production showed relatively high percent growth capacity of Monilinia fungus. Rézkén showed the highest and Kumilus S the lowest efficacy against brown rot. Fungicides applied in integrated production showed relatively low percent growth capacity of Monilinia fungus. Score 25 EC showed the highest and Rovral the lowest efficacy against brown rot. Field study showed that reduced spray programmes did not increase significantly brown rot incidence in the integrated field. However, brown rot incidence increased significanly (above 30%) in the reduced spray programme for the organic orchard.

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Study on the micronutrient content of soil and leaf of an organic apple orchard in Eastern Hungary
Published June 20, 2006
7-11.

The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between micronutrient content of soil and leaf in an organic apple orchard. The experiment was carried out at the Experimental Site of the University of Debrecen, Centre of Agricultural Sciences at Pallag in an apple cultivar collection in Eastern Hungary in 2002-2004. The soil sampling w...as carried out twice per year, at the beginning and the end of the vegetation period in 2002, 2003 and 2004, respectively. The micronutrient content of leaf of seven apple cultivars (Jonagold, Mutsu, Idared, Red Elstar, Egri piros, Reka, Remo) was studied according to phenological phases of apple (April — September) to investigate the dynamism of plant nutrient uptake.

It was found that results of leaf analysis correlated with the obtained results of soil. According to the data of July, manganese and copper content of leaf is in the 'favourable' but zinc is the 'low' range of nutrient supply category. Moreover, there were significant differences in the micronutrient content of leaf among cultivars. From our results it is evident that more reliable data were obtained for fruit nutrition by determining of micronutrient content of soil and plant and calculate their ratios as well.

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Levels of some micronutrient in dried and fresh fruit samples of apricot cultivars
Published April 25, 2012
25-30.

Concentration of Boron (B), Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Magnesium (Mg), Manganese (Mn) and Zinc (Zn) was analyzed in fresh and dried fruit samples of “Jumbo cot“, “Tom cot“, “Gold strike“, “Gold bar“, “Bergeron“, “Bergrouge“, “Sweet cot“, “Yellow cot“ and “Zebra“ apricot cultivars. Concentration of the studied el...ements was strongly affected by cultivars. B, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn content of “Tom cot“ was significantly higher than other cultivars. “Gold strike“ had the highest amount of Mg. Similar tendency was observed in “Zebra“ and “Sweet cot“ where Mn content was significantly higher than the other element contents.

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Evaluation of the quality of Sorbus fruits belonging to different species
Published May 18, 2005
37-41.

The interest in wild growing fruits was increased considerably by the pharmaceutical industry, the cosmetics as well as by the food industry. (Stefanovits-Bányai et al., 2004). Elderberry (Sambucus nigra L), sand thorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.), cornet (Cornus mas L.), dog rose ...>(Rosa canina L. bearing hips) and the Sorbus species (Sorhus ssp.) have been well known medicinal and/or ornamental plants since long. Recently, precious substances have been detected in their fruits, which are indispensable in healthy foods. Several species and micro-species of the genus Sorbus are components of the native flora of Hungary, and the fruit of some of them have been consumed traditionally, however, they are preferably considered as ornamentals. The nursery of Alsótekeres (Balatonvilágos) maintained some 16 clones of Sorbus species, which are mainly apomictic "micro species" of. the collection. In 2003, a comprehensive analysis of sorb fruits born on apomictic micro species was initiated in order to find those, which will be suitable to establish plantations. It turned out that considerable differences exist between the fruits of individual taxa, however, it is largely influenced by seasonal effects. According to physical measurements, a scale of mean fruit masses could be established. As for chemical ingredients of the fruits, those are of special interest, which are involved mainly in anti-oxidant activities of the organisms (calcium, potash, phosphorus, copper, magnesium).

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Effect of reduced spray programmes on incidences of apple scab, powdery mildew and codling moth damage in environmentally freindly apple production systems
Published September 2, 2009
75-78.

Still a large amount of pesticides and spary applications are used in environmentally friendly fruit production systems; therefore, the aim of our study was first to test the in vitro effeicacy of some fungicides against a key apple disease (apple scab), and secondly to evaulate the effectiveness of reduced spray programmes against apple s...cab, powdery mildew and coding moth in integrated and organic apple orchards. In vitro efficacy of 7 fungicides (Champion 50 WP, Kocide 2000, Nordox 75 WG, Olajos rézkén, Kumulus S, Rézkén, Rézoxiklorid) and another 6 fungicides (Score 25 EC, Efuzin 500 SC, Systane, Folicur Solo, Zato Plusz, Rovral) approved in organic and integrated production systems, respectively, were tested against apple scab. Altogether four spray programmes were performed i) standard integrated: sprays followed by forecasting systems during the season, ii) reduced integrated: sprays followed by forecasting systems but only 75% of the spray numbers used during the season-long spray programme, iii) standard oragnic: sprays applied every 7–14 days during the season and iv) reduced organic: 60% of the spray numbers used during the season-long spray programme. In vitro results showed that fungicides (with active ingredients of copper and sulphur) applied in organic production showed relatively high percent growth capacity of the apple scab fungus. Rézkén showed the highest and Kumilus S the lowest efficacy against apple scab. Fungicides applied in integrated production showed relatively low percent growth capacity of the apple scab fungus. Score 25 EC showed the highest and Rovral the lowest efficacy against apple scab. Field study showed that reduced spray programmes did not increase significantly scab incidence in the integrated field. However, scab incidence increased significanly (above 30%) in the reduced spray programme for the organic orchard.Mildew incidence was low (below 5%) in both integrated and organic spray programmes. Mildew incidence on both shoots and fruits increased significanly in the reduced spray programme for the organic orchard. Incidence of codling moth damage was affected the most by standard vs. reduced spray programmes. Though incidence remained below 10% in the integrated plots, the incidence was significantly higher in the reduced spray programme compared to the standard programme. Similar results were obtained for organic spary programmes, but the incidence was 10 times higher and the differences among the two programmes were larger.,

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In vitro sensitivity of Monilinia laxa to fungicides approved in integrated and organic production systems
Published December 4, 2011
59-61.

The aim of this study was to test the in vitro sensitivity of two isolates of Monilinia laxa to fungicides approved in integrated and organic production systems. In vitro efficacy of 7 fungicides (Champion 50 WP, Kocide 2000, Nordox 75 WG, Olajos rézkén, Kumulus S, Rézkén, Rézoxiklorid) and another 6 fungicides (Score 25 EC, Efuzin 500 SC,... Systane, Folicur Solo, Zato Plusz, Rovral) approved in organic and integrated production systems, respectively, were tested against brown rot of sour cherry. The three isolates showed differences in sensitivity to fungicides. Fungicides (with active ingredients of copper and sulphur) applied in organic production showed relatively high percent growth capacity of M. laxa. Rézkén and Kocide 2000 showed the highest and Kumilus S the lowest efficacy against brown rot. Fungicides applied in integrated production showed relatively low percent growth capacity of M. laxa. Score 25 EC showed the lowest and Rovral and Folicur solso the highest efficacy against M. laxa.

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Yield loss caused by fruit rot fungi on sweet cherry in Kyustendil region, Bulgaria
Published November 15, 2004
49-52.

The aim of the study was to determine the incidence of fruit rot caused by several fungal pathogens from 1999 to 2003. The study was conducted in three sweet cherry orchards at the Institute of Agriculture (Kyustendil, Bulgaria). One copper containing fungicide was applied in late autumn and early spring. During the growing seasons, 2-5 sprays ...were applied against fungal diseases. Trees were not sprayed specifically against fruit rot during the growing season, with the exception of 1999, when a spray of myclobutanil was applied after a long rainy period during the maturity of fruits. In one orchard, two nitrogen fertilization treatments were also prepared. In treatment 1, trees were fertilized with ammonium-nitrate 10 g/m2 and in the other treatments trees were not. Incidence of the five most important fruit rot pathogens, Monilinia fructigena, M. laxa, Botritys cinerea, Alternaria alternata and Rhizopus stolonifer was assessed in all orchards. The most severe yield loss (14.80 %) was measured in 1999, when weather conditions were the most favourable for fruit rot development. In this year, brown rots (M. fructigena and M. laxa) caused the highest damage (9.22 and 4.04 %, respectively) out of all assessed fruit rot pathogens. In all other years, yield loss was significantly lower than in 1999. In 2002, A. alternata caused the main fruit rot (4.46%) and all other fungi were less important, while in 2003, B. cinerea caused considerable yield loss (2.28 %) compared to all other fruit rot pathogens. Experiments on fertilization showed that nitrogen significantly increased fruit rot damage in 1999, 2001, 2002 and 2003. The effect of nitrogen fertilization was higher in years with rainy periods around harvest (1999 and 2002) compared to more dry years (2000 and 2001). Results were compared with similar studies and biological interpretations of the results are discussed.

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