Grey mould (Botrytis cinerea Pers.) is a pathogenic fungus which causes damage to the production of grapevine nursery plant materials especially on the stored canes or on graftings during the callusing period. The conditions, increased temperature and humidity, are ideal for the pathogen during the pre-forcing stage and in the storage Botrytis...cinerea can easily infect the outbursting buds as large amounts of grapevine canes are stored in a relatively small place. The fungicide-based management is general in the prevention of gray rot infection but the palette of authorised chemical compounds is narrowed year by year due to the regulations of the European Union. Our aim is to develop an eco-friendly method which combines the use of natural materials with techniques used in organic farming. Effect of the ultraviolet-c light on the Botrytis cinerea was studied. The development characteristics of the pathogen were examined under daylight and dark conditions and experiments were set up with cow’s milk and acetic acid. UV-C light destroyed the developed conidia, however, the radiation stimulates the development of immature propagules. Larger quantities of conidiophores and conidia were formed in daylight compared to culture in the dark, while different conditions did not signifi cantly change the mycelial growth characteristics. The developed bacteria prevented the spread of pathogen mycelia during the test with cow’s milk in Petri dishes, although the smooth development of propagules that occurred did not change the vitality of the fungal colony. Furthermore the growth of Botrytis cinerea fungus mycelia was strongly inhibited by acetic acid.
Favourable parameters are offered to the formation of noble rot caused by Botrytis cinerea by the climatic conditions, soil circumstances and grape-varietes of Tokaj-region. As the result of noble rot, aszú-berries represent the most important raw material of the world-wide known Tokaji Aszú Wine. The objective of this study was to m...easure the penicillin-content of aszú-berries and Tokaj Wine Specialities. As the result of infection of Botrytis free way can be opened in front of other mould strains, especially Penicillium and Aspergillus. There is a possibility to the presence of Penicillium chrysogenum on the surface of aszú-berries during noble rotting process. P. chrysogenum was found to produce the so called Naturally Derived Penicillins such as Penicillin-V (phenoximethyl-penicillin).
According to our findings the Penicillin-V content was detected between 0.4 and 26 mg/1 wine and 0-74 mg/kg aszú-berry. These values do net have therapeutic effect, but physiological benefit and it can be a basis to the qualification of the raw material of Tokaj Wine Specialities naturally together with the other component of noble rotted berries and botrytized wines.
The famous wine Tokaji Aszú is produced from "noble rotted" grapes infected and modified by Botrytis cinerea under special condition. The objective of this study was quantitative and qualitative characterisation of saprophytic fungi present on the surface of aszúberries, with special regard to yeasts. There were considerable differ...ences in these populations depending on the origin of noble rotted berries, notably between berries taken from the vine or the ones taken from the winery. Beside Botrytis, other mould species like Penicillium, Aspergillus were commonly found, in widely varying population. Yeast counts were detected between 104 and 107 cfu/g berry. In the samples taken from the vineyard Candida pulcherrima predominated followed by some aerobic basidiomycetous species, but Hanseniaspora species were also present in relatively high population. After transport and storage of the grape in the wineries, population of aerobic yeasts and C. pulcherrima quickly declined and Candida stellata followed by other sugar tolerant species became dominant. This autoselection process directs attention to the importance of storage conditions.
Our results show that the different cultivation methods have effect on the yield and the grape quality as well. In 2008 and 2009 the straw mulch proved to be the best solution regarding the yield. The soil compaction was reduced in these plots and the photosintetical activity was also higher. Straw mulch could conserve the moisture content of t...he soil. The less yield was observed in case of barely covered vines and also the vegetative growth of the grape was less intensive in case of these vines, but it seems to be contributed to the conformation of suitable microclimate for Botrytis infection.
Our results show that the different cultivation methods have higher effect on the yield than on the grape quality. In 2007 the weather was extreme dry (from May to August only 195 mm precipitation was recorded) the straw mulch proved to be the best solution regarding the yield and the grape quality. Although no significant differences were obse...rved in the sugar- and titratable acidity content of the must, the ratio of noble rotted berries was higher on the straw mulched plots. Straw mulch could conserve the moisture content of the soil and it seems to be contributed to the conformation of suitable microclimate for Botrytis infection, but for long distance conclusions further examinations need to be investigated. The less yield and ratio of rot was observed in case of barely covered vines and the vegetative growth of the grape was less intensive in case of these vines.
The knowledge of the finest composition of the Tokaj Wine Specialities is an indispensable task. The presence of the biogenic amines as an eventual combination of hygiene, technology and activity of Botrytis cinerea is a very important point of view in the future. The objective of this study was to measure the biogenic amine-content of... Tokaj Wine Specialities.
According to our findings, the histamine-concentration remained lower than the prescribed end values, but ill the case of serotonine, there were significant measured values. During the fermentation period, in the first cycle there was a decrease in the concentration of biogenic amines, but with the advancement of fermentation, an increase was found.