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Grape variety comparison of different stress tolerance based on the quantitative measurement of carbohydrates
Published December 8, 2008

The analyses of various host-pathogen relationships have established the response reaction roles of carbohydrates — especially monosaccharides — measurable in the vegetal parts of the host. Published results also provide information concerning the way various pathogens utilize carbohydrates and concerning the carbohydrates pathogens prefer ...out of the "selection" provided by the host plant. The role of carbohydrates in the response reactions to abiotic stress has been studied on several plant species as well — currently, too, it is an often discussed area of research. The above-mentioned results form the basis of our intention to study the connection between susceptibility to grey mould and the quantity of measurable carbohydrates in the leaves of grape varieties of various stress tolerance levels.

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Sampling experience in a cherry plantation
Published March 15, 2011

Experiments in a cherry plantation were performed to find out that samples taken from various parts of the foliage of the tree what extent represent the whole tree. One tree from three different cherry varieties was selected. In the selection, we tried to form a good representation of the foliage of the orchard. 8 sampling locations were design...ated on each tree, in two different heights and four different directions according to the points of the compass.We measured the main sizes of the fruits in three orthogonal dimensions with a digital slide gauge with an accuracy of 0.01 mm; the mass of each cherry by an analytical balance, with an accuracy of 0.001 g; the mass of the stones with the same analytical balance, and then calculated the stone-pulp ratio. The measured and calculated data are used to characterize the sample in question.

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Estimation of plum and prune cultivars with morphogenetical traits
Published April 19, 2006

The author post few years organizes the plum breeding program. He uses up earlier elaborated morphogenetic and productive characteristics and traits, already on such basis their selected 21 cultivars in the pomological garden at Cegléd. The Hungarian plum assortment and offer very specific and tight, thus that they endeavor, that the selection... before then flare. There are indicating already only the perspective cultivars in present paper on basis of gathered data one decade underneath. Paralleling control was three type of used (Besztercei szilva Bt. 2, Green gage and Stanley). 12-sort trait according to were compared the cultivars. The productivity-biological standpoints without, the open pollination and pollen germination, over and above that the ripening on date big differences appear. The near future the 'C. 1501' (Yellow Besztercei), 'Ontario' and `Mirabelle de Nancy' (yellow plums), the yes untimely `Precoce di Guigno' (red plum), the very well abundant 'C. 940' and Victoria (lilac plums), over and above that 'Beregi datolya', ‘Révfülöpi’ and `Szarvasi' (blue plums) cultivars setup suggest. The demonstrated cultivars out of further give for deputize value the Precoce di Giugno, as earliest ripening and the 'Beregi datolya' but the at the latest ripening.

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Inheritance of the characters related to flower formation, blooming and fertilisation in apple
Published September 13, 1999

On the base of observations performed during a period of 20 years the blooming characters-of apple varieties and their progenies the following statements are actual.

In blooming dynamics there was no difference between paternal and maternal effects. In the assignment to blooming time groups, the paternal effect prevailed wher...eas in the tendency of flower initiation on long shoots maternal parent was more decisive. Varieties as 'Golden Delicious'. 'Jonathan', 'Red Delicious', 'Rome Beauty' and 'Staymared' and their respective, naturally raised mutants did not differ in blooming characters.

The possibility of predicting the relation to blooming time groups of early (July, August) ripening individuals is low, whereas late (September. October) ripening ones have a good chance to be medium late in blooming time.


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Comparison of light yellow fleshed pepper varieties grown on rockwool under unheated forcing conditions
Published March 16, 2004

Experiments are going on all over the world assisting the joint effort of researchers and practicing specialists to identify the methods which can help either in the reduction of production costs or in the increase of yields.

The task of the growers is to make profitable use of the forcing facilities and to satisfy market demands at an ...acceptable price by means of improving production technology and applying new scientific, technological and technical information.

For the last few years, rockwool based forcing has been gaining in importance. The subject of our scientific work was the analysis of an important question of this technological variant, the selection of the variety. Besides, we also tried to identify the most suitable pruning technology for the varieties studied.

In Hungary, the highest demand is commonly known to be for the light yellow fleshed varieties which are suitable for stuffed dishes. In the future, due to their special quality and appearance, as well as to the Hungaricum character, they could become important export goods on the European Union market. It was within this variety type that comparison between varieties already common in production (HO F1, HRF F1, Danubia F1) was carried out, trying to get an answer to the question which of the three varieties could be produced with the greatest success. Considering the quantitative and qualitative indicators, it was H6 F1 that proved the best out of the three varieties tested under unheated forcing on rockwool. It excelled the other two varieties both in quality and in average fruit weight, preserving this advantage until the end of the growing period.

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Promising white poplar (Populus alba L.) clones in sandy ridges between the rivers Danube and Tisza in Hungary
Published February 19, 2008

White poplar is a native stand-forming tree species in Hungary, covering 3.1 per cent of the forested area. More than 70 per cent of the white poplar stands can be found on calcareous sandy sites in the Danube—Tisza region, so they play a significant role in the poplar management of this part of the country. The most important task ahead of H...ungarian poplar growers is to improve the quality of poplar stands and plantations based on selecting new clones and cultivars. The growth and yield of four promising white poplar clones was evaluated on a marginal site in central Hungary. The clones `1-1 425-4' (Populus alba x Populus alba), and 11 758' (Populus alba Mosonmagyaróvár 124) seem to be suitable for wood production, while the 427-3' (Populus alba x Populus alba cv. Bolleana) and 422-9' (Populus alba x Populus grandidentata) clones (with decorative stem form) could be better used for tree lines and ornamental plantations.

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Morphological and phenological properties of sour cherry varieties grown in Hungary and their inter-incompatibility relations
Published February 23, 2000

Regular observations and experiments were performed during a 14 year period on 6 sour cherry varieties. The morphological traits of leaves and fruits were compared, and the phenology of blooming as well as of ripening dates served to start an estimation of the possibilities of mutual pollination and the planning of harvest operations. Experimen...ts involved obligate autogamy, artificially controlled allogamy and open pollination in order to reveal self-fertility, self-sterility or inter-incompatibility relations.

The varietal characters represent, each, different values in the distinction of the items, because of their intra-varietal variability. From that point of view, the most reliable are the data of blooming and ripening time, fruit size and the fertility relations.

Inter-incompatibility was observed between the group of self-fertile, "Pándy type" varieties (`Újfehértói fürtös’, ‘Debreceni bőtermő’, ‘Kántorjánosi’) on one side and the selection of Pándy 7', a self-sterile variety on the other side. Unilateral incompatibility has been detected within the former group of new, self-fertile varieties, the combinations: (`Újfehértói fürtös’ x ‘Debreceni bőtermő’ as well as `Újfehértói fürtös’ x Kántorjánosi’.

Our results prove the close kinship between those three new varieties and the original Pándy variety on the base of being highly similar in their morphology and also of the fact of their inter-incompatibility, though unilateral.


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Study of different factors of grapevine regeneration systems and genetic transformation
Published December 8, 2008

The most limitating factor for successful transformation is the absence of high-yielding regeneration protocols. However, the anther-derived embryogenic culture is an optimal technique for genetic transformation and it has been widely applied in many important cultivars, but the necessity of further development of regeneration systems has been ...proved. We attempted to produce somatic embryos on a wide range of genotypes from various tissues; leaves, petioles, stem segments. We started the examination of grapevine regeneration via organogenesis, succeeded in inducing shoot from the meristematic tissue of the base of bud by testing induction medium contained different concentrations of two types of hormones. To optimize the conditions of the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, we studied the effectiveness of different Agrobacterium-treatments, the use of antioxidants and the sufficient quantity of kanamycin for selection of transformed cells.

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Comparative study of plum cultivars belonging to different taxons during 1980-1996
Published November 15, 2004

The program of the Research Institute of Cegléd, comprises the acclimation and selection of 7 Prunus-species and 39 cultivars grafted on Myrobalan C. 679 (P. cerasifera) seedling stocks. In addition two varieties have been investigated on three different rootstocks each: Myrobalan C. 174 (P. cerasifera),... Bitter almond C. 449 (P. arnygdalus var. amara) and Sweet almond C. 471 (P. amygdalus var. dulcis). Fruits of commercial quality are produced maroly on some cultivars of P. salicina-, P. italica- and P. cerasifera character. Authors explain the three possible causes of low yields experienced in non-European plums:

1/ unfavorable environmental conditions

2/ lack of irrigation and

3/ superficial information concerning the variety, rootstock and adequate traditions as well as growing practices.

A rather tight correlation has been stated between blooming dates and the main ripening period. However, the early blooming time alone cannot be considered as the cause of low productivity. The decay of plum trees is attributed to special ecological requirements and phytosanitary problems of the foreign plum cultivars. The analysis of regression revealed stochastic relations involving several other characters too, which facilitate the planning of cross-combinations in the breeding program.

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New sweet cherry cultivars in intensive plantings
Published March 15, 2011

The study took place in the largest sweet cherry plantation in West Hungary. The purpose has been the identification of those varieties, which will be suitable for intense cultivation, early fruiting and excellent fruit quality, moreover, the selection of the optimal phytotechnical procedures. At the same time, scion-rootstock combinations have... been tested also from the point of view of growing intensity and fruiting in high-density plantation. The dense planting is induced to start fruiting early and yield regularly by special methods.Yielding was stimulated by maintaining the balance of vegetative-generative growth by binding the shoots, by summer pruning, by cuts on the trunk and root pruning. Best experiences have been found in yield and quality in the following varieties: Canada Giant, Carmen, Firm Red, Giant Red, Katalin, Kordia, Regina. Dense planting has been feasible also on vigorous rootstock, like P. mahaleb. Dwarfing rootstocks like P-HL-A, Gisela 6, accelerate the formation of flower buds and yielding earlier with fruits of adequate size. ‘Firm Red’ and ‘Giant Red’ excelled with their large fruit (>27 mm diameter) in all combinations, thus being promising under Hungarian conditions.

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The selection and cultivation of Tilia clones tolerating polluted urban environment
Published September 11, 2001

Two urban stress tolerant Tilia clones were selected by the Department of Floriculture and Dendrology. The mother trees of the Observed clones were found in an alley of linden trees, settled on a traffic island of a busy two-lane road.

Tilia hybrid 'Saint Stephen' has a beautiful cone-shaped crown, the leaves are brigh...t green and they keep their green colour for much longer time than the leaves on the other trees in the alley. In the nursery the Tilia hybrid 'Saint Stephen' was budded on T. cordata, T. platyphyllos and T. argentea and it had good compatibility with every rootstock. The average height of the one year old buddings was 200 cm and the buddings kept their good growing capacity in the following years as well. They had an outstanding growing capability comparing with the other Tilia cultivars.

Tilia platyphyllos 'K3' clone has similar cone-shaped crown. The growing vigor and urban stress tolerance seems to be better than Tilia hybrid 'Saint Stephen'.


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Comparative analysis of sour cherry cultivars on their ecological and biological indicators
Published July 21, 2021

Sour cherries developed in the northern hemisphere, an alloploid hybrid of dwarf sour cherries (Prunus fruticosa) and bird cherries (P. avium), born in the confluence of the two species. However, the ecological and, above all, cold tolerance of the ancestor of cultivated sour cherries is higher than that of wild cherries (De C...andolle, 1894; Rehder, 1954; Terpó, 1974; Iezzoni et al., 1991; Faust & Surányi, 1997). The cultivation limits are in the northern hemisphere 38-44. degree. The Carpathian Basin, the Balkans and Asia Minor are considered to be the main birthplaces for sour cherries. The genetic and morphological diversity of sour cherries is greater than that of the basic species (Iezzoni et al. 1991; Faust & Surányi, 1997). In the study, 472 sour cherry cultivars were compared based on 7 relative ecological indicators and 3 biological values. Compared to other Prunus species, we mostly found less variability in sour cherries - not counting their salt tolerance (SB). The partial similarity between open pollination (OP), frost tolerance (FR) and disease resistance (DR) - partly true in terms of varieties, but also reflected the effects of purposeful breeding and selection. The cultivars together - in comparison, showed balance, but in the highlighting, the differences of the 3 cultivar groups became significant. Indeed, the differences between the species of the former Hungarian cultural flora are clearly different (Surányi, 2004), which is also the case when comparing a large number of apricot (Surányi, 2014), plum (Surányi, 2015) and peach (Surányi, 2020) varieties.

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Effects of different pollination treatments in genotypes of Prunus salicina Lindl.
Published April 19, 2006

The low productivity in the Japanese plum (Prunus salicina Lindl) is related with self-incompatibility characteristics, so other species or varieties that act as pollinators need to be present to improve fruit production. The objective of this work was to study the efficiency of pollination in different genotypes of P. salicina ...m>using treatments of natural self-pollination, cross-pollination with P. armeniaca cv. Giada and open pollination. These treatments were evaluated through viability techniques and in vitro and in vivo germination of pollen grains; the growth of pollen tubes along the pistil was also observed. Genotypes used in this study showed differences for each one of the pollination treatments. Some genotypes showed signs of self-sterility and interincompatibility with P. armeniaca cv. Giada, while others showed partial self-fertility characteristics or pseudocompatibility. Moreover, some genotypes showed a higher affinity coefficient with cv. Giada and these will be indicating a possible intercompatibility. These studies will be an important contribution breeding and selection of intra and intercompatible genotypes to be used in commercial orchards.

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Improved evaluation method for reliable distinction of poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) cultivars
Published May 24, 1999

Investigating seven Hungarian standard cultivars (i.e. 'A1’, 'Kék Gemona', '13C-2`,'Kék Duna', `Kompolti M’, `Gödi N',

'Kozmosz) it was proved that for the reliable distinction between cultivars a complex analysis is necessitated. Because of the large morpho­phenological and production-biological plasticity of the species qualit...ative and quantitative features as well as alkaloid accumulation characters have to be evaluated simultaneously applying discriminant analysis.

It was proved by the investigations that some of the qualitative and quantitative characters included into the DUS evaluation procedure have slight importance for reliable distinction. As an example the majority of cultivars show high inhomogentity in such characters like the shape of stigmatic disc, the number of stigmatic lobes etc. Furthermore these characters never had been chosen for the goal of any practical selection and are modified by the weather conditions as well.

In the evaluation process the alkaloid accumulation characteristics (both qualitative and quantitative ones) have to be evaluated on a higher rank. For instance the high accumulation level of morphine in cv. 'A1' (10.5 %o), exceptionally high narcotine accumulation in 'Kék Gemona' (7.8 %o), or the low morphine accumulation level in cv. 'Kozmosz' (1.1 %o) proved to be proper characters for their distinction, alone. However, at the same time the weather conditions existing at the time of experiment have to be taken into consideration. From practical point of view, the years rich in precipitation and poor in sunshine are less suitable for distinction of cultivars selected for higher alkaloid accumulation, especially for production of codeine and thebaine characterized by a higher methylation level. Based on the example of 'Kék Gemona', the accumulation level of morphine decreases from 7.4 %o to 4.1 %o under such conditions, while thebaine and codeine disappear, practically.


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Phenological and fl ower morphological studies on different plum and prune cultivars
Published July 25, 2013

20–22 and 5–7 years of kind collection of 100 cultivars studied phenology and fl oral morphological basis of characteristics in 1994–1998 and 2009–2011. The varieties were collected 3–5 trees in the gene garden, all were on C. 359 myrobalan seedling. Detecting differences between the test cultivars are suitable for stamps, and also sh...ow that relatively short-term observations are useful for describing the comparison, to distinguish varieties. The taxonomic ordination of cultivars and groups of fruits suitable to distinguish colors shown that the fl owering and ripening time, the nature of the reproductive organs and even Sharka-rate sensitivity is associated with those groups. Differences between the age of trees mainly sexual organs and fertility were shown. Affecting rate of climatic effects was not as large as the first line of erratic rainfall, air temperature spikes or possible values would be expected. The results of the breed, a gene bank of perception, in particular, the localization of hybrids, clone-type variants are useful in the analysis. Among other things – this is due to late-maturing, relatively well-stored temporarily, and not-blue plums, Sharka-infected tolerant or resistant varieties selection (cf. SURÁNYI 2013a-c) and will be disseminate in Hungary.

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