Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Remote Sensing are presently recognized generally as an improve instrument for overseeing, breaking down, and showing gigantic volumes of fluctuated information suitable to numerous neighborhood and provincial arranging exercises. Because of the composite idea of the travel industry arranging issues, the planned of GIS in settling these issues is progressively perceived. This paper will think a portion of the conceivable outcomes of GIS applications in the travel industry arranging. For the most part, GIS applications in the travel industry have been tight to recreational office stock, the travel industry situated land the board, and diversion untamed life strife; and have been thin by absence of financing, and awkward techniques. Utilizing the case of site wellness investigation for the travel industry improvement and mapping, this paper features a few uses of GIS in the travel industry arranging in vaishali square, Bihar. According to our present investigation; the most reasonable the travel industry site recognized by the examination is inside significant towns. The urban focus with plausibility to develop into the travel industry focuses. The rest of the land shows a low appropriateness scale because of absence of significant appreciation for make a solid force factor. Availability is an essential for the travel industry advancement. Great street organize availability with closeness to railroads station or air terminal demonstrated solid vacationer potential site, this combined with proximity to grand magnificence delineates high appropriateness. Significant vacation destinations, for example, legacy locales, gardens and water bodies or lake demonstrated high appropriateness. This can be corresponded to the way that legacy destinations and other high appropriate highlights are converted into reasonable the travel industry site.
Centre-periphery dichotomy can be regarded as one of the crucial issues in human geography and regional science. The definition of periphery is far from unambiguous due to its relative expression and its content. This is the reason why can significant number of studies be found focusing on the delimitation of central and peripheral areas. The revolution of computer technology and the rapid development of GIS cause the more and more extended usage of these techniques in the human geography as well. These related studies were categorised by their approaches – namely the locational or developmental centreperiphery concepts – and their GIS tools. Application of spatial parameters with extended datasets and complex GIS based calculations mean the most precise and complicated use of GIS and computer tools in the delimitation of peripheral (and central) areas.
GIS (Geographic Information System) software is a very useful tool in modern landscape ecology research. With its help data can be obtained which can - after processing - help to understand and demonstrate the processes taking place in the landscape. Since direct environmental measurements and sampling from a large area are, in many cases, difficult or even impossible, modelling with GIS tools is very important in the workflow of landscape research and landscape analysis. In this article we review the best known open source GIS systems and geographic information tools with possibilities for landscape ecology application. Furthermore we will introduce all the basic concepts that are associated with these open source software programmes. We provide a comparative analysis of the most widely used open source GIS applications, where, through a specific example, we will examine how these tools are used to produce basic landscape metric indicators. We will examine those functions of the programmes that are necessary to produce a complete thematic map, and finally we will emphasize various other important functions of the software to give adequate information for those users who choose open source code GIS tools, for financial reasons or otherwise, to complete a landscape ecology analysis. Our opinion is that this type of comparison is much more informative than those done by proprietary software, because these latter are all based on a basic data library, and therefore yield similar results (proj4, gdal/ogr, jts/geos, etc.) to their ‘paid’ competitors. This examination is timely, as these programmes have been gaining popularity over the last 20 years thanks to their continuous development, their independence from any platform, and their compatibility with most data formats.
Soil erosion is one of the problems threatening the Algerian environment. In agriculture, soil erosion leads to the thinning of the topsoil under the effect of the natural erosive forces of water, or under the effect of agricultural activities. The present study aims to estimate average soil loss rate and to identify vulnerable zones. Through the integration of RUSLE model at the Saf Saf watershed, various parameters are utilized such as the rainfall erosivity factor (R), soil erodibility factor (K), slope length - slope factor (LS), crop management factor (C) and practice management factor (P). All these parameters are prepared and processed through a geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing using various database sources. The results reveal that the river basin has an average annual soil loss of 3.9 t ha−1 yr−1, and annual soil loss of 4.53 million tonnes for the period 1975-2017. Meanwhile, eighty five percent of the study area is experiencing acceptable rate of soil erosion loss, which is ranging between 0 to 5 t ha−1 yr−1. The present study of risk assessment can contribute to understand the spatial pattern of soil erosion in order to use appropriate conservation practices for sustainable soil management.
Reliability of the road system illustrated on topographic maps with 1:10000 scale is questionable due to their age, but surveying a territory with area over 100 hectares is expensive with classical geodetic tools, although there is no need of geodetic accuracy in most cases. GPS-based mapping method described in this paper is suitable in these situations. The main concept is to keep the costs of the survey as low as possible, therefore free GIS applications and databases were used with navigation purpose GPS receivers. The accuracy provided by these devices is good enough for those purposes where the accuracy of topographic map with 1:10000 scale is adequate. GPS-based mapping can be done to update the road system of existing map or create own detailed road databases. The result of the work is not just a database but a navigation capable digital map, which can aid further activities on the field, like geographic researches, environment protection, tourism, fire service etc.
The change in an area’s natural surroundings is called landscape change. This change may be gradual or accelerated depending on the factors that influence the change. Natural elements such as native animals and birds seldom bring about any modification to the environment. However, human-induced change is devastating and severely transforms the environment. Such environmental transformation can be evaluated with the land use/ land cover assessment through satellite imagery and calculation of landscape indices. This paper attempts to ascertain the direction and the nature of the human-induced change in the city of Aizawl. To this end, the city has been divided into four zones to enable inter-zone comparisons. A northeast and southwest direction of human landscape transformation has been ascertained with the help of GIS and remote sensing techniques and landscape indices in Aizawl city.
Sustainable management of water resources involves inventory, conservation, efficient utilization, and quality management. Although, activities relating to quantity assessment and management in terms of river discharge and water resources planning are given attention at the basin level, water quality assessment are still being done at specific locations of major concern. The use of Geographical Information System (GIS) based water quality information system and spatial analysis with Inverse Distance Weighted interpolation enabled the mapping of water quality indicators in Ogun and Ona catchment of Ogun-Osun River Basin, Nigeria. Using 27 established gauging stations as sampling locations, water quality indicators were monitored over 12 months covering full hydrological season. Maps of seasonal variations in 10 water quality indicators as impacted by land-use types were produced. This ensured that trends of specific water quality indicator and diffuse pollution characteristics across the basin were better presented with the variations shown along the river courses than the traditional line graphs. The production of water quality maps will improve monitoring, enforcement of standards and regulations towards better pollution management and control. This strategy holds great potential for real time monitoring of water quality in the basin with adequate instrumentation.
Every field of our life is influenced by the appearance of new technologies. This means that new challenges keep being met and finding solutions, developing methods to deal with them belong to our tasks. Law enforcement has to be always ready to adopt the achievements of any disciplines. Experts and professionals in any field should be aware of applicability of the knowledge they have that is why it is important to highlight as much fields where our knowledge can be used as we can. Digital forensics differs from traditional forensics in many aspects that is why a general GIS professional can be involved into an investigation easily. This paper aims to provide methods to geovisualize information containing or referring to location data. Cost effective solutions are preferred throughout the paper.
The river regulations of the 19th century have affected each of our rivers to a different degree. In the
case of the River Bodrog it was stronger than the average. In our paper a section of the river between
Bodroghalász and Szegi was examined, the extent and intensity of river channel changes was
intended to be determined. The applied series of maps and aerial photos was georeferred and the river
channel was vectorized. The morphometric parameters of the channel were measured and the changes
were evaluated using the created database. From methodological aspect we concluded that the 9
variables can be grouped into 3 factors therefore most of the indexes can be substituted. We measured
the changes of length and lateral shift of the channel using GIS methods. Three development periods
were identified based on our results. In the first period the development of the river was characterized
by natural processes. Then, the development of the river altered owing to the antropogenic impacts. In
this transient phase the average shifting of the channel was 7.43 m/y. In the third term this value
reduces to 0.2 m/y as the river is getting to reach the equilibrium stage.
USLE (Universal Soil Loss Equation) is the original and the most widely accepted soil loss estimation technique till date which has evolved from a design tool for conservation planning to a research methodology all across the globe. The equation has been revised and modified over the years and became a foundation for several new soil loss models developed all around the world. The equation has been revised as RUSLE by Renard et al. (1991) and is computed in GIS environment. The Revised equation is landuse independent which makes it a useful technique to apply in a variety of environment. The present paper is an attempt to estimate soil loss from a semi-arid watershed in Western Deccan, India by employing RUSLE. The region is a rocky terrain and sediments are restricted to only a few localities. The result indicates that the region is at the threshold of soil tolerance limit.
The terraces of the Tárkány Basin, located in the SW part of the Bükk Mountains are known since the beginning of the 20th century. Based on field surveys, six morphological levels were delineated and described in 1936. During the later geological mapping surveys, three gravel terraces had been mapped in the basin. Since then, no comprehensive morphological mapping has been made in the Tárkány Basin. Our study aimed to validate the results of these early studies using a digital elevation model. We delineated the remnant surfaces of the basin by morphometric and GIS techniques. Then, based on field surveys and former geological maps; we characterised these remnant surfaces, and their area was measured as well. The results of this study contribute to a better understanding of the surface evolution of the basin and its surroundings.
The correct delineation of geographical and landscape ecological units, being the fundamental territorial domains of both physical and human geography, is very important from the aspect of several other related disciplines as well. It is hard to tell how distinct landscape units, or landscape ecological units can be, from a statistical point of view. The present study investigates how welldefined (definable) geographical units (landscapes, landscape types) are in a statistical and mathematical sense. Since landscape forming factors do not exhibit distinct boundaries either, during the analysis it is better to consider them as ecotones. Integration of factors, and the unclear interpretation of present landscape boundaries do further complicate the sound mathematical evaluation of the studied geographical units. In order to resolve these problem GIS techniques were applied.
Human health is essentially influenced by air quality. Atmospheric air in residential areas contains
many pollutants. The monitoring and the plain publishing of the measured values are important both
for the authorities and the public. Air quality is often characterized by constructing air quality indices,
and these indices are used to inform the public. The construction of an advanced air quality index is
usually done by averaging the measured data usually in time and space; hereby important aspects of
the data can be lost. All known indices contain only chemical pollutants, while certain biological
pollutants can enhance the effects of the chemical pollutants and vice versa. In this paper we discuss
the importance of integrating biological pollutants into air quality indices. In order to increase
efficacy of these indices to the civil society we aim to introduce geographic information system (GIS)
methods into publishing air quality information.
The geological, tectonic settings of an area can be examined with the analysis of drainage network. In the Bükkalja, the Miocene pyroclasts – mainly the welded ignimbrites – had taken decisive part in the evolution of drainage network. For the confirmation of their role, the breakpoints of stream profiles were analysed. However this method provides information only about the direct surroundings of the creeks. In the aim of getting informations about the areas between the streams, surfaces were interpolated from stream gradient data and analysed as stream gradient maps. The stream gradient data were calculated with Hack J.T.’s formula, but due to the false results it was necessary to modify this formula and to recalculate the values. According to the map interpolated from the modified stream gradient values, there is a clearly identifiable relationship between the location of the welded ignimbrites on the surface, and the gradient values. Areas with high values are on the eastern part of the study area, where these pyroclasts can be found, while in the west, where the surface is covered by less resistant rock types, the gradient values are much lower.
In the past few decades there has been an increasing pressure of population all over the world,
especially in India, resulting in the utilization of every available patch of available land from
woodlands to badlands. The study area represents a basin which is economically growing fast by
converting the fallow lands, badlands and woodlands to agricultural land for the past few decades.
IRS (Indian Remote sensing Satellites) 1 C – LISS III and IRS 1 C PAN and IRS P6 – LISS III and
IRS 1 D PAN Images were merged to generate imageries with resolution matching to the landscape
processes operating in the area. The images of the year 1997, 2000, 2004 and 2007 were analyzed to
detect the changes in the landuse and landcover in the past ten years. The analysis reveals that there
has been 20% increase in the agricultural area over the past ten years. Built up area also has increased
from 1.35% to 6.36% of the area and dense vegetation also has marginally increased. The remarkable
increase in the agricultural area occurs owing to the reclaim of the natural ravines and fallow lands.
Presently the area looks promising, but it is necessary to understand the sedimentological and
geomorphological characteristics of the area before massive invasion on any such landscapes because
the benefit may be short lived.
The cities are facing illegal dumping of municipal solid waste (MSW) because the waste collection facilities do not cover the entire population. Furthermore, this sector is poorly developed in small towns or villages annexed to administrative territory units (ATU) of cities , MSW are disposed in open dumps polluting the local environment. This paper analyzes on the one hand the urban disparities on public access to waste collection services (WCS) in the North-East Region on the other hand, it performs a comparative analysis between 2003 and 2010 outlining the changes made in the context of Romania’s accession to EU. Also, it performs a quantitative assessment method of uncollected waste at urban level and correlated to demographic features of each city. Spatial-temporal analysis of waste indicators using thematic cartography or GIS techniques should be a basic tool for environmental monitoring or assessment of projects from this field in every development region (NUTS 2). The EU acquis requires the closure of noncompliant landfills, the extension of waste collection services, the development of facilities for separate collection, recycling and reuse according to waste hierarchy concept. Full coverage of urban population to waste collection services is necessary to provide a proper management of this sector. Urban disparities between counties and within counties highlights that current traditional waste management system is an environmental threat at local and regional scale.
The analysis and understanding of coastline variability and coastal erosion trends, and accretion are essential to scientists and local decision-makers to guide shoreline management regulations and decisions. This study focuses on detecting and analyzing historical changes in the Zemmouri (Central Algeria) shoreline position between 1957 and 2017. We collected all the necessary data related to the Zemmouri bay to achieve our objective, such as satellite images, aerial photos, and topographical surveys carried out by the DGPS, all between 1957 and 2017 DSAS calculation tool.
Diachronic analysis of aerial photographs and satellite images of Zemmouri Bay revealed that only 39% of sandy beaches are eroding while 3% have some stability. The maximum erosion at Mazer East beach is -1.25m/year. The maximum accretion rate of +1.40m/year at Blue Waves beach, mainly due to the implantation of breakwaters at this beach which created tombolos favoring sand accumulation and beach widening.
Green spaces are playing an essential role for ecological balance and for human health in the city as well.
They play a fundamental role in providing opportunities for relaxation and enjoying the beauty of nature
for the urban population. Therefore, it is important to produce detailed vegetation maps to assist planners
in designing strategies for the optimisation of urban ecosystem services and to provide a suitable plan
for climate change adaptation in one fast growing city. Hence, this research is an investigation using 0.5
m high-resolution multispectral Pléiades data integrated with GIS data and techniques to detect and
evaluate the spatial distribution of vegetation cover in Erbil City. A supervised classification was used
to classify different land cover types, and a normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) was used
to retrieve it for the city districts. Moreover, to evaluate the accessibility of green space based on their
distance and size, a buffer zone criterion was used. The results indicate that the built-up land coverage
is 69% and vegetation land cover is 14%. Regarding NDVI results, the spatial distribution of vegetation
cover was various and, in general, the lowest NDVI values were found in the districts located in the city
centre. On the other hand, the spatial distribution of vegetation land cover regarding the city districts was
non-equal and non-concentric. The newly built districts and the districts far from the Central Business
District (CBD) recorded the lowest vegetation cover compared with the older constructed districts.
Furthermore, most of the districts have a lack of access to green spaces based on their distance and size.
Distance and accessibility of green areas throughout the city are not equally distributed. The majority of
the city districts have access to green areas within radius buffer of two kilometres, whereas the lowest
accessibility observed for those districts located in the northeast of the city in particular (Xanzad,
Brayate, Setaqan and Raperin). Our study is one of the first investigations of decision-making support
of the spatial planning in a fast-growing city in Iraq and will have a utilitarian impact on development
processes and local and regional planning for Erbil City in the future.
One of the main sources of contaminants in the soil is industrial activity which has become one of the major environmental problems of the last few decades. The development of geoinformatics as well as the introduction of standards and regulations has led to a decreased risk of soil contamination and the cost-effective optimization of remediation activities. Based on the above, the aim of our study is to demonstrate the geoinformation processing of the remediation performed in an industrial area located in the Great Hungarian Plain, with special regard to the estimation of the amount and spread of the contaminants accumulated in the soil. In order to reveal the lithological and hydrogeological properties of the investigated area and the environmental status of the underground areas, we performed a large number of shallow land drillings (115). During the field sampling, 1000–1500 grams of samples were collected from the drill bit and were processed in an accredited laboratory. Based on the concentration and volume models created it can be concluded that with the estimations performed via modeling, we were able to locate the most critical areas from the standpoint of contamination. It was revealed that the focal point of the contaminants accumulated in the soil was in the central part of the investigated area. Furthermore, the model demonstrated the effect of lithological factors, since contaminants tend to accumulate more heavily in cohesive soils compared to porous rocks. The extent of contaminant concentration in the aquifer increased with decreasing depth; however, after reaching the floor clay the extent of contaminant concentration began to decrease. The lithological layer closest to the surface contained the most contaminants.
Satellite images and aerial photos support settlement surveys and provide valuable information of their physical environment. Aerial photos are excellent tools to overview large areas and simultaneously provide high-resolution images making them efficient tools to monitor built-up areas and their surroundings. Aerial photos can also be used to collect complex spatial data as well as to detect various temporal changes on the land surface, such as construction of illegal edifices and waste dumps. The 10 to 30-meter resolution SPOT and Landsat images are usually insufficient for site specific data collection and analysis. However, the recently available 0.5-meter resolution satellite images have broadened the scope of monitoring and data collection projects. Beyond environmental and urban monitoring, the new available high-resolution satellite images simplify the everyday work of local authorities and will facilitate the development of governmental databases that include spatial information for public utilities and other communal facilities.
As a result of international cooperation, the conditions of data access and data usage have been significantly improved during the last two decades. Also, the establishment of web-based geoinformatic infrastructure allowed researchers to share their results with the scientific community more efficiently on the international level. The aim of this study is to investigate the accuracy of databases with different spatial resolutions, using the reference profiles of LUCAS topsoil database. In our study, we investigated the accuracy of World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB) Reference Soil Groups (RSG) groups stored in freely accessible soil databases (European Soil Database (ESDB), International Soil Reference and Information Centre (ISRIC)) in Hungary. The study concluded that the continental scale database tends to be more accurate. We used the Kappa Index of Agreement (KIA) statistical index to evaluate accuracy. The European and the international databases showed a value of 0.9643 and 0.3968, respectively. Considering the results, we can conclude that the spatial resolution has a relevant impact on the accuracy of databases, however, the study should be extended to the national level and the indices should be assessed together.
This paper presents spatial relations between Polish urban areas and valuable habitats and links
between them composing the country’s ecological network. The quantitative analysis for 891 towns
and cities was conducted using GIS techniques based on cartographic vector data and statistical data.
Valuable habitats and links between them, such as national parks, landscape parks, CORINE biotopes
sites, wildlife corridors linking NATURA 2000 sites and ECONET areas, can be found in 72% of
Polish towns and cities. The proportion of artificial surfaces in those areas is different depending on
the size of a town or city and its location. Urban areas with the highest index of presence of valuable
habitats and links between them are concentrated in the south of Poland, where settlement network is
most dense. However, in the case of those areas the proportion of artificial surfaces interfering with
the ecological network is lower than Poland’s average, being 16%. The pressure of anthropogenic
land cover extending onto the country’s ecological network is most conspicuous in urban areas with a
population of at least several dozen thousand residents where the average developed area is 20.8% of
their total area. The danger for the continuity of the nature system is best seen in the north western
Poland, where artificial surfaces interference in towns and cities is largest. The analysis performed
identified 82 towns and cities, in which the preservation of the continuity of the ecological network
should be a priority in spatial management because of a higher than average index of the presence of
valuable habitats and links between them and large proportion of artificial surfaces in those areas.
The Siltara Industrial belt is an important industrial pocket of Chattisgarh state located in the northern part of the Raipur city, which is rapidly growing. In this process spatial, cultural, political and administrative factors are controlling its rate, direction and pattern. The Simple Linear Regression (SLR) and Multi-Objective Land Allocation (MOLA) techniques, which are embedded in SPSS and Idrisi Kilimanjaro software respectively, and have been used for the estimation of future scenario of the industrial growth. In this model, a suitable platform has been prepared in which future industrialization has been estimated by integrating physical, social, cultural factors and land acquisition policy. In this article, results have revealed that industrialization has occurred very fast during last one decade. The industrial land was 6.15 km2 in 2001 and 18.725 km2 in 2011 and estimated as 31.30 km2 in 2021 and 43.87 km2 in 2031 using SLR. The rapid industrial growth is very critical issues for agrarian society and fresh environment. This model very accurately estimating (overall accuracy=95.39%, Kno=97.24%, agreement=98.63 %) the future growth of industrial land. This work will be useful to the planners and policy makers of private and government sectors to regulate the sustainable planning practices and smart decision-making.
Preliminary wind climate information are required for the selection of the sites of energetic wind
measurements. Optimal locations of wind energy projects, where the amount of utilizable wind
energy can be forecasted with a good approach, can be determined using GIS and statistical methods.
Anyhow, it is necessary to elaborate methods what make posible to gain data for the wind potential of
a given location on the base of measured data. Monthly number of windy days can be such predictor
if its basic statistical parameters and its connection to the monthly mean wind power can be
determined. This latter one can be substituted by the area under the curve of the function fitted to the
hourly averages of the cubes of the wind speeds. A regression modell is fitted to the monthly number
of windy days and areas under the curve, on the base of time series of 7 Hungarian weather stations
and the error of the modell is determined. On this base, the modell is extrapolated to a 35 years long
period. The area under the curve proportional to the monthly mean wind power calculated on the base
of the monthly number of windy days show a significant decreasing trend in 4 Hungarian weather
In term of floods the current area of Hungary has extensively been endangered. Modelling of flood processes – mainly following the hydrological events in the riverbed – has recently been developed. As far as protection dykes provide protection of the inhabited and agricultural areas, the flood models can run with acceptable preciseness. However, when dykes cannot withstand against the increasing load and a dyke burst occurs, fast and efficient protection measures shall be taken in the protected areas. The dynamic 4D Flood model presented in this paper makes possible a fast modelling of dyke burst occurring in the protected side and spreading of water mass, based on real parameters. For this reason the features of protected area shall be recognised, for example topology of creeks, features of agricultural and inhabited areas, parameters of roads, railways, rainwater drainage, buildings, natural conditions (soil parameters, meteorological characteristics, etc.). The results satisfy the comprehensive demands of the Directorate General for Disaster Prevention of Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County. In case of dyke burst, the completed Flood Model can run the expected events of the next hour in a few minutes. This time is enough for the specialists to bring operative decisions to protect the inhabitants and avoid material losses.