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Az évszak és az azonos évszakban történt ismételt mintavételek hatása holstein tenyészbikák ejakulátumának minőségi- és mennyiségi jellemzőire
Published March 27, 2002
33-37

This study was carried out at the Hungarian National Artificial Insemination Centre in order to evaluate the seasonal effects on the quantitative and qualitative parameters of sperm production using sperm analyser equipment. The volume of ejaculate (VE), percentage of living sperm (PLS), spermatozoa concentration (SC), motility score (MC), perc...entage of motile spermatozoa (PMS), speed of movement of sperm cells (SMS) and the percentage of sperm cells moving straightforward (PSMS) were collected and observed in three seasons (summer, autumn, winter) in Holstein-Friesian breeding bulls (n = 15). The sperm collection was done for three successive weeks in every season on the same day (summer: n = 41, autumn: n=39, winter: n = 42, altogether: n = 122). The same sperm samples were measured by sperm analyser equipment (HTM version 7.0, Danvers) for PMS, SMS and PSMS. The seasonal and the number of sperm collection effects were confirmed on semen characteristics by multiple analysis of variance (two ways MANOVA, Type III) using the program package of STATISTICA 4.5. The average values of VE were similar in the three seasons (summer: from 4.42 to 6.28 cm3, autumn: from 4.08 to 6.86 cm3, winter: from 5.43 to 5.71 cm3). The average values of the MC were similar in each of the three seasons (summer: from 3.66-4.00 M; autumn: from 3.66-3.77 M; winter: from 3.86-4.07 M). The summary of all effects for season (P<0.001), repeated sperm collections in the same season (P<0.05) and interaction of two traits (P<0.01) were established on the measured characteristics. The special effects (P<0.05) of a given season were calculated, excepting the VE and MC, on all of the measured characteristics. The special effect (P<0.01) of the repeated sperm collections in the same season was verified in only one case (SMS). It is not surprised at the interaction was established on the VE (P<0.001), PMS (P<0.05), and SMS (P<10.0). The results of present study suggest that seasonal effect on sperm quality of breeding bulls cannot be eliminated even at standard feeding and keeping conditions. Considering our results, we can recommend that the average values of three successive weeks in every season be used, to take advantage of seasonal effect on the quantitative and qualitative parameters of sperm production.

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21
The Effect of Sowing Time and Plant Density on the Yield of MaizeHybrids
Published December 6, 2005
95-104

The crop technology of maize has two important elements, sowing time and plant density. In 2003 and 2004 we studied the effect of these two factors on the growth and production of maize in an experiment carried out near Hajdúböszörmény.
The soil of the experimental plots was meadow soil.
Weather in both years was differed greatly. 200...3 was drought. Neither the distribution nor the quantity of the precipitation were suitable in the growing season for maize. This fact basically determined the results.
In 2004, we could talk about a favorable and rainy season. The distribution and quantity of precipitation was suitable between April and September. The average temperature was also suitable for maize.
Results of the sowing time experiment:
In 2003, we tested seven hybrids at four sowing times. Hybrids in the early maturity group gave the highest yield at the later sowing time, while the hybrids of the long maturity group gave it at the earlier planting time. The yield of PR34B97, PR36N70, PR36M53 hybrids was the best at every planting time. The moisture loss of hybrids in the late maturity group was faster in the maturity season, but the seed moisture content was higher than the hybrids with early sowing time. The seed moisture content was very low due to the droughty year. In two hybrid cases, this value was higher than 20% only at the fourth sowing time.
In 2004, we examined the yield and seed moisture content of nine hybrids. In the favorable crop year, the yield of every hybrid was the highest at the second and third sowing time. Yields of PR34H31 and PR38B85 hybrids were significant. The seed moisture content at harvest was higher than the previous year due to the rainy season. In the case of hybrids sown later, this value was higher by 30%. However, we noticed that this value was lower at the earlier sowing time than at the later.
The crop year had a more dynamic effect on maize than the sowing time. First of all, the quantity and distribution of precipitation played an important role in respect to yield safety.
Results of the plant density experiment:
We tested the reaction of hybrids at four plant densities (45,000, 60,000, 75,000 and 90,000 stock/ha) every two years. In 2003, the tested seven hybrids reached the highest yield at the 90,000 stock/ha in the face of a droughty year. The effect of forecrop and favorable nutrients caused these results. In the rainy 2004 year, the yield grew linear with the growing plant density. The yield of the best hybrids were 14-15 t/ha at the 90,000 stock/ha.
Such a high plant density (90,000 stock/ha) couldn’t adaptable in farm conditions in rainy season. It is practical to determine the interval of plant density besides the optimum plant density of hybrids which gave correct yield. The farmers have to use the low value of this interval due to the frequent of the droughty years.

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Evaluation of dry matter accumulation of maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids
Published June 30, 2018
35-41

The increase of the grain yield of maize is closely correlated with its seasonal dry matter accumulation. Dry matter is accumulated into the grain yield during the grain filling period. The following maize hybrids were involved in the experiment: Armagnac FAO 490, Loupiac FAO 380 and Sushi FAO 340. In order to determine dry matter content, two ...samples per week were taken on the following days: 22nd, 25th, 28th, 31st August, 4th, 7th, 14th, 18th, 22nd, 25th, 29th September and 2nd, 6th, 9th, 13th October. In the course of sampling the weight of 100 grains from the middle section of 4 ears was measured in 4 replications. Dry matter content was determined after drying to constant weight in a drying cabinet at 60 °C. Harvesting was performed on 13th October 2017.

The daily precipitation sum was determined by local measurements, while the daily radiation and temperature data were provided by the Meteorological Observatory Debrecen of the National Meteorological Service in Budapest. Among the agrometeorological parameters, an analysis was made of the precipitation during the growing season, effective heat sums during the vegetative and generative phase, and the water supplies. The daily heat sums were determined using the algorithm proposed.

The amount of precipitation in the winter period before the 2017 growing season was 210 mm. The soil was saturated until its field capacity. The rather dry and warm March and April had a favourable effect, but there was no worthy amount of precipitation until May (51 mm) due to the condition of the dried seedbed. Sowing was performed on the 5th of May 2017 in a randomised small plot experiment. There was favourable precipitation and temperature during the growing season, thereby providing ideal conditions for maize development, growth and yield formation. There was near average amount of precipitation in each year. The total amount of precipitation in the summer period is 342 mm. Temperature was mostly above the average, but there was no long and extremely warm period.

The Armagnac hybrid reached its highest dry matter mass 126 days after emergence. Physiological maturity was reached sooner (on the 119th day) in the case of Loupiac, and even sooner in the case of Sushi (116th day). The thousand grain weight of Sushi (which has the shortest ripening period) was 286 g at the time of physiological maturity, while that of Loupiac was 311 g. Compared to Sushi, Armagnac showed 12 g more dry matter accumulation (306 g). In the case of all three examined hybrids, physiological maturity was preceded by an intensive phase, when the dynamics of dry matter accumulation was rather quick. On average, Sushi gained 2.8 g dry matter per day between 103 days following emergence and physiological maturity, while the same values were 3.2 g for Armagnac and 3.3 g for Loupiac. The aim of the regression line slope is to predict the behavior of the dependent variable with the knowledge of the values and characteristics of the independent variables using the regression line equation. Furthermore, to determine how the location affected the dynamic of dry matter accumulation in the Armagnac, Loupiac and Sushi hybrids. In regression analysis, the coefficient of explanation showed that the effect of day in the Armagnac was 97%, in the Loupiac 94%, in the Sushi 90 %. The determination coefficient (R2) is useful in determing how the regression equation fits. But, as we have seen, the determination coefficient alone is not sufficient to verify the model’s accuracy, in addition to the determination coefficient (R2), the normality of the data or the residuals, the variance of the variables at different levels, the independence of the data relative to time and non-oblique. Observations are evaluated for the correctness of the fitted model.

Dry matter values decreased evenly and slightly following physiological maturity. According to our research results, it was established that physiological maturity is followed by a moderate dry matter loss. Until harvesting, Armagnac lost 40 g of its thousand mass weight in 29 days, while the same value pairs were 69 g in 36 days for Loupiac and 29 g in 39 days for Sushi. Loupiac – which had the highest weight at the time of physiological maturity – lost the most of its dry weight; therefore, Armagnac and Sushi had higher values at the time of harvesting.

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Crop Load, Fruit Thinning and their Effects on Fruit Quality of Apple (Malus domestica Borkh.)
Published October 11, 2006
29-35

Crop load, a quantitative parameter used by industry, is generally defined as the number of fruit per tree. It is often expressed in terms of number of fruit per trunk cross-sectional area (fruit/TCSA). Crop load is the most important of all factors that influence fruit size, and the removing of a part of the crop is the most effective way to i...mprove fruit size.
The potential size of a given pome fruit is determined early in the season and growth proceeds at a relatively uniform rate thereafter. This uniform growth rate permits the accurate prediction of the harvest size of the fruit as early as mid-summer. The growth rate, once established, is not easily altered, and fruit numbers, therefore, can affect fruit size only within definite limits and maximum effectiveness requires adjustment in fruit numbers relatively early in the season. It was established, that „thinning does not change a potentially small fruit into a large fruit, but rather insures that a potentially large fruit will size properly.” Emphasis should be on estimating fruit numbers rather than fruit size.
Fruit thinning can quickly reach the point of diminishing returns. Rather than a high percentage of large fruits, the objectives of thinning should be the elimination of the smallest fruits, improved fruit quality and annual production. Fruit thinning is accomplished by hand or chemical thinning. Chemical thinners are separated into categories as bloom thinners and post-bloom thinners. Early removal of potential fruit (blossom thinning) is currently used in many apple producing areas to enhance flower initiation for next year’s crop and thus, return bloom. It also results in reduced competition for photosynthates. Blossom thinners usually have a caustic effect on floral parts.
The amount of fruit left on a tree should be determined by the vigor and general condition of the tree. Leaf area per fruit affects the number of spurs flowering the following season. It can be difficult to separate timing and fruit number effects in crop loading studies, as abscission rates after hand thinning of retained flowers/fruitlets tend to very with the time of hand thinning.

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The effect of sowing time on the yield and the variance of the seed moisture content a harvest of maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids
Published May 23, 2006
39-49

Sowing time is an important crop technology element of maize. We studied the effect of this factor on the growth and production of maize in an experiment carried out near Hajdúböszörmény, in 2003 and 2004, and near Debrecen, in 2005.
The soils of the experiments were humic gley soil and chernozem. Weather in both years differed greatly. ...2003 was drought. Neither the distribution, nor the quantity of the precipitation were suitable in the growing season for maize. This fact basically determined the results.
In 2004 and in 2005, there were favorable and rainy seasons. The distribution and quantity of precipitation were suitable between April and September. The average temperature was also suitable for maize.
In 2003, we tested seven hybrids at four sowing times. Hybrids with a shorter vegetation period gave the highest yield at the later sowing time, while the hybrids with a longer vegetation period gave them at the earlier sowing time. The yield of PR34B97, PR36N70, PR36M53 hybrids were the best at every sowing times. The moisture loss of hybrids in the late maturity group was faster in the maturity season, but the seed moisture content was higher than the hybrids with early sowing time. The seed moisture content was very low due to the droughty year. In two hybrid cases, this value was higher than 20% only at the fourth sowing time.
In 2004, we examined the yield and seed moisture contents of nine hybrids. In the favorable crop year, the yield of every hybrid was the highest at the second and third sowing times. Yields of PR34H31 and PR38B85 hybrids were significant. The seed moisture content at harvest was higher than the previous year, due to the rainy season. In the case of hybrids sown later, this value was higher by 30%. However, we noticed that this value was lower at the earlier sowing time, than at the later.
In 2005, we applied three sowing times. Unfortunately, the results of the third sowing time could not be analyzed, due to the low plant density. The yield of the six hybrids varied from 12 to 14 t/ha at the first sowing time. At the second sowing time, the yields fluctuated and each hybrid had the lowest yield, except the PR37D25 hybrid. At the latest sowing time, the yield of the PR34B97 hybrid was the lowest. However, this low yield was due to damage from the Western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera) imago. The moisture content at harvest of the hybrids varied from 16 to 24% at the first sowing time. Yields at the second sowing time were higher. The low yield of the PR34B97 hybrid coupled with a higher seed moisture content. In addition, the maximum value of the LAI was more favourable at the first sowing time, and ranged between 5-5.5 m2/m2.
The crop year had a more dynamic effect on maize than the sowing time. First of all, the quantity and distribution of precipitation played an important role in respect to yield safety.

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18
Factors affecting the efficiency of superovulation and embryo transfer. Season and hormonal background
Published December 1, 2010
73-76

Success of the embryo transfer programs is affected by many factors (breed, type, season, treatment). We assume, that periferical blood level of some metabolic hormones (IGF-1, thyroid hormones, leptin, insulin) affects the success of superovulation and ET. According to our results, there is a
significant difference between the in and out of... season periferial blood level of IGF-1 and insulin. Furthermore, decrease in the periferic blood levels of IGF-1 and insulin is less drastic in the pregnant recipients.

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Seasonal variations in somereproductive parameters of Dorper Rams in Hungary
Published May 6, 2013
17-20

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that season has an affect on semen quality and scrotal circumference of Dorper rams. The experiment was carried out with six Dorper rams aged between 15 and 18 month. Semen samples were collected with artificial vagina and volume, concentration (x 109/ml), total sperm number/ejaculate (x 109), mass motility (0–5), progressive motility (%), scrotal circumference (cm) was observed. Significant differences (P<0.05) were observed in concentration, total sperm number/ejaculate, scrotal circumference in different seasons. Volume was the highest in autumn (1.4±0.5 ml) and the lowest in the spring (1.3±0.4 ml). Concentration of semen was lower in spring (2.6±1.5 x 109) and summer (3.3±1.5 x 109) as compared to fall (4.1±1.1 x 109) (P<0.05). Regarding total sperm number/ejaculate (x 109), scrotal circumference (cm) all the seasons differed significantly (P<0.05), although the season had no effect on mass motility and progressive individual motility (P<0.05). In conclusion the present study showed that semen quality parameters and scrotal circumference of Dorper rams were better in autumn than in the other sea- sons.

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The effect of season on the microbiological status of raw milk
Published May 20, 2020
95-99

Many factors can influence the microbiological quality of raw cow’s milk. In this study, our aim was to determine whether there was any difference between the microbiological statuses of milk produced in different seasons. Samples were collected and analysed from five dairy farms in Hajdú-Bihar County, from February to November in 2019. ...During our studies, total plate count (TPC), coliform count and Staphylococcus aureus count of raw cow’s milk samples were determined.

There was no significant difference (P>0.05) between the mean TPC values detected in the milk collected in winter and autumn, but that values were significantly (P<0.05) lower than in the milk samples collected in spring and summer. Similarly to the TPC, in the case of coliform bacteria the lowest mean colony count was detected in the samples collected in winter. The difference was significant (P<0.05), compared to the values observed in the samples collected in summer. S. aureus was detected in bulk milk of only two farms in excess of 1.0 log10 cfu/ml. Also in case of S. aureus, there was a significant difference (P<0.05) between the values observed in the samples collected in winter and in summer. Samples from spring and summer contained the highest amount of S. aureus.

Based on the results of our studies, in the case of almost all farms the mean TPC, coliform and S. aureus counts were lower in the samples collected in winter, than in the samples collected in summer. The fact that the samples collected in winter contained the lowest amount of colonies could be attributed to the inhibition of growth of mesophilic microorganisms below 8 °C. Furthermore, the fact that we observed the highest colony counts in samples collected in summer, can be related to the heat stress of cows during the summer due to unfavorable weather conditions (high temperature and humidity).

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Ovarian performance of Barbados Blackbelly and Dorper crossbred ewes in the mirror of body conditions
Published December 1, 2010
23-26

The aim of examination was to detect the puberty and to follow the ovarian cycle of Barbados Blackbelly×Dorper ewes in connection with their body conditions and the effects of meteorological parameters. The blood samples had been taken from 17th of November 2008 untill 08th of June 2009 for analyzing the progesteron concentrations, establishin...g whether they showed perpetual ovarian performance or not. The end of examination
was timed due to releasing the ram in middle of May 2009.
The daily avarage bodyweight-growth is well featured by the bodyweight tendence. The body conditions were evaluated by ultrasound tissue examination. 
During the full length of the examination the avarage daily temperature, the avarage humidity level and also the number of daily sunlighted hours were served by the Agrometeorological Observatory of the University of Debrecen.
The bodyweight tendence and the meteorological parameters were correlated to the breeding season of ewes. In conclusion the bodyweights and their tendences at the young age and the body condition parameters measured at certain anatomical areas can influence the length of the breeding season of the ewes. However the number of daily avarage sunlighted hours, the daily avarage temperature and also the humidity did not effect the cyclic ovarian perfomance of the Barbados Blackbelly×Dorper ewes in Hungary.

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The effect of reduced sprinkler programs on the main fungal pathogens of apple in environmentally sound production systems
Published December 22, 2010
13-16

Aim of our two-year study was to evaluate the possibilities of chemical use against key fungal pathogens (apple scab, apple powdery mildew and brown rot) in integrated and organic apple production. Therefore, first, disease incidence was compared in standard and reduced spray programmes and then each technological variation was evaluated from p...ractical point of view. Altogether four spray programmes were compared. Standard and reduced spray programmes were performed in the integrated production. The same pesticides were used in the reduced spray
programme compared to standard one but numbers of spray were reduced by 25% at the second half of the season. Standard and reduced spray programmes were also performed in the organic production and the numbers of spray were reduced by 40% in the reduced spray programme. Incidence of diseases was low in both standard and reduced spray programmes in integrated production. Diseases level was high in the organic production and disease increased significantly in the reduced spray programmes compared to standard programmes. Results showed that reduction in spray numbers at the second half of the season can be used practically in integrated production. Omission of sprays in organic
production resulted in serious disease management risk; therefore, it is not recommended for practical use. 

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Test of the Plant Density Reaction of Genotype Sunflower Hybrids
Published December 6, 2005
113-119

In order to produce sunflower in Hungary today it is important to develop hybrid-specific cropping technologies. The ever widening number of hybrids makes the constant examination of genotypes necessary from the viewpoint of genotype-environment interactions and critical elements. Plant density as a complex factor puts strain on the pathologica...l features, yield and quality of sunflower. The experiment’s main objective is to find the optimal plant density for both the genotype and external factors.
As a result it can be stated that the optimal crop density is between 45,000-75,000 plant/ha. In 2001 the optimal density was 55,000 plant/ha. The Aréna PR and the Alexandra PR hybrids produced the greatest yields (3511 kgha-1; 3338 kgha-1). In the growing season of 2002, the yields were higher than in the previous year and the optimal crop density was 45,000-65,000 plant/ha. The best yields were produced by the Aréna PR and Alexandra PR hybrids in this year again (4102 kgha-1; 4267 kgha-1) and in 2003, 45,000-65,000 plant/ha proved to be the best crop density. The highest yield was produced by the Alexandra PR.
Analyzing the growing seasons of 2001, 2002 and 2003 it can be declared that as a result of dry climate of the three years yields were higher. It can be stated that the yield is decreased by higher than average of precipitation in the growing season.

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Comparison of growth parameters of 40 varieties/clones short rotation coppice willow (Salix)
Published November 20, 2011
99-104

The plantation of willow varieties was established in 2009. The 40 different varieties and clones of Salix were planted at a research field in Kolíňany (Nitra district). The paper evaluates results from the first growing season in 2009. The survival rate of planted cuttings ranged from 55.56 % to 100.00 % after the first year. The lowest surv...ival rate was reached by Terra Nova variety. The stem numbers per plant ranged from 1.17 ±0.37 to 2.53 ±0.98. The average height of one-year old stem varied from 65.82 ±36.60 cm to 225.58 ±68.61 cm. The average stem diameter ranged from 6.90 ±2.63 mm to 14.34 ±3.39 mm. There were statistically very significant differences in parameters of stem height stem diameter and stem numbers per plant among studied varieties/clones. The statistic method used was analysis of variance ANOVA. The varieties were then divided into 6 groups according to their similarity in observed parameters after the first growing season by cluster analysis. The best results were reached by varieties/clones classified in the second group. The survival rate, stem diameter and stem height values of these varieties/clones were above average. 

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The effect of agrotechnological factors and the cropping season on sweetcorn (Zea Mays L. convar. saccharata Koern.) production in a humid year
Published October 5, 2010
146-151

We have examined the effect of three agrotechnological factors (sowing time, fertilization, crop density) and four genotypes on the yield
of sweetcorn on chernozem soil in the Hajdúság region in 2009. The experiment was set up at the Látókép Research Site of the University of
Debrecen. We have included two sowing times (27 April, 26 ...May), six nutrition levels (control, N30+PK, N60+PK, N90+PK, N120+PK,
N150+PK) and four genotypes (Jumbo, Enterprise, Prelude, Box-R) at two crop density levels (45 thousand ha-1).
In the humid cropyear of 2010 the amount of precipitation exceeded the 30-year average by 184 mm in the cropping season; the average
temperature exceeded the same by 0.8 C on the average of the examined months. The circumstances were most favourable for sweetcorn
production with the first sowing time, thus, this was when the yield of all hybrids was the highest.
With early sowing time, the highest yield (23437 kg ha-1 yield) was obtained with Enterprise at 45 thousand ha-1 crop density level at
N150 + PK nutrition level. The highest yield of the other three hybrids was 22253 kg ha-1 (Jumbo) 22286 kg ha-1 (Box-R) and 1873 kg ha-1
(Prelude). With the second sowing time, the highest yield was obtained with Enterprise again (22237 kg ha-1) at 65 thousand ha-1 crop
density level. With this sowing time the yield of Jumbo, Box-R and Prelude was 20888 kg ha-1, 17796 kg ha-1 and 17401 kg ha-1, respectively.
We found that the highest yield was obtained at the highest nutrition levels (N120 + PK, N150 +PK) with the first sowing time, while the same
was obtained at lower nutrition levels (N90 + PK, N120 + PK) with the second sowing time.

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Productivity and Nutrient Reaction of Maize Hybrids
Published December 6, 2005
78-83

Several factors influence the quantity and stability of maize yield, the most important being the nutrient supply, the hybrid and precipitation. In 2004, during the maize growing season the precipitation was more than the 30 year’s average, with 68.3 mm, but the distribution was unfavorable. The experiment was carried out in Debrecen at the E...xperimental Station of the University of Debrecen Centre of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Crop Production and Applied Ecology. We tested 10 various hybrids with their own genetic characteristics for five different fertilizer doses, in addition to the parcels without fertilization.
The favorable results reached were due to the rainy season. The average yield varied between 7.78-9.67 tha-1. The DK 440, PR37M34, PR38A24, PR39D81 and PR36R10 of the hybrids reacted to higher fertilizer doses with significant growth yields, the yield (more than 11 tha-1) was the highest for N200, P125, K150 fertilizing. The other hybrids, DKC 5211, Mv Vilma and MV Maraton, gave similar results at the N120+PK fertilizer dose and the ensuing doses depressed the yield. Fertilization was more effective thanks to the precipitation. The fourth and fifth dose increased or decreased maize yield depending on the nutrient reaction of the hybrid. The agro-ecological optimum of NPK fertilization was N120, P75, K90 kgha-1.
During the experiment we tested the moisture loss of five hybrids. The rainy crop year’s effect on the seed moisture content at harvest was higher than in previous years. The seed moisture content hybrids at harvest which have shorter crop years (FAO 300) was 18-19%, and hybrids with longer vegetation periods had more than 20% seed moisture content. DK 440 hybrid had the intensive moisture loss of the five hybrids, at the start of the measurement, the seed moisture content was higher than 40%, and it decreased to 18.6% by harvesting.

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The Effect of Grazing on the Production of Sows and Pasture Vegetation
Published May 4, 2004
43-47

In our experiment sows were grased during four grazing seasons, from April 28, 2000 to 23, August, 2001. The same number of indoor sows served as control animals.
The results of the blood test show that, as a result of grazing, the beta carotene level of the blood serum has increased threefold. This difference disappeard after the farrow 30 ...days.
On spring pasture, the grasingsows gained 50 kg in weight as opposed to 30 kg in the control animals. On the poor autumn pasture, the weight gained was only 30 kg, which was only 2 kg more in comparison with the performance of the control group. In the third grasing season the experiment sows weight gained was 13.7 kg and control group 37 kg. In the fourth season the control group weight gained was 4.4 kg more in comparison with the performance of the experiment sows.
Grazing not very influence weight of gthe sows during the preast – feeding.

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Effects of the cropyear and the agronomical factors on agronomical elements of different sweet corn (Zea Mays L. convar. saccharata Koern.) genotypes in long-term experiment
Published December 16, 2012
105-110

In the crop season of 2010 (rainy year), we studied the effect of three agrotechnical factors (sowing time, fertilization, plant density) and four different genotypes on the agronomical characteristics of sweet corn on chernozem soil in the Hajdúság. The experiments were carried out at the Látókép Experimental Farm of the University of Deb...recen. In the experiment, two sowing dates (27 April, 26 May), six fertilization levels (control, N30+PK, N60+PK, N90+PK, N120+PK, N150+PK) and four genotypes (Jumbo, Enterprise, Prelude, Box-R) were used at two plant densities (45 thousand plants ha-1, 65 thousand plants ha-1). The amount of precipitation in the season of 2010 was 184 mm higher, while the average temperature was 0.8 oC higher in the studied months than the average of 30 years. Weather was more favourable for sweet maize at the first sowing date, if we consider the yields, however, if we evaluate the agronomical data and yield elements (number of cobs, cob length and diameter, the number of kernel rows, the number of kernels per row) it can be stated that the size of the fertile cobs was greater at the second sowing date due to the lower number of cobs. The largest number of fertile cobs was harvested in the case of the hybrid Enterprise (72367.9 ha-1) in the higher plant density treatment (65 thousand ha-1) at the fertilization level of N120+PK when the first sowing date was applied. The largest cobs were harvested from the hybrid Box-R (cob weight with husks: 516.7 g, number of kernels in one row: 45.7) at the lower plant density (45 thousand plants ha-1) in the second sowing date treatment. Cob diameter and the number of kernel rows were the highest for the hybrid Prelude.

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Effect and interaction of crop management factors and crop year on the yield of maize (Zea mays L.)
Published December 1, 2020
31-41

The aim of this study was to determine the combination of treatment levels of crop management factors which can optimize and sustain maize yield under varying climatic conditions. The effect of winter wheat forecrop, three tillage systems (Mouldboard-MT, Strip-ST, Ripper-RT), two planting densities (60,000 & 80,000 plants ha-1...>), three fertilizer levels (N0-control, N80, N160 kg ha-1) with four replications in irrigated and non-irrigated treatments were evaluated over a five year period, 2015–2019. The obtained results revealed that growing season rainfall positively correlated with yield, whereas, temperature negatively correlated with yield. Impact of adverse weather on yield was less severe in biculture, irrigated plots, at lower planting density (60,000), lower fertilizer rate (N80) and in RT and ST, compared to MT. In years with favorable rainfall, yields of MT and RT were significantly (P<0.05) higher than ST. However, in a less favorable year, such as 2015, with 299 mm growing season rainfall and the lowest July rainfall (59% below mean) there was no significant difference (P>0.05) in yield among the three tillage treatments. Higher planting density (80,000), and fertilization rate (N160) in tandem with MT are treatments combination conducive for high yield under favorable climatic conditions, whereas, in years with low rainfall and high temperatures, RT and ST offer alternative to MT for optimum yield with 60,000 plants ha-1 and N80 treatment level. Crop year effect accounted for 20.7% of yield variance, fertilization 35.8%, forecrop 12.8%, plant density 3.4%, tillage 1.2% and irrigation <1%. It is conclusive that with proper selection of the appropriate levels of agrotechnological inputs the adverse effect of weather on yield can be mitigated.

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The effect of season and fertilizer on the LAI, the photosynthesis and the yield of the maize hybrids with different genetic characteristics
Published May 23, 2006
27-34

The experiment was carried out in Debrecen, at the Experimental Station of the University of Debrecen Centre of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Crop Production and Applied Ecology. We tested 10 various hybrids with their own genetic characteristics for five different fertilizer doses, in addition to the parcels without fertilization. The t...hree factors of production technology jointly determine the successfully of maize production, but in different measure. The yield and the stability of yield of maize can be increased with hybrid-specific technologies.
In 2004-2005 experiment years the favorable results reached were due to the rainy season. There were significant difference between the productivity of maize hybrids. The N 40, P2O5 25, K2O 30 kg/ha treatment caused the highest increase of yield (3-5 t/ha) compared to the control (parcels without fertilization). The reaction of hybrids to the further fertilizer doses was different. The agro-ecological optimum of NPK fertilization was N 120, P 75, K 90 kg of the most hybrids.
During the experiment, we tested the moisture loss of the five hybrids. The seed moisture content at harvest was higher than in previous years due to the rainy seasons. The seed moisture content of harvest of FAO 200-300 hybrids were about 20%. It changed between 21-24% in the case of hybrids with longer vegetation period (FAO 400), the seed moisture content of Mv Vilma (FAO 510) was 24.21-25.04% in the average of fertilizer treatments. There is an important difference between the moisture loss ability of hybrids which changed 0.2-0.6%/day. The moisture loss of hybrids changed depending on the fertilizer treatment; usually, it was more favorable in the optimal fertilizer dose (N120+PK).
In the case of tested hybrids, we measured the highest LAI and photosynthetic activity at the optimal treatment, N 120, P2O5 75, K2O 90 kg/ha in the respect of efficiency and environmental protection, and the yield was high also for this treatment. There are significant difference between the LAI, the photosynthetic activity and the yield of hybrids, and these values could change depending on the treatment of fertilization.

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Impact of weather on the spring crops yield in Croatia with emphasis on climatic change and the 2014 growing season
Published October 24, 2016
41-46

Main field crops in Croatia are maize, soybean, sunflower and sugar beet. By these crops are covered (status 2014) close to 50% (385 234 ha) of utilized arable land. Global warming, have often adverse influence on field crop yields. Aim of this study was testing precipitation and temperature regimes on spring crops yield in Croatia in 15-year p...eriod (1999–2013) and elaboration of the 2014 growing season with aspect of climatic change.

Four growing seasons (2000, 2003, 2007 and 2012) were less favorable for maize because annual yield was bellow 5 t ha-1 (average 4.38 t ha-1), while in four more favorable years (2005, 2008, 2009 and 2010) annual yield was above 6.8 t ha-1 (average 7.32 t ha-1). Average precipitation and temperature for the April-September period in Osijek were 226 mm and 496 mm, 19.6 oC and 18.6 oC, for less and more favorable years, respectively. Yields of soybeans and sugar beet have mainly similar trend as maize yields in function of weather conditions, while sunflower is more susceptible to extremely moist growing seasons (for example, 2001 and 2005: 650 mm and 697 mm precipitation and very low yields in level 1.7 and 1.6 t ha-1, respectively). On the other side, under drought conditions of 2003, 2007 and 2012, yields of sunflower were above average in range from 2.5 to 2.7 t ha-1), while at same period yields of maize, soybean and sugar beet were drastically reduced.

Average precipitation in the April-September period of 2014 for eight selected sites of Croatia was 756 mm or for 68% higher in comparison with the long-term average 1961–1990 with variation among the sites from 520 mm in Osijek to 910 mm in Varazdin. On the other side, average air-temperature in 2014 was 17.8 oC or for 0.7 oC higher with variations among the sites from 17.2 oC in Daruvar and Varazdin to 18.2 oC in Osijek and 18.3 oC in Gradiste. Under these favorable weather conditions, annual yields of maize (8.1 t ha-1), soybeans (2.8 t ha-1) , sunflower (2.9 t ha-1) and sugar beet 63.6 t ha-1) were considerable higher than usual.

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Effect of season and sowing time on the moisture loss dynamics and yield of maize
Published July 16, 2007
255-265

The effect of sowing date on maize development and yield was studied in field experiments. The experiment was set up at the experimental garden of the University of Debrecen Centre of Agricultural Sciences Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Plant Sciences in 2005 and 2006 on calcareous chernozem soil. Six hybrids with different genetic chara...cteristics and vegetation period were tested (Sze 269, DK 440, PR37D25, NK Cisko, Mv Maraton, PR34B97) at three different sowing dates.
2005 was a very wet year. The amount of precipitation in the vegetation period was about 150 mm higher than the average of 30 years. No significant differences were observed in temperature. However, the number of sunny hours was much lower during the summer than as usual. This had an influence on yields.
In 2006, there was no risk of inland water in spite of the large amount of precipitation at the beginning of the year. The amount of water available for plants was satisfactory during the season due to the favorable amount of precipitation. Therefore, plants suffered less from the heat in July. However, hail on 22 July caused significant damage. The number of sunny hours in the summer was high enough. The warm, dry autumn helped the water release of plants.
In 2005, the results of the third sowing date could not be evaluated due to the large number of missing plants. The yield of hybrids ranged between 12-14 t/ha for the first sowing date. For the second sowing date, yields ranged between wider boundaries. The hybrid PR37D25 has a very high yield in the case of the second sowing date, and its seed moisture content was favorably low. The yield of hybrid PR34B97 was the lowest at the later sowing date, the prime reason of this was damage caused by Diabrotica virgifera. The seed moisture content at harvest varied between 16-24% for the first sowing date. In the case of the second sowing date, higher values were measured. Hybrids Sze 269 and NK Cisko had favorable water release characteristics. The maximum value of leaf area index was the best in the case of the first sowing date (5-5.5 m2/m2).
In 2006, yields for the first sowing date ranged between 8-10 t/ha. At the second sowing date, more favorable results were obtained. The reason for this is probably that hail caused a higher damage in hybrids with the early sowing date. Plant stock with later sowing date could recover more successfully. Hybrid PR37D25 had very high yields for the second and third sowing dates. The high-yielding hybrid PR34B97 also had high yield, but this was accompanied by higher seed moisture content. Due to the warm, sunny autumn weather, the hybrids had good water-release dynamics and were harvested with a lower seed moisture content than in the previous year. For the first sowing date, the seed moisture content was around 13-14% except for hybrid PR34B97. For the second and third sowing dates, higher values were observed. Leaf area index was significantly reduced in August for all three hybrids due to the hail in July. For the first two sowing dates, the leaves of hybrid Sze 269 were the first to dry similarly to the previous year.
Year had a strong effect on the results in both years.

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Evaluation of Two Heat Sum Calculation Methods in Maize Production
Published December 6, 2005
156-159

Maize production is of primary importance in Hungary, especially considering that its cultivation takes up one of the greatest ratios of land used for agricultural production. As a result, the number of farms where maize is not cultivated for either food production or foraging purposes is insignificant. For this reason, establishing economic pr...oduction is of decisive importance when it comes to determining the efficiency of farms. Profitable maize production depends on a number of conditions, including the professional suitability of farmers, while some aspects of production are independent from these. Heat-sum calculations form a transition from this aspect, since temperatures ocuring during the growing season cannot be influenced by man. However, the method of calculation and evaluation and thus the tool to improve production is in the hands of the farmer. This scientific paper aims to give a general description of heat-sum calculation methods.

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The management and economical aspects of GPS based machine-control and tractor-implement sincronisation
Published March 20, 2013
161-167

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Precision farming has an array of technological equipment, elements and complete systems which are in themselves suitable to create conditions for efficient farming, to reduce environmental load and to provide farmers with optimal return on their investment.

On the leading edge of my research is to introduce the economic benefits of precision logistic optimization with satellite navigation in wheat and maize harvesting. My hypothesis, claiming that a well-organized system can increase the number of working days by 4 days per harvesting season in maize, and 2 days in wheat crop. If the farmer makes contract works for harvesting it means for him 2 or 4 days extra work by using the precision farming technologies with satellite communication system. Overall, as pertains to wheat and maize harvest seasons, yearly revenues can be increased by 7 760 000 HUF. I would like to introduce that the precision technologies increase combine costs by merely 5.4% which can be return in the first year of using.

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Response of sugar beet to different foliar fertilizers
Published December 21, 2008
127-136

The yield and quality of the sugar beet are mainly determined by level crop production system; therefore the effects of foliar fertilization were studied. Our field trials were carried out in 2005  and 2006 in Hajdúböszörmény, at two experimental sites. In our trials the effects of Biomit Plussz, Fitohorm and Kelcare Cu (having high Cu... content) as foliar fertilizers, as well as a fungicide with high sulphur content, Cosavet DF, were studied and
compared. Effects of treatments were studied in four replicates. 
We took root samples at 4 week intervals, starting in August. The quality of root (sucrose, potassium, sodium and alfa-amino N content) was determined from filtrated beet broth, by an automatic beet laboratory system, called VENEMA. Leaf samples were taken three times in the growing season, element composition was measured by ICP-OES.
We found that the crop and the sugar yield were significantly influenced by the foliar treatments both of the two years.

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The effect of sowing date and plant density in three maize hybrids germination and growth dynamics
Published February 18, 2016
105-110

The maize research was set up on chernozem soil at Látókép research area of the Centre for Agricultural Sciences University of Debrecen. We examined the following hybrids SY ARIOSO (FAO 300), P9486 (FAO360), DKC 4943 (FAO 410). The experience was set u pin three different plant density. These were 60, 76 and 90 thousand plant ha-1.... The experience was set up in three different sawing date, early, average and late. The germination and growing dynamic measurements was measured in three hybrid, three sawing date, three plant density in four replication. well observed at the first sawing date (April 5) the soil was too cold therefore the germination was begins very slowly to be slowly increased. The second sowing time was the average (April 21) there the germination launch as soon as possible more rapid growth in the amount of heat. We experienced the most intense germination was in the case of the emergence late sowing date (May 5). Looking at the growth dynamics for the first two sawing date was side by side and almost equal to the maximum value. This is explained by the adaptive capacity of the maize to compensate for the sawing difference. For the third time, despite the delayed sawing the maize began to grow more dynamically than in previous sawing times due to the results of the initial good conditions it growth faster than halted in the second half of the season because of the high temperatures and lack of precipitation.

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Results of Sulphur Fertilization Experiment with Oilseed Rape
Published September 8, 2020
174-178

The rape is definitely a sulphur-demanding crop, which yield and the quality of its oil is threaten by the emerging shortage of sulphur nowadays. We made sulphur fertilising trials on two places in the northeastern rape growing area (in Felsőzsolca and Mezőkövesd), in the season 2001/2002. We compared the result the 5 five treating set in 2 ...repeats on brown forest soil with the results of the control plots. We used FitoHorm 32 S sulphur solution as sulphur fertiliser, with the dose of 3, 6 and 10 litres per hectare, as well as the joint effects of sulphur and boron; and the effect of boron alone. On the assessment of our results we looked for relation between the sulphur fertilising, the seed production, the oil content and the protein content.

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