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Seed biology and possibility of improvement of seed germination capacity on Virginia mallow (Sida hermaphrodita L. Rusby)
71-76

Sida hermephrodita or Virginia mallow is a perspective perennial herb in the Malvaceae family able to yield a biomass crop through the last two decades. Additionally, the plants have a lot of uses and benefits for instance it can use as a fodder crop, honey crop, ornamental plant in public gardens. It has favourable features like fast growing and resistance against the disease and climatic fluctuations, etc. Sida is in the beginning phase of domestication therefore it has a serious disadvantage: the low and slow germination as a big part of wild plants. Due to the expressly low germination percent the need of seed showing of driller is should tenfold, 200 thousand seeds/acre instead of 10–20 thousand what is not available and expensive Therefore practical purposes of our research of seed physiology was to increase the seed germination percent in a available, basically wild Sida population. In the first stage of our experiments we examined two factors relating to seed germination percent and seed germination power during our research: the influence of hot water treatment and the effect of exogenous or endogenous infection of seed. However, in our germination tests, utilizing scarified seeds with hot water (65 oC, 80 oC, 90 oC), from 29,3% to 46% germinated from those samples which were collected from the population of Sida hermaphrodita in Debrecen. The average germination for all season was 5–10% without treatment and rinsed using hot water up to almost 50%. When physically scarified used, the oldest seeds showed the best germination (46%) after the hot water operation in spite of the previous studies. We discovered that apparently there are close relationship between the seed fresh weight or water uptake capability and the percentage of infection. Following these recognition we modified our technique,in such a way that we fractionated the seeds based on their fresh weight/or relative density before we carried out the treatment. When we filtered the floating seeds on the surface of water, the hot water treatment was performed considerably better on the sunk seeds after separation. Therefore, by this special priming process we were able to reach 80% germination capacity of Virgina mallow seeds under laboratory conditions (26 oC without illumination).

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The effect of gamma irradiation on the germination and growth of Turda Star maize hybrid dry samples
23-25

In order to study the effects of gamma rays on germination indices i.e. germination index (GI), total germination (GT) and the
germination energy (GE), of maize hybrid, Turda Star current experiment was conducted. Dry seeds of Turda Star maize hybrid were
irradiated with 2, 5, 15, 30 and 50 Gy, using a 60Co-gamma radiation source.
Results showed that gamma irradiation affected all the above mentioned parameters except germination percentage. Total
germination and germination energy was significantly affected at higher doses of gamma rays. However, increasing doses of gamma
rays did not have significant effects on seed germination percentage. The other growth parameters showed declining tendency with
increasing doses of gamma irradiation.

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Effect of Copper, Zinc and Lead and Their Combinations on the Germination Capacity of Two Cereals
39-42

The majority of researchers have studied the following group of microelements: B, Zn, Mn, Cu, Na, Co, Mo, I, Sn, Cl, Al, V, F, Cr, Hg, Cs, Li, Cd, As, Th, Rb, Cr, W, Ti, Sn, Se, Ba, Br. Sporadically, the following elements have been mentioned too: Au, Ra, Hg and Pb. In this study, the effects of copper treatments and their combination with zinc and lead microelements on the germination of maize and barley were investigated using different concentrations of these microelements. Six treatments were used: 1. Copper-sulphate (CuSO4) applied alone, 2. Zinc-sulphate (ZnSO4) applied alone, 3. Copper applied with zinc, 4. Lead-nitrate (Pb(NO3)2) applied alone, 5. Copper applied with lead and 6. Untreated control. Maize (Kiskun SC 297) and barley caryopsis were treated with copper and zinc solutions in the following concentrations: 0.03%, 0.003% and 0.0003%. Maize and barley caryopsis were treated with these solutions for 12 and 24 hours. Maize and barley caryopsis were also treated with lead solutions Pb(NO3)2 with different concentrations: 0.0005%, 0.005% and 0.05%. Maize and barley were treated with these solutions for 12 and 24 hours. In the combined treatments (3 and 5), the same concentration was used for each microelement as in treatments 1, 2 and 4. Control treatments were treated with water for both plant species. Our results showed that copper microelements significantly inhibit germination compared to the untreated control. The toxicity of copper is higher if concentration increases. Zinc microelements also inhibit germination, however its effect highly depends on the microelement concentration. Treatments of copper + zinc also inhibit germination. The two microelements applied together cause more phytotoxicity than they do alone. Lead is highly toxic to plants even in low concentrations. The toxic effect on germination dramatically increased when lead was applied with copper.

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The effect of sowing date and plant density in three maize hybrids germination and growth dynamics
105-110

The maize research was set up on chernozem soil at Látókép research area of the Centre for Agricultural Sciences University of Debrecen. We examined the following hybrids SY ARIOSO (FAO 300), P9486 (FAO360), DKC 4943 (FAO 410). The experience was set u pin three different plant density. These were 60, 76 and 90 thousand plant ha-1. The experience was set up in three different sawing date, early, average and late. The germination and growing dynamic measurements was measured in three hybrid, three sawing date, three plant density in four replication. well observed at the first sawing date (April 5) the soil was too cold therefore the germination was begins very slowly to be slowly increased. The second sowing time was the average (April 21) there the germination launch as soon as possible more rapid growth in the amount of heat. We experienced the most intense germination was in the case of the emergence late sowing date (May 5). Looking at the growth dynamics for the first two sawing date was side by side and almost equal to the maximum value. This is explained by the adaptive capacity of the maize to compensate for the sawing difference. For the third time, despite the delayed sawing the maize began to grow more dynamically than in previous sawing times due to the results of the initial good conditions it growth faster than halted in the second half of the season because of the high temperatures and lack of precipitation.

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Storage of wheat at high moisture
111-114

Deterioration rates were determined for 15-19% moisture content wheat (Dropia cultivar) stored at constant temperatures.
Deterioration rates were determined by measuring germination capacity of the grain and respiration rates of grain. Safe storage
time was defined as the time for germination to decrease to 90%. Safe storage times of 19% m.c. wheat stored at constant
temperatures ranged from 2.5 d at 30 and 35°C to 37 d at 10°C. Deterioration rates of 19% m.c. wheat stored with a step decrease
in storage temperatures (35-25, 30-20, 25-20, and 20-15°C) were determined and safe storage times were satisfactorily predicted.
Safe storage times of 17% m.c. wheat were 5, 7, and 15 d at 35, 30, and 25°C, respectively. Respiration rates and germination
percentages of 15 and 16% m.c. wheat stored at 25°C remained constant for 70 d. The respiration rates of 17-19% m.c. wheat at
25°C increased while the germination percentages decreased with storage time. Germination dropped from 98 to 92-89% when the
dry matter losses were about 0.05% and visible mould occurred when the dry matter losses were about 0.1% in 17-19% m.c.
wheat.

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Behavior of some Hungarian wheat varieties to seed soaking in gibberellic acid under salt stress
7-17

Various abiotic stresses including high salinity strongly affect seed germination. Three Hungarian wheat landraces Gamási, Fóti and Kartali have been tested for seed germination, seedling growth and chemicals parameters when seeds were soaked in gibberellic acid (GA3) at the concentrations of 0, 75 and 150 ppm and at four levels of salinity stress 0, 5, 10 and 15 dSm-1. A laboratory experiment took place at Research Institute of Nyíregyháza. Factorial Experiment based on Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) in four replications has been conducted. Seed soaking in GA3 before sowing significantly affected germination characteristics, seedling properties and the results of chemical analysis. The highest germination as well as K+ content of seeds were observed at seed soaking into 150 ppm GA3. However, Na+ and proline contents in seedling were decreased. The behavior of the tested Hungarian wheat varieties was genotype-dependent. Increasing salinity stress up to 15 dSm-1 significantly affected germination characteristics, seedlings parameters and chemical analysis. Fóti variety turned out to be the best at 150 ppm GA3 compared to the other two varieties. Moreover, it had the lowest Na+ and proline contents and highest K+ content.

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Ecotoxicological impact of DON toxin on maize (Zea mays L.) germination
35-40

Fusarium graminearum is one of the most significant arable pathogen in Hungary, and various types of trichothecene mycotoxins (mostly DON, deoxynivalenol) are detected most commonly in cereals (Biró et al., 2011). Fusarium infection and mycotoxin production could not be eliminated, and infected maize by Fusarium sp. cannot be exploited as food, seed, or animal feed. However it can be raw material of biogas production. In this research we would like to investigate the content and effect of the toxin in the end product of biogas production on plant germination. The Fusarium sp. can cause mildew and seedling mortality in seed of maize (Zea mays L.), so we examine the effect of this on germination. In preliminary examination Fusarium sp. was not detected in the bioreactor of the Institute after the retention time (30 day), however it can be assumed that during the hydrolysis of the fungus growth and mycotoxin production also increased exponentially. There were no appropriate tools to detect the toxin in the end product of biogas production so modelling of anaerobic hydrolysis was necessary. The effects of hydrolyzed product for germination were also detected.

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Fast neutron irradiation long term effect on Ocimum basilicum germination and initial vegetative parameters
23-31

The goal of this study is to assess the long-term (3-year) effects of rapid neutron irradiation using an Americium-Beryllium source on two generations (M0 and M1) of Ocimum basilicum commercial trait. Seeds of each variety and generation were irradiated with 0, 7.5, 20, 40, and 50 Gray in 2018, and then seeded in 2021 – with their corresponding controls – to see how the different irradiation treatments affected germination and early vegetative metrics three years after irradiation. In the first generation, no significant changes between the treatments were seen. Increased irradiation dosage resulted in a significant decrease in germination % in the second generation (M1), but a significant increase in seedling height. The M0 generation seedlings, on the other hand, were substantially shorter than controls. In the M0 generation, the higher dosages (40 and 50 Gray) were deadly, and seedlings were terminated 7–10 days after germination. The irradiation dose of 20 Gray was shown to be the most successful in inducing viable and beneficial alterations for phenotypic characteristics in basil. When compared to control plants, the lower (7.5 and 20 Gray) bombardment generated leaf anomalies such as smaller leaves and internodes, a split apex, and a ribbon-like stem.

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Allelopathic effect of invasive plants (Eriochloa villosa, Asclepias syriaca, Fallopia x bohemica, Solidago gigantea) on seed germination
179-182

The aim of this study was to determine the allelopathic potential of invasive species woolly cupgrass (Eriochloa villosa), common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca), bohemian knotweed (Fallopia x bohemica), and giant goldenrod (Solidago gigantea Ait.) on germination crop (Lepidium sativum L.). Experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions to determine effect of water extracts in petri dish bioassay. Water extracts from fresh biomass (leaves and stem) of invasive weeds in concentrations of 4 and 8 g/100 ml were investigated. All invasive plants showed allelopathic effect on germination. In giant goldenrod stem water extract experiment, allelopathic effect was less pronounced.

The cress germination was greatly suppressed with the woolly cupgrass, common milkweed and the giant goldenrod. The experiment showed that the seed germination depended on the concentrations and the plant material used (leaves and stem).

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Selenium speciation analysis of selenium-enriched food sprouts
23-28

In this present study, we prepared selenium-enriched pea and wheat sprouts. During our research we aimed not only to measure the total selenium content of the sprouts but to identify different selenium species.

Scientifical researches show why the analytical examination of different selenium (Se) species is necessary: consumption of all kind of Se-species is useful for a person who suffers in selenium deficit, while there is significant difference between effects of different Se-species on person, in whose body the Se-level is just satisfactory. Biological availability, capitalization, accumulation, toxicity of Se-species are different, but the main difference was manifested in the anti-cancer effect of selenium.

During our research selenium was used in form of sodium selenite and sodium selenate, the concentration of the solutions used for germination was 10 mg dm-3. Control treatment meant germination in distilled water. Total selenium content of sprout samples was measured after microwave digestion by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Different extraction solvents were applied during sample preparation in order to separate different Se-species (0.1 M and 0.2 M HCl or 10 mM citric acid buffer). We wanted the following question to be answered: Which extraction solvent resulted the best extraction efficiency? Selenium speciation analysis of sprout sample extracts was performed by high performance liquid chromatography with anion exchange column, detection of selenium species was performed by ICP-MS.

Evaluating our experimental results we have been found that significant amount of selenium of inorganic forms used during germination transformed into organic selenium compounds. There was difference between the amount of Se-species in pea and wheat sprouts and selenium uptake and repartition of selenium species were depended on Se-form used during germination. In addition the chromatogram analysis made us clear as well, that the citric acid solvent proved to be the most effective extraction solvent during sample preparation int he view of organic Se species.

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Stand evaluation, crop estimation and yield analysis of winter wheat for the optimization of yields
103-109

The authors have been carrying out stand evaluation, crop estimation and yield analysis in winter wheat since 2012. The sampling areas were assigned at the fields of the Training Farm of the Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences of Széchenyi István University Mosonmagyaróvár according to the structure of the cropping system. According to their observations the value of field emergence is always lower than the laboratory germination. The weak emergence is important because the lower plant density cannot be compensated by the increased tillering in spite of having larger plant growth space. It is proven by the fact that they detected strong productive tillering even at 5 and 10 mm plant spacing while there were single-spiked plants at 40-50 mm plant spacing as well. The analysis revealed that the total ear mass and grain mass of wheat plants bearing two or more ears is almost the double than that of the single-spiked plants. It was a further basic experience that the largest ear of ”multiple-spiked” plants is always heavier than the single ear of one-spiked plants. Plants with intense tillering and more ears demonstrate the importance of proper seedbed preparation and drilling and the significance of sowing good quality seeds. These are the factors that determine field germination and emergence, influence the speed and intensity of initial development and by all these factors the sufficient productive tillering. The authors emphasize the use of exact and objective methods at crop estimation, e.g. the relationship between the ear mass and the yield which is in strong correlation whilst ear length and grain mass are not suitable for a precise estimation. The authors conclude that crop estimation and yield analysis must be inevitable tools of modern crop production and will be particularly important in precision agriculture. These tools also qualify the job done by farmers and helps to identify the areas that require special attention.

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Changes of the fatty acid composition of sprouts during germination
89-92

During our research we studied the fat content and fatty acid composition during the germination and sprouting periods of the most important sprouts: wheat, lentil, alfalfa, radish and sunflower seed. In this article we present our research results during this sprouting study. The concentration of the saturated fatty acids (palmitic acid, stearic acid) decreased, the concentration of the unsaturated fatty acids increased during germination, but the tendency was not so high than was published in the literature.

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Possibilities of Weed Beet (Beta vulgaris, L. ssp. marritima) Regulation
133-136

Weed infestation regulation in sugar beet belongs to the most difficult growing measures, the aim of our work was to find out, if active substances contained in preparations Roundup and Fazor influence number, weight and germination of clusters in plants of weed beets. Statistically significant differences in germinability were found among control and all variants in which preparation Fazor was applied. The Roundup treatment did not have significant influence on germination. Presented results are only preliminary and one-year results, more experiments are necessary to determine the effects of the studied applications.

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Allelopathic Effect of Italian Cocklebur on Sugar Beet
74-77

Cockleburs are noxious weeds in Hungary, where they are widespread in row crops, especially in maize, sunflower and sugarbeet. A low density population of these weeds may be harmful because of their large competitive ability, fast growth in early phenological stages, allelopathy, and persistant sprouting.
Allelopathy of Xanthium italicum Mor. was examined during the growing season in 2004. Root and shoot samples were collected at 4 or 5 leaves stage (in the end of May and in the beginning of June) and before flowering (in the beginning of July) before and after rain. Extracts were made in tap water. The test plant was Beta vulgaris L.; its germination, root and shoot growth were evaluated at the 6th and 10th days after treatment.
Most of extracts inhibited the germination of sugar beet. In these experiments the phenological stage of the donor plant determined slightly the effectiveness of the extracts on sugar beet. Generally, significant differences existed between treatments only in cases of concentrated extracts.
Rainfall can modify the inhibitory effect of extracts (especially shoot extracts). Shoot extracts of young plants inhibited stronger germination and growth after rain than before rain. Density of cockleburs influenced the effect of extracts, as well. Generally, differences between the efficacy of extracts was larger after rain.
The results supported the hypothesis that the phenological stage and some environmental factors can modify allelopathy of cockleburs.

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Exogenous salicylic acid treatments enhance tolerance to salinity of wheat (Triticum aestivum) plantlets
34-38

Salt stress, an abiotic stress, determines modifications of some biochemical indicators, like, antioxidant enzymes, proline (amino acid
accumulate in higher plants under salinity stress) content, and some physiological processes including: plant growth and development. In
this paper we studied the influence of exogenous treatment of wheat seeds, with 0.1 mM salicylic acid (SA) solution, in the plant response to
salt stress. The treatment was applied by presoaking the seeds in the treatment solution for 12 hours before germination. The results showed
that exogenous 0.1 mM SA solution, administrated to the wheat cariopses significantly ameliorated the negative effect of salt stress in first
week of germination in laboratory conditions.

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Research on the allelopathic effect among the species Tanacetum vulgare and some agricultural crops
105-109

The research presents the results of the allelophatic effect upon the germination and growth of plants, immediately after springing, viewed as the interaction between the species of Tanacetum vulgare sin Chrysanthemum vulgare and three other crops: wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), rape (Brassica napus ssp. oleifera L.). The experiments that were performed consisted in applying treatments with aqueous extracts obtained from the roots, leaves, stems and flowers harvested from T. vulgare plants upon the seeds of the three agricultural crops mentioned before. In all aqueous extracts, the results indicate the presence of some chemical compounds that have inhibiting allelophatic effect. The plants upon which tests were made showed great sensitivity, the results on their germination and growth being significantly negative and highly significantly negative.
The conclusions of this research sustain the idea of setting new research objectives in order to discover the chemical compounds from T. vulgare extracts that have such a stong effect and the possibilities they offer.

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Germination and sugar content alteration in maize grain caused by Fusarium contamination
42-44

Healthy and Fusarium affected ears were collected in Fészerlak, Somogy County at the end of vegetation cycle of maize (25-30 August). Each pattern contains 25-25 ears. We compared the samples on the basis of visual image of Fusarium affection. The ears were shelled and two 0,5 kg samples were formed: healthy and Fusarium contaminated. After surface sterilisation the uniform sized seeds were soaked in sterile distilled water for 24 hours and there were germinated for 7 days. The α-amylase activity was measured with Phadebas- α-amylase test. Seeds were extracted one by one three times under reflux using 10 cm3 boiling water for 15 minutes. During our investigation germinating activity was detected to measure glucose, fructose, sucrose content and α-amylase activity. In the first seven days of germination the highest values were detected in control seeds followed by the affected seeds. Our results clearly show that stress conditions applied altered not only the saccharide content but decreased their germinating activity as well in the case of maize grain.

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The Effect of Zanthium Extracts on Germination in Relation to Interior and Exterior Factors
65-69

In Hungary, the cocklebur species significantly endanger row crops (i.e. corn, sunflower, sugar beet). Their fast spreading is caused by many reasons: long-lasting emergence, reduced sensitivity to many kinds of herbicides, vigorous competitional ability, allelopathy, fast initial growth and changes in climate. The means of allelopathy is used by many species of plants in the competition with one another, as well as by the cockleburs. But the efficiency of this is influenced by many factors. Species with allelopathical effect could show different behaviour under different conditions: they can produce compounds with retarding and stimulating effects in different quantities or compositions. The actual condition of the acceptor plant and the mediator agent (i.e. soil) influence the final effect.
In this experiment influence of phenology and rainfall was studied on allelopathy of cockleburs in May, July and September. A stronger inhibition was observed on growth of cress before rain in July than in May, but this retarding effect disappeared after rainfall. However, the samples collected in September have significant inhibitory effect after rain. Inhibition of sugarbeet’s germination was stronger in May than in July, and the difference increased after rain.

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Optimalization of nutrient supply and row space in the growing of annual caraway
135-138

Concerning the nutrient supply, it was found that the highest crop was produced with the N80K0 treatment (81.38 g m-2). The K application resulted in a decrease in crop yield. The highest crop yield per plant was found in plots with 48 cm row space. The best germination was reached in the plots with 48 cm row space (73%).
If the level of K was elevated, the essential oil content increased. The maximum essential oil content was reached by treatment N0K80 (2.6284 ml 100 g sza.-1). The composition of essential oil was influenced both by the nutrient supply and by the growing area. Increasing the row space the ratio of d-carvone decreased. The amount of d-carvone was uniquely increased by use of K. The highest carvone level (66.25%) was identified at the N80+70K80 treatment as an average of row spaces.

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Management of phytopathogens by application of green nanobiotechnology: Emerging trends and challenges
15-22

Nanotechnology is highly interdisciplinary and important research area in modern science. The use of nanomaterials offer major advantages due to their unique size, shape and significantly improved physical, chemical, biological and antimicrobial properties. Physicochemical and antimicrobial properties of metal nanoparticles have received much attention of researchers. There are different methods i.e. chemical, physical and biological for synthesis of nanoparticles. Chemical and physical methods have some limitations, and therefore, biological methods are needed to develop environment-friendly synthesis of nanoparticles. Moreover, biological method for the production of nanoparticles is simpler than chemical method as biological agents secrete large amount of enzymes, which reduce metals and can be responsible for the synthesis and capping on nanoparticles.

Biological systems for nanoparticle synthesis include plants, fungi, bacteria, yeasts, and actinomycetes. Many plant species including Opuntia ficus-indica, Azardirachta indica, Lawsonia inermis, Triticum aestivum, Hydrilla verticillata, Citrus medica, Catharanthus roseus, Avena sativa, etc., bacteria, such as Bacillus subtilis, Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Lactobacillus sp., Klebsiella aerogenes, Torulopsis sp., and fungi, like Fusarium spp. Aspergillus spp., Verticillium spp., Saccharomyces cerevisae MKY3, Phoma spp. etc. have been exploited for the synthesis of different nanoparticles. Among all biological systems, fungi have been found to be more efficient system for synthesis of metal nanoparticles as they are easy to grow, produce more biomass and secret many enzymes. We proposed the term myconanotechnology (myco = fungi, nanotechnology = the creation and exploitation of materials in the size range of 1–100 nm). Myconanotechnology is the interface between mycology and nanotechnology, and is an exciting new applied interdisciplinary science that may have considerable potential, partly due to the wide range and diversity of fungi.

Nanotechnology is the promising tool to improve agricultural productivity though delivery of genes and drug molecules to target sites at cellular levels, genetic improvement, and nano-array based gene-technologies for gene expressions in plants and also use of nanoparticles-based gene transfer for breeding of varieties resistant to different pathogens and pests. The nanoparticles like copper (Cu), silver (Ag), titanium (Ti) and chitosan have shown their potential as novel antimicrobials for the management of pathogenic microorganisms affecting agricultural crops. Different experiments confirmed that fungal hyphae and conidial germination of pathogenic fungi are significantly inhibited by copper nanoparticles. The nanotechnologies can be used for the disease detection and also for its management. The progress in development of nano-herbicides, nano-fungicides and nano-pesticides will open up new avenues in the field of management of plant pathogens. The use of different nanoparticles in agriculture will increase productivity of crop. It is the necessity of time to use nanotechnology in agriculture with extensive experimental trials. However, there are challenges particularly the toxicity, which is not a big issue as compared to fungicides and pesticides.

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Definition antioxidant activity of selenium-enriched food sprout, as well as their microbiological analysis
25-30

In this present study, we prepared selenium-enriched food sprouts, where the antioxidant capacity was analysed, we also determined their microbiological status. We took into account the fact, we choose micronutrients to our treatment, that selenium can be delivered to the body by a small amount with the most widely consumed food.

We focused during our research to determine that the increasing concentrations of selenium treatment, in which we used sprouts, knowing fully well that it has an impact on aboriginal antioxidant capacity of sprouts, which is mainly due to high vitamin content of sprouts.

Furthermore, we think it is important to make microbiological analysis, because germination conditions, for example temperature, pH, all this will create an ideal environment for the growth of microorganisms. So we had goal to determine, how the used selenium concentration affect the total plate count, coliform bacteria count and Staphylococcus aureus count of sprouts.

We determined the aboriginal water-soluble and lipid-soluble antioxidant capacity of sprout with the PHOTOCHEM chemiluminometer and we applied pour plate technique for the mapping of the mycrobiological state of sprouts.

Experimental results are evaluated, we state that increasing concentrations of selenite or selenate treatment, is primarily water-soluble antioxidant capacity of sprouts was affected. The water-soluble antioxidant capacity of wheat sprout was much higher than the measured values in pea sprout, this may be linked to what we measured. That is much higher ascorbic acid content in case of wheat sprout, which is well known as one of the most important antioxidant properties compounds of wheat sprout.

We conclude from the results of the microbiological, that the highest concentrations of selenite or selenate treatment has a relative significant anti-microbial effect in case of wheat sprouts. Coliform and total plate count showed no clear decreasing tendency, although the values of treatments in both cases obtained were below the control values.

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Study of plant physiological parameters in winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus var. napus f. biennis L.) production on chernozem soil
111-115

We made plant physiology examinations in Arkaso winter oilseed rape hybrid substance: relative chlorophyll content (SPAD) and leaf area index (LAI) measurements. The experiment was set in University of Debrecen Agricultural Sciences Center at Látóképi Experimental Station in four replications, in two different sowing times (I. sowing date on 08/22/2014 and II. sowing date on 09/09/2014 sowing againhappened because of the incomplete germination in the second subtance 01/10/2014) Three different plant density 200, 350 and 500 thousand ha-1, under the same nutrient supply, 45 cm row spacing. The experiment was green crop of winter wheat. The relative chlorophyll content (SPAD) and leaf area index (LAI) measurements were made in seven different times. We measured the maximum value of chlorophyll content in the first sowing time at 500, and the second sowing time at 350 thousand ha-1 plant density. The measurement results proved that there was a linear relationship between the number of plants and the LAI. The maximum leaf area index values we measured in both the sowing time at 500 thousand ha-1 reached.

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Examination of the impact of sowing technology models on the ear, constiuent and yield parameters of the yield formation elements of maize hybrids of different genotypes
17-23

Production year 2012 has been characterised by climatic extremities. The weather of this year can be considered very contradictory in terms of maize production. The droughty conditions of the winter and spring months had a negative effect on both germination and starting vigour. The favourable weather of May-July created ideal conditions for intensive growth and generative processes; however the lack of precipitation in August and September had a damaging effect on the development of yield composing elements and grain saturation processes as well. Under such circumstances, the sowing date models caused significant differences in the yield and quality of the hybrids belonging to different growth periods. The growing period of the maize hybrids has been shortened as a result of the unfavourable climatic conditions.

Based on the trial results, it is verifiable that short growing period hybrids can be securely sown in draughty years even with a later sowing date, however using a later sowing date in the case of longer growth period hybrids may result even in a yield loss of 2–3 t ha-1. In the case of early and average sowing dates, with given yearly conditions the hybrids of the observed FAO 370-390 hybrid group provided the best result (12.40 t ha-1, 10.99 t ha-1), while in the case of the third, late sowing date the yield dominance of the FAO 290-350 hybrid group is the most significant (10.08 t ha-1).

The analysis of the yield composing elements found that the P9578 hybrid has the highest shelling ratio, while its cob is the shortest. The P9494 hybrid has a high yield and the highest thousand grain weight, while the DKC 4983 has the longest cob and its thousand grain weight is above 300 g.

The results confirm the fact that DKC 4590 has the highest yield potential and starch content, while in terms of oil and protein content the Szegedi 386 and NK Octet hybrids are the most important.

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Effects of different crop years and sowing date on maize yield
93-96

We carried out the tests in the flood meadow soil formed on the alluvial cone of Nagykereki, Sebes-Körös belonging to the Bihar plane small region. The aim of the study was to analyse the effect of the different sowing date of maize on the yield trend based on a comprehensive study conducted for 6 years (2007–2012).

The sowing date of maize hybrids is a factor that significantly influences yield, however, its effect is not significant in each crop year. In the years when the date of sowing has a modifying effect, the reliable yield level can be reached with optimal sowing date management (24 April).

The advantage of early sowing (10 April) proved to be dominant in the year of 2012, the seeds were placed into the still wet soil therefore shooting was more balanced. Maize seeds sown at the time of optimal (24 April) and late (10 May) sowing dates were placed into the already dry soil, which deteriorated germination and the strength of early initial development that had an effect on the yield.

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Examination of the effect of pelleted poultry manure products on a sunflower test plant in a laboratory model experiment
83-88

Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is one of the most important oil plants in Hungary, with a sown area of more than 627.000 ha in 2019. Sunflower cultivation is primarily important for use in the oil industry, but its role in feed and beekeeping cannot be neglected either. Sunflower adapts well to different production areas in terms of soil demand, yet, as important fact, it must be grown on soils with poorer conditions with intensive nutrient replenishment. From the agri-environmental point of view, in addition to the use of pelleted poultry manure products, which are also new to the consumer market, is of paramount importance. Their advantages include a wide range of nutrients as well as a soil structure improving effect.

In our research, we investigated the starter effect of pelleted poultry manure products applied at different doses (200 kg ha-1 and 400 kg ha-1) on sandy soil with humus using a sunflower plant. The aim of our research to investigate the effect of using pelleted fertilizer products as starter fertilizers on sunflower plant germination, and investigate the effect of poultry manure products on soils.

Based on our results, it can be stated that the pigment content (chlorophyll and carotenoid content) was positively influenced by the higher dose treatments (400 kg ha-1), thus increasing the photosynthetically active leaf area. Compared to the control, the carotenoid content in the test plants of the treatments increased, and the differences of this treatment proved to be significant (p<0.05). Our experiments supported the beneficial effect of pelleted poultry manure-based products in the soil-plant system.

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