In broiler chickens, the intensive selection for growth rate, feed efficiency, body composition (breast muscle weight) traits in the last decades was successful. To improve economically important characteristics, it is possible to use molecular markers associated with meat production traits. The aim of this study was to examine genotype polymor...phisms in ROSS 308 broilers for thyroid hormone responsive Spot14α, insulinlike growth factor 1 (IGF1), IGF-binding protein 2 (IGFBP2), somatostatin (SST) and prolactin (PRL) genes. A further goal of this investigation was to study the relationship between the polymorphisms and phenotypic characteristics.
In the investigated broiler population, the frequency for CC homozygous genotype was 0.77 in Spot14α (AY568628), AA homozygous genotype was 0.80 in IGF1 (M74176), GG homozygous genotype was 0.85 in IGFBP2 (U15086), DD homozygous genotype was 0.60 in PRL (FJ663023 or FJ434669). Only the AA homozygous genotype was found in SST (X60191). Chickens with AC genotype in Spot14α, and with GG genotype in IGFBP2 had higher body weight (BW) and carcass weight (CW), compared to CC and GT genotypes. However, the differences were not significant (P>0.05). There was significant association (P<0.05) between PRL genotypes and body and carcass weight, where chicken with homozygous DD surpassed individuals with homozygous II genotypes.
Indigenous chickens are well known for their dual-purpose function and palatable meat. However, the information on their hematology parameters is lacking and hence hampering the poultry industry production of local breeds. The main objective of this study was to examine the hematological parameters of Hungarian Partridge Coloured hen (HPC)...and TETRA-SL (TSL) genotype and determine the hematological reference interval values. This trial was part of the larger experiment where a total of 200 chicks (HPC + TSL) were reared. For this trial the blood samples were obtained from brachial wing veins of 8 chicks of each genotype for blood hematological analysis. The results indicated that some of the hematological parameters such as red blood cells-RBC, white blood cells-WBC, hemoglobin-Hb, hematocrit-Ht, platelets-Plt, lymphocytes-LYM, and granulocytes-GRAN were significantly affected by the genotypes (p < 0.05). The genotype did not affect the mean corpuscular volume-MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin-MCH, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration-MCHC, and GRAN (p > 0.05). The hematological reference interval values were slightly higher in the TSL genotype compared to HPC chicks. It is concluded that genotype has a significant effect on the hematological parameters. The results from this trial will be help and design the baseline reference values for the HPC genotype which will be useful in assessing the health status of these indigenous chickens.
The polymorphism in leptin (LEP 2548A) seems to influence obesity among others genes. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the G2548A polymorphism on body mass index. We included 79 people from Slovakia with some genetic relatedness and used barrels kit to isolate the genomic DNA from an adenoblast swab- from the salivary. PCR...products were amplified by pursued polymorphisms and G2548A, we restriction-analyzed them and then we identified the specific fragments describing the presence of chosen SNP polymorphism by the agarose electrophoresis, to analyze SNP polymorphism by PCR-RFLP method.
The LEP gene had increased frequency of G allele (0.5506). The most common genotype occurring in the gene LEP was heterozygous genotype (AG) and the least frequent genotype in LEP was AA (0.1899). Taking the age into account the BMI is higher if the G allele occurs in the LEP gene. Moreover, if the G allele genotype was situated in dominant form, then the highest average BMI was present.
According to the results we can assume that the AA genotype (LEP) has a protective effect on the prevalence of obesity compared to the other genotypes.
The aim of the present study was to perform lifetime performance analysis in three pig breeds; Hungarian Large White (n=295), Duroc (n=76) and Pietrain (n=91) on a commercial farm using analysis of survival sows. We took into consideration the age of sows at the time of their inclusion into breeding, their age at the time of culling, time spent... in production, number of mating and parities, parity percentage, intervals between litters, number and mean of piglets born alive and born dead, number of raised piglet litters, number and mean of 21 days old piglets, the weight and mean of raised litter and raise percentage.
We carried out the analysis by SPSS 22.0. Single factor analysis of variants, Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox PH model were used. The determination of the significance of risk rates differences was done by Wald chi square test.
Our results showed that the average culling age were 1056 (±33.52) days for the Hungarian Large White, 735 (±73.56) days for Duroc and 818 (±71.98) days for the Pietrain.
The log rank test of the survival analysis indicated a significant difference between the three tested genotypes (χ2=16.981, P<0.001), which means that the survival percentage of the individual breeds varied significantly from one another. In comparison with the Hungarian Large White genotype the Duroc genotype has a 1.6 times higher (P<0.001) culling risk while that of the genotype Pietrain was 1.36 times higher (P<0.001).
Our results can be used to compare the breeds kept under the same conditions and to compare the life span of one genotype under different farming conditions. Factors that increase survival and improve the profitability of pig farming can be determined by this method.
One the most effective ways to satisfy the requirements of mankind for food of animal origin is the fattening of chicken. Healthy and cheap meat with low fat and high protein content can be produced rapidly and in large quantities by broilers with low feed consumption. This paper presents the production results and carcass traits of three genot...ypes (Ross 308, Cobb 500, Ross broiler parent) females and males at the age of 42 days.
In both sexes, we found that the average body weight of the Ross parents genotype was higher (females: 2643 g; males: 3089 g) than the
average body weight of the other two hybrids – significant difference was found only between pullets. However, the smallest difference in the
average body weight between the two sexes (446 g) was found in this genotype. In both sexes, the lowest average weight was detectable in
the case of the Cobb 500 hybrids (females: 2443 g; males: 3052 g).The feed consumption ability of the females were worse – in all but one
case (Ross pullet) – than that of the males. For one kg of weight gain - in the order of genotypes – 1.79kg, 2.08kg and 2.08 kg of feed was
used. The same values for the males were as follows: 1.81kg, 1.80kg and 1.89 kg, respectively.
Carcass traits were examined and it was found that the average grillfertig weight, the weight of whole thigh meat and thigh meat of the
Ross parents’ genotype was higher than the average weight of the other two hybrids. Significant difference was found only in grillfertig- and
whole thigh meat weight. Pullets of the Ross parents’ paternal line had worse results in the average weight of breast meat with bone and
breast meat fillet than the other two genotypes. In the case of cocks was detectable the inverse of this: the average weight of breast meat with
bone was the highest in the cocks of the Ross parents’ maternal line.
The chlorophyll content (SPAD), leaf area index (LAI) and leaf area duration (LAD) of three winter wheat varieties have been investigated on a chernozem soil. Three winter wheat varieties (GK Öthalom, Pannonikus and Genius) in three different nutrient-supply levels have been involved in our experiment in the crop-year of 2010/2011. The investi...gated physiological properties have been set against to the yield results. Upon the results of this comparison it has been stated that there is a close relationship between the investigated physiological properties and yield averages. The SPAD-values showed a growing tendency parallel to the growth of the nutrient-supply levels. The varieties have the highest SPAD-values at the nutri ent-level of N120+PK. Compared to the yield averages we have stated that varieties that have higher SPAD-values have realized higher yields as well. Higher nutrient dosages have increased in the leaf area. In case of all the three varieties the highest LAI-values were measured at the flowering stage (23. 05.) in the treatment whit N120+PK. Varieties with higher leaf area have produced higher yields as well. Parallel to the increasing nutrient-supply levels the value of leaf area duration increased as well. We measured the highest LAD-values in the treatment of N120+PK nutrient-level. By the LAD-values it can be stated that more durable and larger leaf area has been produced in the flowering and ripening phenophases, due to the higher nutrient-dosages. Analysing the relationships between the results it can be stated that there is a strong positive relationship between fertilizer treatments and SPAD-, LAI- and LAD-values. The genotype showed a strong positive correlation to SPAD-values. Yield averages showed strong positive correlation to SPAD-, LAI- and LAD-values as well.
The millet is a very special plant with good adaptation that gives the possibility for the late sowing and secondary production. However the effects of late sowing modifies the efficiency of the agrotechnological elements. The exainations – focused on this aspect – was conducted in the DU RINY and DU RIK in small plots in four replications...in 2014. Among the examined factors (sowing time, nutrient supply, growing area) sowing time had the largest effect. The effectiveness of the agrotechnological elements decreases under unfavourable circumstances caused by the late sowing.
The agrotechnical elements modifies the yields in the examined genotype. Sowing time had the biggest effect on the yields of millet. The genotype „Maxi” had the highest yield in the different treatment variations.
The yield differences were significant between the sowing time and plant density variations, but the nutrient supply had not significant effect (the rate of precipitation was unfavourable in 2014 season).
Today, tomato has the second largest harvesting area globally, and the fourth largest in Hungary. The importance of industrial tomato is growing year by year, and one of the most important tasks is to satisfy the needs of the industry. To meet these needs, the producer has to find the proper genotype, which can achieve up to 100 t ha-1...p> crop yield. This quality has high importance to be researched.
The experiment was carried out in the Botanical and Exhibition Garden of the University of Debrecen, with 3 examined genotypes. The planting date was 3 of May 2018. The harvesting was two-threaded. On 27 of July the physical parameters – fruit shape index (length/diameter), firmness (kg cm-2), water-soluble dry matter content (Brix%) and weight of the berries (g) – were evaluated. On 15 of August the rheological parameters were examined – the force needed to tear the skin – bioyield point (g) and flesh firmness (g).
The fruit shape index was oval (between 1.19 and 1.24) for all the examined genotypes. The firmness was between 0.92 (UG1122713 F1) and 1.05(Prestomech F1) kg cm-2, which compliance the needs of the industry. The water-soluble dry matter content was suitable, with a value between 4.49 (Prestomech F1) and 4.65 (UG1122713 F1) Brix%. The weight of the berries was between 45.94 (UG989 F1) and 49.37 (Prestomech F1) g per piece.
The bioyield point was between 76.00 (UG1122713 F1) and 85.16 (UG989 F1) g. The flesh firmness was between 33.68 (UG1122713 F1) and 42.81 (UG989 F1) g.
Finally, we can conclude based on the obtained data that the UG989 F1 hybrid was the most proper for the applied cultivation conditions. This genotype can be recommended for the farmers even in extreme weather conditions.
Background: water shortage is one of the major factor effects on growth characters and yield of most crops. Objective: this study was conducted to get to know the reactions of some Egyptian cotton genotypes to water deficit. Methods: The genetic materials used in this study included thirteen cotton genotypes belonging to Gossypium barbadens...e L., from the Cotton Research Institute (CRI), which was devoted to establishing the experimental materials for this investigation. Results: the ratio of GCA/SCA was less than unity for all studied indices, indicating predominance of non-additive gene action (dominance and epistasis), which is an important in exploitation of heterosis through hybrid breeding. Results: The data showed significant reduction in water relationship characters for all parental genotypes under stress conditions. The Egyptian variety Giza 68 gave high values for most water relationship characters. Data revealed that the greater the value of tolerance index is, the larger the yield reduction is under water deficit conditions and the higher the stress sensitivity is becoming. The parental genotypes Giza 96 showed the highest reduction in yield under water deficit conditions. At the same time, the cross combination Minufy x Australy showed higher values of yield reduction followed by the combinations Giza 67 x Australy. Of the male parents, the Russian genotype 10229 recorded the best GCA values for most water relationship characters. At the same time, the female parents, the old Egyptian genotype Giza 67 recorded the best values and exhibited good general combined for most water relationship characters. The cross combinations Giza 86 x Pima S6, Giza 77 x Pima S6, Giza 94 x Dandra and Giza 96 x Australy showed significant desirable SCA effect for most characters. Conclusion: relative water content %, osmotic pressure, chlorophyll and carotenoids content indicates better availability of water in the cell, which increases the photosynthetic rate. Also, the higher level of proline accumulation in the leaves which was recorded under deficit water suggests that the production of proline is probably a common response of plant under water deficit conditions.
Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis (CAE) is a group of diseases in goats caused by a retrovirus, namely the Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus. CAEV belongs to the lentivirus group within the retrovirus family. The CAEV is intimately associated with white blood cells, therfore any body secretions which contain white blood cells are a potential so...urce of virus to other goats in the flock. Once goats are infected with CAEV, it remains infected for life and has to be eliminated.
Since not all goats infected with CAEV progress to disease, very important to test goats for infection using a serology test (ELISA, AGID, IDT). These serological tests demonstrate the presence of antibodies to CAEV in goat serum or detect the virus genome in the white blood cells. However, Swiss results (Dolf and Ruff, 1994) pointed out individual and species differencies in predisposition for this disease. This result was considered as a starting point to our examination. Microsatellite analysis was used in order to find whether there was any association between genotype and serological results, and to look for a marker associated with this disease. To date, altogether 135 goats have been examined. Unfortunately, a significant association between serological results and genotype was not found using the Chi2 test
In this study, we selected three hybrids (Armagnac, Loupiac, and Sushi) for evaluation of the effect of traits in genotype in Debrecen. In 2017, the total rainfall from May to October was 314 mm in Debrecen, which was 236 mm in the winter period before sowing. The obtained results showed that there was a positive correlation between the weight...of the cob maize and the rate of seed/cob, number of rows with number of seeds in column and outer diameter ear with weight of cob and number of rows in grain per ear and the rate of seed / cob; Also, there was a negative correlation between grain weight in ear with seed/cob rate, outer diameter ear and the rate of seed/cob and outer diameter ear with the number of leaves. There was a positive correlation between stem diameter, Seed/cob rate and the number of nodes by GGE biplot. In addition, there are traits of weight of all seeds and outer ear diameter that had the highest effect on average yield. Moreover, the number of seeds per row showed the least effect on the average yield of hybrids.
H-FABP, LEPR and MC5R genes were suggested as candidate genes for fat content in pig meat. The aim of this study was to detect genetic variation in the porcine H-FABP, LEPR and MC5R genes by PCR-RFLP method in a group of pigs. Genotyping of pigs was done by PCRRFLP methods. We identified three genotypes in the set of pigs, HH (0.504), Hh (0.412...) and hh (0.084) for H-FABP (HinfI). Allele H showed higher frequency than allele h (0.710 vs. 0.290). Three genotypes were identified for the H-FABP (HaeIII) gene (DD - 0.194, Dd - 0.494, dd - 0.312). The allele D (0.441) showed slightly lower frequency than allele d (0.559). All three genotypes were identified for LEPR (HpaII) in the group of pigs (AA – 0.137, AB - 0.314, BB – 0.549). Higher frequency of LEPR gene was confirmed for allele B (0.706), as compared with allele A (0.294). We identified two genotypes for MC5R (BsaHI) in the group of pigs (AA - 0.348 and AG - 0.652), genotype GG was not found. As conforms with genotype structure, we recognize a higher frequency of allele A (0.674) as compared with allele G (0.326).
Maintaining saline grasslands in good condition, preserving their yield and diversity is important not only for the purpose of nature conservation, but also for farming. Therefore, the primary purpose of our study is to analyse the effect of pasture use of the smaller weight extensive and the larger weight intensive beef cattle on the grassland... vegetation and nutrient content. In this way, we can answer the question whether grazing for nature conservation can be achieved with more profitable, more economical and more intense varieties.
The tests were carried out in May 2016 and May 2017, in the Hortobágy National Park (Pap-ere and Zám puszta), where a total of 16 sample areas were analysed. These areas are grazed with extensive beef cattle (Hungarian grey) and mixed genotype of intensive cattle. The associations were selected along a moisture gradient, such as wet salt marsh (Bolboschoenetum maritimi) and drier saline meadow (Beckmannion eruciformis). All the vegetative material collected both years in May was analysed for the following parameters: dry matter, crude protein, crude fibre and life-sustaining net energy content. We compared the effects of medium grazing (0.46 livestock/ha) and abandonment on vegetation and nutrient content.
We examined the effect of (i) grazing, (ii) different grasslands (salt marsh, saline meadow) and (iii) grazing of different cattle breeds (Hungarian grey, intensive beef) on the nutrient content of the vegetation of grasslands Based on our results, it was found that grazing had an impact on crude protein and life-sustaining net energy content. The highest crude protein content (12.75 m/m%) was obtained in the year 2017 in the area where higher density had been grazed for two years. For the lifesustaining net energy, the highest value (5.05 MJ/kg d.m.) was also obtained in 2017 and the lowest in 2016. Furthermore, it was found that there was no significant difference between the effect of the two cattle breeds on the parameters examined. Significant effects were observed only in the case of life-sustaining net energy: in the area of intensive beef cattle we received a higher value (5.15 MJ/kg body weight) than in the area with extensive beef cattle (4.96 MJ/kg body weight).
Our results have also shown that cattle grazing is of the utmost importance for the maintenance of both wet and mesophilous habitats. Based on our three-year study, we can say that grazing by both extensive and intensive cattle breeds is suitable for the management of saline habitats.
Agriculture has traditionally an important role in Hungarian economy and rural development. About 75 % of Hungary’s total territory
is under agricultural land use. Because of ecological conditions and production traditions cereals (wheat, maize etc) have the greatest
importance in Hungarian crop production. In the 1980’s the country-a
crop production-model). In the 1990’s the yields of wheat dropped to 4,0 t ha-1 because of low input-using and wide application of the issues
of environmental protection and sustainability. Winter wheat production for quality has a decisive role in certain regions of Hungary
(eastern and middle-parts).
The quality of wheat is complex and different. Three major growing factor groups determine the quality of winter wheat: genotype,
agroecological conditions and agrotechnical factors. In wheat production for quality the selection of the variety is the most important
element. Our long-term experiments proved that the quality traits of a variety means the highest (maximum) limit of quality which could not
be exceeded in fact. During the vegetation period of wheat the different ecological and agrotechnical factors could help or on the contrary
could demage the quality parameters of wheat.
The agrotechnical factors determining the baking quality of wheat can be divided into two groups: the first group means the factors with
direct effects on quality (fertilization, irrigation, harvest); the second group contains the elements with indirect effects on quality (crop
rotation, tillage, planting, crop protection).
Appropriate fertilization could help to manifest the maximum of quality parameters of a wheat genotype and could reduce the qualityfluctuation
in unfavourable ecological and agrotechnical conditions.
In order to produce sunflower in Hungary today it is important to develop hybrid-specific cropping technologies. The ever widening number of hybrids makes the constant examination of genotypes necessary from the viewpoint of genotype-environment interactions and critical elements. Plant density as a complex factor puts strain on the pathologica...l features, yield and quality of sunflower. The experiment’s main objective is to find the optimal plant density for both the genotype and external factors.
As a result it can be stated that the optimal crop density is between 45,000-75,000 plant/ha. In 2001 the optimal density was 55,000 plant/ha. The Aréna PR and the Alexandra PR hybrids produced the greatest yields (3511 kgha-1; 3338 kgha-1). In the growing season of 2002, the yields were higher than in the previous year and the optimal crop density was 45,000-65,000 plant/ha. The best yields were produced by the Aréna PR and Alexandra PR hybrids in this year again (4102 kgha-1; 4267 kgha-1) and in 2003, 45,000-65,000 plant/ha proved to be the best crop density. The highest yield was produced by the Alexandra PR.
Analyzing the growing seasons of 2001, 2002 and 2003 it can be declared that as a result of dry climate of the three years yields were higher. It can be stated that the yield is decreased by higher than average of precipitation in the growing season.
...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Authors estimated the genetic parameters and genotype effects of average daily gain (ADG), age (AGE) and lean meat percentage (LMP) using the field test data of Pietrain (Pi), Duroc (Du), Hampshire (Ha) pigs and their crosses. Data was collected by the Agricultural Agency of Administration between 1998 and 2010 originating from 68 herds. Datasets of the different crossing combinations (Pi, Du, Pi × Du; Pi, Ha Pi × Ha) were evaluated separately using bivariate animal models. The estimated heritabilities were moderately low: 0.24–0.29, 0.22–0.26 and 0.18–0.19 for average daily gain (ADG), age (AGE) and lean meat percentage (LMP), respectively. The estimated genetic correlation coefficients were negligible: -0.07–0.01 (ADG-LMP), -0.01–0.04 (AGE-LMP). The Pi × Ha and Pi × Du crosses showed 6.76% and 4.96%; 6.74% and 4,17% and 0.08% and 0.44% heterosis for ADG, AGE and LMP, respectively. Among the environmental factors the herd effects were substantial: 41.17%, 53.67% and 14.16% for AGD, AGE and LMP, respectively. The smallest environmental influences were found for LMP.
The author investigated 153 lambs of nine genotypes originating from breeding flocks, and 50 lambs originating from production flocks. The investigations were performed between 1995 and 1998. The authors discuss the evaluation of comformation and fat cover according to EUROP standards. The authors also investigate the proportion of valuable mea...t by genotype, and – out of the internal value indicators – the dry-matter, protein, fat, connective-tissue and hemin contents comparing the flavour, aroma, tenderness, and oven loss of the different genotypes.
The following findings should be highlighted:
♦ The Hungarian Merino breed should be improved, as – according to EUROP standards, more than 70% of these animals were rated as quality „R”.
♦ Hungarian fattening technology has to be preserved, as the lambs reach the desired slaughter weight within a short period of time, and without over-fattening.
♦ Readiness for slaughter, typical of each genotype, has to be defined, and slaughter at proper weight be achieved.
♦ It has to be re-evaluated whether the Hungarian Merino is the only breed which can be used in Hungary, as none of the investigations really proved the special characteristics and significance of this breed.
The author summarizes the findings of the investigation in five tables.
Maize is the crop that is produced on the second largest area in our country, in Hungary. It is planted on nearly 25% of the country’s growing area and it was produced on 1 090 439 hectares in 2016. Despite the continuous development of the biological basis and production
technology, the growth of the yield results is not constant, its flu
The results of the extensive tests, done between 2009 and 2015, showed that the genotype, the year effect and the plant density are in strong correlation with each other determining the yield results. In the past seven years the examined genotypes reached the highest yield
performance at the highest plant densities. The early hybrids (RM90–95, FAO 200–300) are capable of producing them at higher plant density, while in case of the mid and late maturity varieties the further increasing of the density after reaching the optimum level led to yield depression.
According to our experimental results, the yield is in close positive correlation with the increase of the plant density. The effect of the growing season has great significance in forming the yield results and this determines the applicable plant density too.
The yield of maize is determined by a resultant of components. The main component is the number of ears per plant and the amount of kernels per ear, which is calculated from the number of kernels on an ear and the weight of them. The number of the kernels on an ear is
calculated from the number of rows on the cob multiplied by the number of seeds in one row on the cob. In dry years, at lower yield levels the yield decreases because of the shorter ears, while at the higher levels the number of kernels in a row and the thousand-kernel weight decreases,causing yield depression this way. From our examinations it turned out that the plant density reaction of a genotype is individual, every variety reaches its maximum kernel number per hectare – in other words the maximum yield - in an individual way.
We have analyzed the effect of grain maize and sunflower forecrop on three different winter wheat genotype (GK Csillag, Mv Csárdás, Mv Toldi) regarding to the spike number and yield in different fertilization levels in the 2012/2013 cropyear. According to our data after sunflower forecrop we reached higher spike number and yield, which were i...nfluenced by the differences of the varieties. We found significant differences between the varieties in the control treatment. According to our research, GK Csillag has reached the highest yield in the examined fertilization levels and forecrop models too.
The level of mineral elements is important factor regarding the quality of milk. The aim of our research study was to determine the content of mineral elements in milk of Holstein, Jersey, Brown Swiss, Ayrshire, Norwegian-red, Swedish-red cows in the first stage of lactation. All cows were fed with the same type (composition) of feed and they w...ere kept under the same condition. The concentration of macroelements (K, Na, Ca, P, Mg, S) in digested milk samples was determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES).
Currently, maize is one of the most important crops (Zea mays L.) both globally and in Hungary. We compared physiological parameters of a maize genotype – p9903 – at two different experimental sites in a field experiment. Furthermore, we examined these parameters’ variability in individual plants on the leaves with different ages. Absolut...e chlorophyll content of the leaves were analysed, separately that of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b. We also measured the absolute carotenoid contents of leaves. Furthermore, we calculated these photosynthetic pigments’ content ratio. Specific leaf area (SLA) and dry matter weight were also measured in order to characterise plant production. The results obviously reflect the decreasing in the efficiency of photosynthetic apparatus on the low yield site. Otherwise, we identify significant differences only in certain cases of leaves.
...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The aim of this study was to define the connection between the leptin (LEP) gene T3469C polymorphism and its potential association with production traits in improved hybrid pigs. The study included data from 397 gilts and barrows from 2 different sample. The polymorphism was identified by using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment-length polymorphism (PCR–RFLP) method with HinfI restriction enzyme. Two alleles of LEP gene were identified: T (0.93) an C (0.07). The analysis of values of production traits, depending on LEP genotype did not reveal significant (P≤0.05) differences. In the examination the loin diameter (between the 2nd and 3rd ribs), the live weight at slaughter and the averege daily gain during fattening were higher at pigs with C allele than pigs with TT genotipe. Accordingt to our data the effect of C allele was favourable in this population, because these animals had bigger bodyweight without valuable change of lean meat percent.
In order to ensure modern Hungarian sunflower production, the development of hybrid-specific techniques are highly important. The continual expansion in hybrid choice makes the examination of genotypes necessary in the relation of genotype and environment interactions and critical factors. The Plant density as a complex determinant factor has a... strong effect on sunflower yield, quality and plant hygiene. As a result of the experiments, we can state that the optimal density was 45.000-65.000 plant/hectar. In 2001-2002, the optimal density was 45.000-55.000 plant/hectar; while in 2000, it was 65.000 plant/hectar.
Maize yield amount development is determined by the given crop year and the genotype of the applied hybrid, but beside these also by the applied agrotechnical factors, in particular by sowing technology. The development of yield amount and yield producing factors of five maize hybrids of different genotypes has been studied in a small-plot fiel...d experiment by the application of different row spacings and plant density variants. The production of the individual plants shows decreasing tendency parallel to the increasing plant density, however, this decrement is compensated by the higher number of plants per unit production area. Individual plant production is determined by the development of yield producing factors, such as the length and the diameter of cobs, just as by the thousand seed weight – that were studied in the present research work as well.
In the present research work the decreasing row spacing resulted in a yield increment of 0.67 t ha-1 (4.53%) in 2013, while in contrast in 2014 yield was decreased by 1.75 t ha-1 (14.87%). The high amount of precipitation in March was determinant in 2013: it filled up the soil water stock and balanced the negative effect of the inadequate amount and distribution of precipitation during the vegetation period for the yield. Lower extent of yield increment (0.6 t ha-1) was registered in 2014 in case of the row spacing of 76 cm than in the previous year. In case of a row spacing of 45 cm the difference between the two crop years was 3.1 t ha-1. The highest impact on the yield production factors was found in all treatment combinations in case of the applied hybrid among the three studied treatment factors. In the crop year of 2014 the effect of plant density on cob diameter and thousand seed weight could be revealed as well. In case of the cob diameter significant difference was found between the plant densities of 70 000 and 90 000 plants ha-1, just as between the populations with densities of 50 000 and 90 000 plants ha-1. In case of the thousand seed weight significant differences could be found by the application of plant densities of 70 000 and 90 000 plants ha-1. The highest values of the studied yield producing factors were measured in case of the plant densities of 50 000 and 70 000 plants ha-1; increasing the plant density to 90 000 plants ha-1 resulted in rather decreasing values.
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of supplemental n-6 and n-3 fatty acids on sow’s milk fatty acid composition during the lactation period and on reproductive efficiency of sows in the subsequent gestation period. Data were collected on a total of 213 DanBred sows (108 control and 105 experimental) representing parity of... 2–7, respectively. Control and experimental sows were placed in the same housing conditions during lactation and gestation period. Control group received 6.3 g of sunflower oil (SO) per kg feed as n-6 fatty acid supplementation, whilst experimental animals received the same amount of fish oil (FO) as n-3 fatty acid source. Diets were corn meal-extracted soybean meal based. The experiment was conducted in one replication as being a part of a longer and more comprehensive trial. It was found that the consumed long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) appeared in the sow’s milk and changed its fatty acid profile. With this alteration, the n-6/n-3 ratio of experimental (FO) sows’ milk were narrower than in SO group (SO: 13.82 vs. FO: 5.89). The benefits of n-3 fatty acids supplementation were evident for the subsequent reproduction cycle, when experimental sows heated more reliable and earlier than control (weaning to oestrus interval: SO: 5.86 vs. FO: 4.48 days). Only 2.33% of experimental sows (FO) did not heat within 7 days after weaning, but this was 12.36% in the control group (SO). The present study requires further research to evaluate the effect of n-3 fatty acids on maintenance of pregnancy and improved subsequent litter size.