In Hungary, black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) is considered as an important exotic stand-forming tree species growing mostly under unfavourable ecological conditions for forest management. Due to climate change effects, its importance is increasing in many other countries, too. As a result of a selection programme, new black locust clones...were tested in clone trials. Juvenile growth of 12 micropropagated black locust clones in two plots series established at different dates were evaluated in central Hungary under marginal site conditions. At age of 7 the clone R. p. ‘Bácska’ (‘KH 56A2/5’), at age of 10 the clones R.p. ‘Homoki’ (‘MB17D3/4’) and ‘PV201E2/4’ appeared to be especially promising for mass production. Based on the data obtained from the performed trials, it can also be concluded that tissue culture can be considered as a suitable tool for propagating superior individuals and offers new prospects for the rapid cloning of selected genotypes used for plantation forestry.
An intensive integrated research and development work has been carried out on the improvement of Leuce poplars including primarily the native white poplar (Populus alba L.) and its natural hybrid grey poplar (Populus × canescens). More than 70 percent of the Leuce poplar stands can be found on calcareous sandy sites in the Danube–Tisza regio...n, so they play a significant role in the poplar management of this part of the country. The most important task ahead of Hungarian poplar growers is to improve the quality of poplar stands and plantations based on selecting new clones and cultivars. The growth and yield of four promising Leuce poplar clones was evaluated on a marginal site in central Hungary. The clones ‘H 425-4’ (Populus alba L. × Populus alba L.), and ‘H 758’ (Populus alba L. Mosonmagyaróvár 124) seem to be suitable for wood production, while the ‘H 427-3’ (Populus alba L. × Populus alba L. cv. Bolleana) and ‘H 422-9’ (Populus alba L. × Populus grandidentata (Michx)) clones (with decorative stem form) could be better used for tree lines and ornamental plantations.
Heating with wooden chips would provide a significantly cheaper energy production alternative for the local governments in heating their facilities and in district heating as well. The raw material should be available in the appropriate quality, quantity and at the right time. This type of heating requires the well-organized and joint work of t...he forestry, transporting, processing and receiving plants. This activity might be realized in the form of non-profit clusters. In order not to suffer any losses, the participants of the product path should carry out a very careful planning regarding the factors appearing in heating with wood but missing from gas heating. One such critical element is the transportation distance which might make the basically cost-efficient wooden chip-based heating process significantly more expensive.
One of the main findings of my paper is that the transportation distance should be at most 23 kilometers for the wooden chips to be worth (economical) using against gas. From the viewpoint of practical use, this can be interpreted as the distance between the forestry and heatproducing units. By determining the constant and varying costs of transporting and chopping and from calculating the initial contribution, I concluded that the profit-making capacity of the product path would be sufficient for an energy-related investment. According to my calculations, by remaining within the economical transporting distance of 23 kilometers, such long-term savings might be achieved compared to gas heating which would partly cover the establishment of a biomass-based power plant or heating plant.
This paper primarily aims at giving an introduction to an alternative opportunity for vineyards owners many of whom have come to a
decision about elimination of their vineyards. The paper is focusing on the Mátra wine-region as a study area, which is the largest mountain
wine region in Hungary where more than one third of supported clear
abandoning of vineyards is explicable in more than one way such as very small average size of land or the increasing mean age of owners
etc. The fundamental reason is the chronic doubtfulness of the grape and wine market and the low level of overall profitability of production.
Grape production has a long tradition in this region, thus the disappearance of vineyards caused serious problems in land use through the
absolute lack of plans for the future. The popularity of biomass production in the press and the biofuel resultant from vine stocks raise
interest for short rotation forestry within a group of farmers. Short rotation forestry offers a new chance for some farmers to cut oneself adrift
from the harmful effects of the market of agricultural products.
Different bacteria and wood ash, as a possible micro-nutrient, and liming material, was examined in our experiment on the early growth of corn seedlings.
The development of renewing energy resources includes the use of energy grasses and energy forests. The intensive land use in forestry and in agriculture may cause the acidification of... soils due to the harvest, or leaching of cations. To maintain the sustainability of soils necessary to maintain it’s the buffer capacity, and pH. Beside the lime the wood ash can is one of the most effective sources to provide the sustainability of intensive land use. The soil born micro organisms play a significant role in the maintenance of soil quality. The bio fertilizer, that contains soil originated bacteria (Azotobacter, and Bacillus sp.), was used in the experiments. The plants release several organic acids by their roots lowering the soil pH, and make more available the sparingly soluble minerals. The amounts of released organic matter depend on stress intensity, as the high pH is. The soil life has a significant role to keep the soil conditions on sustainable level, since there are several similarities in nutrient uptake mechanism between the bacteria and higher plants. Advantageous effects of bio-fertilizer were observed in our experiments.
We came to the conclusion that the use of wood ash is recommended instead of lime for the improvement of acidic soils, on the evidence of its pH increasing effect. The wood ash contains several micronutrients in an optimum composition for forestry and agricultural plants. The solubility of heavy metals is very low; therefore there is no risk to use the wood ash in the agriculture and in the horticulture by our experiments. The retardation of growth at higher ash doses can be explained by the modification effect to the soil pH, as far as the original soil pH was pH 6.8, and when ash was given to the soil, the pH increases to 7.8 pH, that is unfavourable for the uptake of most nutrients.
Both the European and the Hungarian rural areas suffer multi dimensional problems. Beside infrastructural under development the most important difficulty is employment. Unemployment is significant in the rural areas, while other structural characteristics like education, profession, work circumstances and seasonality worsen this unfavourable si...tuation. It can be stated that the challenge with the highest priority in rural and spatial
development is to create jobs and to strengthen local employment. The authors examine the job generating possibilities of energetic biomass of agricultural origin in a structural point of view. The aim is to develop spatial biomass product line models that permanently support the raise of employment by utilizing the possibilities of the European Union support policy and the popularity of this branch.
The nature conservation park, which belongs to the Spa and St. Andrew Hospital for Rheumatics of Hévíz, is 60 ha in size. The famous Lake of Hévíz, the two overfalls and the main buildings of the hospital are located in the middle of the park. They are surrounded by protective forests, parks and gravel esplanades. During the past few decade...s, the population of neophyton plants and invasive insects have increased considerably. These mean serious challanges to develop efficient control methods. Special care must be taken of environmental and plant protection regulations. Keeping plant protective regulations are especially strict around natural and spa waters.
The role of retaining population in agriculture is stronger and more significant in the long run in the North Great Plain Region compared to other regions. The region has a significant processing industry along with a good basis for producing raw materials, developed food processing capicity and high quality agricultural products typical of the... region. The GDP in agriculture, forestry and game management is somewhat higher than the national average.
Variety is of cardinal importance when establishing the quality of horticultural products and determining the product value. The Hungarian breeding results of apple, quince, apricot, cherry, raspberry, red and black currant are promising.
The regulation system of EU the vegetable and fruit market is based on Retail Cooperatives Producers. With the establishment of national vegetable- and fruit production and retail organizations, the market regulation, production and quality development issues of the sector can be handled and solved. Reaching EU standards in fruit production can only be achieved with up-to-date plantation systems and breed selection. A key issue in development is establishing the required financial resources for investments and updating production. In order to reach these standards, significant state subsidies and good credit conditions are needed. By solving these tasks, the sector is expected to become self-financed without government help.
The pursuit of safer production, improving quality and increasing yields require the establishment of up-to-date irrigation systems. The improvement of family farms, motivating land concentration is necessary for increasing average size of plants. Establishing the above mentioned conditions is important since the vegetable-fruit sector is of great significance in the employment of rurally based population, improving their living conditions and executing rural development programs.
The Game Reserve of Nagydobrony extends on a marginal area of a former peatland and is covered with extended hardwood gallery forests and oak-hornbeam forests and is surrounded by a mosaic-like agricultural landscape. Due to its richness of nature-like and semi-natural habitats it supports a diverse insect assemblage. By light and bait trapping... 383 species of macro-moths were recorded from which larvae of 85 species are feeding either on forest trees and scrubs or on cultivated plants thus these can be considered as potential pest species. Thirteen species (mostly Geometridae and Erebidae: Lymantriinae) have a special significance for forestry due to defoliating activity in gradation periods. Considering the habitat connections, the composition of moth assemblage is dominated by generalist species with broad spectrum of ecological tolerance but the species connected with humid forested habitats are also richly represented. The bulk of species consists of widely distributed Euro-Siberian species, but also some Holo-Mediterranean species with more southern character and Mediterranean-Subtropical migrant species were registered. The bait trapping provided significant results on the phenology of the dominant species. The faunistically significant and/or protected species were observed in a low number of individuals only, thus the applied trapping methods did not damage the faunal composition.
...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Every year, a significant amount of vineyard prunings is generated in Hungary. Instead of utilization them, it is burned directly on the field in spite of the limitations of legalization highly pollute the environment in recent decades. The vineyard pruning itself or with other by-products from pomology and forestry can be significant amount of fuel source. However, before the planning to utilization the essential task is to estimate the potential. This study examine that how many vineyard is generated in the micro-region of Gyöngyös in every year on appointed vineyard.
The utilisation of renewable energy sources have come to front with the decreasing fossil fuel stocks, the unsolved problems and fears of nuclear energy and so the cumulating energy dependence. In Hungary the potential of biomass is the largest in renewable energy sources.
During our examinations, we analysed the promotion of producing energ
The expected growth rate of energy plantations will be low, according to the low rate of subsidy intensity (40-60%). The uncertainty of direct area payments decreases the calculability that cuts back the favour of investment in short rotation forestry planting.
...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">One of the most important method of habitat development is wildlife forage ground management. Many plant species can be grown on the crop fields, as mixture, too. Use of seed mixtures has not been spread on the native wildlife forage ground, however there are many advantages of them.
Some physiological effects of bacteria containing fertilizer and some wood ash were examined in the experiments. The minimization of the use of chemicals in agriculture has been an ongoing challenge. One option lies in the intenzification of soil life. The release of organic matters by the roots and bacteria play a significant role in the uptak...e of minerals. The main problem to usilize wood ash in agriculture is its heavy metal contents. The solubility of heavy metals is very low, therefore there is no risk to use the wood ash in the agriculture and in the horticulture according to our experiments. The wood ash and biofertilizer contains several micronutrients in an optimum composition for forestry and agricultural plants.
Agroforestry systems are part of the history of the European Union rural landscapes, but the regional increase of size of agricultural parcels had a significant effect on European land use in the 20th century, thereby it has radically reduced the coverage of natural forest. However, this cause conflicts between interest of agricu...ltural and forestry sectors. The agroforestry land uses could be a solution of this conflict management. One real – ecological – problem with the remnant forests and new forest plantation is the partly missing of network function without connecting ecological green corridors, the other problem is verifiability for the agroforestry payment system, monitoring the arable lands and plantations.
Remote sensing methods are currently used to supervise European Union payments. Nowadays, next to use satellite imagery the airborne hyperspectral and LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) remote sensing technologies are becoming more widespread use for nature, environmental, forest, agriculture protection, conservation and monitoring and it is an effective tool for monitoring biomass production.
In this Hungarian case study we made a Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS) to create agroforestry site selection model. The aim of model building was to ensure the continuity of ecological green corridors, maintain the appropriate land use of regional endowments. The investigation tool was the more widely used hyperspectral and airborne LiDAR remote sensing technologies which can provide appropriate data acquisition and data processing tools to build a decision support system.
Agriculture is the leading national economic sector of Hajdú-Bihar county. The proportion of employees in this sector and the share of pro ducts produced in this region is above the country average. The contribution of agriculture to the GDP is 6.3%, as opposed to the average value of the country (3.3%). Based on their primary activity, 8% of...the enterprises in the county are classified as agricultural and forestry companies, while this proportion is only 5.3% in the whole country.
Nearly three quarters (71.1%) of the sowing area is occupied by maize and other cereals, mainly wheat. This proportion is slightly more than the country average (69.2%). The proportional area of oil crops - including sunflower – and roughage is nearly the same as the country average. However, there is a significant difference in vegetable production. Due to the higher intensity of vegetable production, the area occupied by vegetables is three times the country average. 19.4% of the crop products, 23.5% of animal products and living animals, 25.8% of the income generated by production factors and 29.8% of net enterprise income of Hungary originates from the North Great Plain region.
The facilitation of creating local markets, e.g. local public food supply, satisfying the needs of food trade with local goods, the necessary awareness raising actions, secondary and higher education of experts, as well as the more specific and targeted utilisation of development resources are agricultural development tasks.
The black grouse in Hungary is an extinct but a native and protected species now. In the 19th century, they used to be common in the so called Nyírség, the North-Eastern part of the Hungarian Great Plains.
The project to re-patriate black grouse was started in 2005 by the Nyírség Company of Forestry. We studied the conditions of keeping
We also started to make a database of the whole bird stock, containing biometrical data from every individual specimen and data about the eggs (weight, length, width) and nestlings (weekly weight growth). In the future, we will continue our work to breed black grouse and re-patriate the new offspring, which will be nearby wild populations in a similar bio-geographic environment. In a few years it is hoped we will be able to accomplish a wild population in a natural habitat. Our work is now to breed these birds in captivity – similar to their natural habitat – prior to their release into the wild, in order to preserve biodiversity for our descendants through re-patriating black grouse here in Hungary as well.
The economic condition of an area is fundamentally determined by the extent of employement, as well as the size and composition of its active population. No sustainable economic growth is possible without the necessary amount of employees with the proper skills.
As regards the proportion of employees, i.e. economically active people is...significanlty lower in Hungary than not only in Western Europe, but also countries which joined the EU recently. One of the reasons for this fact is the low amount of part-time employment and the other is the phenomenon that the number of agricultural employees – who had a significant role – greatly decreased in the county.
The employment level of the population in the county is nearly identical as that of the North Great Plain region and it is lower than the country average. The activity proportion, i.e. the joint proportion of employees and unemployed people in the population between 15–74 years of age is 3 percentages lower than the country average. The proportion of unemployed people greatly varies depending on the small regions of the county. The proportion of registered unemployed people in the population of active age is the lowest in Debrecen and the highest in the Hajdúhadház small region. The unemployment of career-starters is a further problem to deal with.
The composition of employees in the county is different than the country average. When compared in terms of different economic sectors, it can be observed that agriculture, game management, forestry and fishery are more significant than the country average. Of the provider sectors, the proportion of financial activity, real estate matters and economic services is lower, while that of accommodation services and hospitality is higher than the country average.
There are regional differences similar to unemployment in terms of the income size which is the basis of personal income tax per taxpayer.
The income level in the North Great Plain region is lower than the country average mainly in terms of income paid for work, where this difference is 23%, while it is only 5% in the case of social income. Altogether, the income and expenditure data of the North Great Plain region are not favourable.
Some physiological effects of bacteria containing fertilizer and some wood ash were examined in the experiments. The minimization of the use of chemicals in agriculture has been an ongoing challenge. One option lies in the intenzification of soil life. The release of organic matters by the roots and bacteria play a significant role in the uptak...e of minerals. The main problem to usilize wood ash in agriculture is its heavy metal contents. The
solubility of heavy metals is very low, therefore there is no risk to use the wood ash in the agriculture and in the horticulture according to our experiments. The wood ash and biofertilizer contains several micronutrients in an optimum composition for forestry and agricultural plants.
Common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca L.) is one of the most noxious and invasive weed species in Hungary. A. syriaca invades arable lands, horticultural and forestry plantations, natural and semi-natural habitats too. In cases of field crops it can cause considerable yield losses mostly in maize (2–10%), soybean (12–32%) and sorghum (4–29%)..., but only with high rate of coverage. It can also increase these problems that the common milkweed can be serve as reservoir and host for viruses, other pathogens and pests.
Because of the importance of common milkweed and in spite of demand to develop effective biological control, until now has not been developed a proper control program against A. syriaca. The aim of our research was to identify the necrotrophic fungal pathogens, which were involved in notable disease occurrence on this weed in different parts of Hajdúság region of Eastern-Hungary in 2016.
To the isolation of fungi from leaves and their identification were based on morphological colony characters on potato dextrose agar (PDA) and Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA). To the description of conidia features were used PDA for Alternaria and synthetic low-nutrient agar (SNA) for Fusarium species, respectively. The examination of axenic cultures revealed that the fungi isolated from the leaves of common milkweed were Fusarium sporotrichioides and Alternaria alternata.
Our study prepared as a brief version of National Report in the frame of EUROLAN Programme. We deal with the interpretation of some definitions (marginalisation of land use, multifunctionality of land use, marginalisation of agriculture, multifunctionality of agriculture), with sorting and reviewing indicators of marginalisation and finally wit...h the analysis of functions of land use. We suggested a dynamic and a static approach of marginalisation. We can explore the dynamic process by time series and the static (regional) one by cross-section analyses.
It is very hard to explain the perspective of the future of marginalisation of land and of agriculture in Hungary. The process of marginalisation seems faster in the agriculture in the coming years, but it depends on the utilisation of new possibilities given by the EU financial resources and by the Common Market. At this moment agriculture seems one of the big losers of the accession.
In the long term we should face considerable challenges in the land use. It is necessary to take into account that there is a supply market of foods and traditional fibre production world-wide. There are limited possibilities to produce and to market for example biodiesel (fuel), bioethanol, or maybe biogas. Thus the environment and landscape preservation becomes more and more real land use alternatives.
The environmental interpretation of the multifunctionality of land use: activities (functions) of environmental preservation and nature conservation in a certain area, which aim to preserve natural resources by the existing socio-economic conditions.
Preservation of rural landscapes is the task mainly for land-users, who can be commanded by legal means and can be encouraged by economic measures to carry out the above activity. In the recent past measures of „command and control” type regulation were predominant, however nowadays, especially in the developed countries, the role of economic incentives increases.
As a conclusion of our analysis we can state that as long as the main land-dependent activities (agriculture, forestry, housing, tourism, local mining) cease to be viable under an existing socio-economic structure, then it is hardly possible to sustain the rural landscape on an appropriate level by non-commodity products (such as environment preservation, cultural heritage, nature conservation, employment etc.).
1 The study was prepared in the frame of EUROLAN (EU-5 Framework Project), QLK5-CT-2002-02346, as a compiled version of the Hungarian National Report, The national project co-ordinator: Prof. Dr. Gabor Szabo.
A part of places with high ecological values coincides with the areas with unfavourable agricultural endowments and underdeveloped micro-regions. We think so that the marginalisation preserves the non-environmental-sound activities and hinders the development of multifunctional agriculture and this process can change only by joint utilisation of endogenous and exogenous resources and methods. Thus the successful programmes for agri-environmental protection and multifunctional land use can serve the moderation of negative effects of marginalisation or maybe the marginalisation process itself.