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Assessment of Environmental Susceptibility/Vulnerability of Soils
Published December 10, 2002
62-74

Soils represent a considerable part of the natural resources of Hungary. Consequently, rational land use and proper soil management – to guarantee normal soil functions – are important elements of sustainable (agricultural) development, having special importance both in the national economy and in environment protection.
The main soil fu...nctions in the biosphere are as follows: conditionally renewable natural resource; reactor, transformer and integrator of the combined influences of other natural resources (solar radiation, atmosphere, surface and subsurface waters, biological resources), place of „sphere-interactions”; medium for biomass production, primary food-source of the biosphere; storage of heat, water and plant nutrients; natural filter and detoxication system, which may prevent the deeper geological formations and the subsurface waters from various pollutants; high capacity buffer medium, which may prevent or moderate the unfavourable consequences of various environmental stresses; significant gene-reservoir, an important element of biodiversity.
Society utilizes these functions in different ways (rate, method, efficiency) throughout history, depending on the given natural conditions and socio-economic circumstances. In many cases the character of the particular functions was not properly taken into consideration during the utilization of soil resources, and the misguided management resulted in their over-exploitation, decreasing efficiency of one or more soil functions, and – over a certain limit – serious environmental deterioration.
Soil resources are threatened by the following environmental stresses:
– soil degradation processes;
– extreme moisture regime;
– nutrient stresses (deficiency or toxicity);
– environmental pollution.
Environmental stresses caused by natural factors or human activities represent an increasing ecological threat to the biosphere, as well as a socio-economic risk for sustainable development, including rational land use and soil management.
The stresses are caused by the integrated impacts of various soil properties, which are the results of soil processes (mass and energy regimes, abiotic and biotic transport and transformation and their interactions) under the combined influences of soil forming factors. Consequently, the control of soil processes is a great challenge and the main task of soil science and soil management in sustainable development.
The efficient control of these processes necessitates the following consecutive steps:
• registration of facts and consequences (information on land and soil characteristics, land use, cropping pattern, applied agrotechnics, yields, with their spatial and temporal variability);
• evaluation of potential reasons (definition and quantification of soil processes, analysis of influencing factors and their mechanisms);
• assessment of the theoretical, real, rational and economic possibilities for the control of soil processes (including their risk-assessment and impact analysis);
• elaboration of efficient technologies for the „best” control alternatives (best management practice).
Scientifically based planning and implementation of sustainable land use and rational soil management to ensure desirable soil functions, without any undesirable environmental side-effects, require adequate soil information. In the last years such data were organized into a computer-based GIS soil database in Hungary, giving opportunities for the quantification, analysis, modelling and forecasting of the studied environmental stresses and for the efficient and scientifically based prevention, elimination or reduction of environmental stresses and their unfavourable ecological and economical consequences.
Special attention was paid to the assessment of various soil degradation processes, as: (1) soil erosion by water or wind; (2) soil acidification; (3) salinization and/or alkalization; (4) physical degradation (structure destruction, compaction); (5) extreme moisture regime: drought sensitivity and waterlogging hazard; (6) biological degradation; (7) unfavourable changes in the plant nutrient regime; (8) decrease of natural buffering capacity, (9) soil (and water) pollution.
The actions against undesirable environmental stresses and their unfavourable consequences are important elements of sustainable, efficient, economically viable, socially acceptable and environmentally sound crop production and agricultural development. These are joint tasks of the state, decision makers on various levels, the land owners, the land users and – to a certain extent – of each member of the society.

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From the Concept of Sustainable Development to the Subsidies of Agricultural Environmental Management
Published December 6, 2005
354-361

The most important aim of the study is to introduce the theoretical background of my PhD dissertation – agricultural environmental management –, in order to help the scientific foundations for my dissertation, which is in progress. For this reason I will try to clarify and systematize facts found in the special literature according to my ow...n thoughts, from a new aspect.
In my study, I therefore attempt to introduce the theoretical background of sustainable development as pertains to the subsidies of agricultural environmental management (National Agricultural Environmental Management Program, National Regional Development Plan, agricultural environmental management measures). Having clarified the concepts I place sustainable development in the economic theories directed to the treatment of environmental problems, introduce where subsidies are within the environmental regulation implements and I dwell on to the institutional questions in the explanation. I then study questions of sustainable agricultural economics. Accession to the European Union has to be considered as one of the most important concrete motivities of domestically coming into prominence of agricultural environmental subsidies therefore I think it is important to study how the problematic of sustainable development, sustainable agricultural development and agricultural environment protection worked out in the EU. Finally I survey the main characteristics of domestic agricultural environment management programs fitting into the theories explained above, how the program adjusts to the theories of sustainable development and sustainable agricultural development.
In the dissertation I begin with sustainable development as the broadest theoretical background, then I survey a narrower category, the theories of sustainable agricultural development and how concrete agricultural environmental programs fit into the studied theoretical relations.

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The study of environment-conscious attitudes in the food-industry companies of the Northern-Plain Region
Published July 28, 2008
155-163

that the world of business, profit and work is not a hermetically closed area, but is in interaction with its closer and wider surroundings, ultimately with society and the natural environment.
The affectedness of each sector and company varies. To be able to tackle these problems, first and foremost the commitment of companies towards envir...onmentally conscious attitude is necessary, which can form as a result of inner obligation or outer pressure. Thus companies will be concerned to measure and quantify the environmental effects of all activities.
Some of the companies have already given their votes for environment-protection. Both internationally and at home it seems that the responsible leaders of more and more companies build social, human rights and environmental protection considerations in the objects and values of the company apart from profit maximization.
In my thesis I present the data gathered from a questionnaire survey carried out with food-industry companies in the Northern-Plain Region. The aim of the survey was to evaluate the commitment of companies towards environmental protection via solid data. The fact that more than half of the respondents found the positive effects of environmental protection of little importance and that environmental protection was the last among the aims of some companies reflected greatly in the following outcomes.

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Evaluation of Hungarian show-jumping results using different measurement variables
Published May 6, 2013
81-85

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The aim of the study was to compare different fitted models for show-jumping results of sporthorses and to estimate heritability and repeatability value. Show-jumping competition results collected between 1996 and 2011 were analyzed. The database contained 358 342 starts of 10 199 horses. Identity number, name and gender of the horse, rider, competition year, the level and location of the competition and placing were recorded in the database. To measure performance of horses, placing, number of starters and competition level were used. Competitions were categorized into five groups based on their difficulty level. The used repeatability animal model included fixed effects for age, gender, competition place, year of competition (and competition level in case of non-weighted measurement variables), and random effects for rider, animal and permanent environment effect. Variance components were estimated with VCE-6 software package. The goodness-of-fit of the models was low and moderate. Heritability and repeatability values were low for each measurement variables. The best goodness-of-fit model the weighted square root of placing resulted the highest heritability and repeatability value h2=0.074 and R=0.296.

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The Importance of Environmental Research of the Great Hungarian Plain
Published March 4, 2006
9-16

The research of the Great Hungarian Plain has been going on for a long time and there are a lot of information could be used by environmental protection too. The connection between the two topics are diversified, that is why it is necessary to choose a few subject to explain. The chosen subjects are:
The protection of the geological media ca...nnot be solved, either practically and legally, with the protection of the separated elements of that, just if we see it as a system.
The prevention, which is the most effective (and also the most inexpensive) way of environmental protection, can be supported by the compilation of vulnerability- and risk maps (i.e. risk of inland water, erosion vulnerability, deflation vulnerability, contamination sensibility).
Survey on the environmental state containing indispensable geological information for the optimal land use and country planning of a region, county or settlement.
Marking out of the possible areas for waste depositing.

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Biological control of sweet chestnut on Pécsbánya, Hungary
Published June 30, 2018
77-81

The supervision of plant hygiene of sweet chestnut grove on Pécsbánya (South Hungary) started more than four years ago. Hypovirulent strains were applied as a biological process to control Cryphonectria parasitica fungus which causes the chestnut blight disease. By now the performed interventions have shown obviou...s results, the vitality of the trees has greatly improved, the amount of harvested nuts is increasing, and the hypovirulent strain has been spreading within the area. During plant health inspection the galls of chestnut gall wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus) was found in the year of 2015, which is the obvious symptom of new occurrence of the pest. The pest was eradicated by destroy galls, which allows taking out of consideration the damage by now in this area.

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Usage of Different Spectral Bands in Agricultural Environmental Protection
Published May 4, 2004
123-126

Hyper and multispectral imaging systems are widely used in agricultural and environmental protection. Remote sensing techniques are suitable for evaluating environmental protection hazarsd, as well as for agriculture resource exploration. In our research we compared aerial hyper and multispectral images, as well as multispectral digital camera ...images with the background data from the test site. Hyperspectral records were obtained using a new 80-channeled aerial spectrometer (Digital Airborne Imaging Spectrometer /DAIS 7915/. We have chosen two farms where intensive crop cultivation takes place, as test sites, so soil degradation and spreading of weeds can be intensive as a result of land use and irrigation. We took additional images of air and ground with a TETRACAM ADC wide band multispectral camera, which can sense blue, green and near infrared bands. We had detailed GIS database about the test site. Weed and vegetation map of the area in the spring and the summer was made in 2002. For soil salt content analysis, we gathered detailed data frome an 80x100 m area. When analyzing the images, we evaluated image reliability, and the connection between the bands and the soil type, pH and salt content, and weed mapping. In the case of hyperspectral images, our aim was to choose and analyze the appropriate band combinations. With a TETRACAM ADC camera, we made images at different times, and we calculated canopy, NDVI and SAVI indexes. Using the background data mentioned above, the aim of our study was to develop a spectral library, which can be used to analyze the environmental effects of agricultural land use.

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Agronomic research in Martonvásár, aimed at promoting the efficiency of field crop production
Published November 13, 2012
89-93

The effect of crop production factors on the grain yield was analysed on the basis of three-factorial experiments laid out in a split-split-plot design. In the case of maize the studies were made as part of a long-term experiment set up in 1980 on chernozem soil with forest residues, well supplied with N and very well with PK. The effects of fi...ve N levels in the main plots and four sowing dates in the subplots were compared in terms of the performance of four medium early hybrids (FAO 200). In the technological adaptation experiments carried out with durum wheat, the N supplies were moderate (2010) or good (2011), while the P and K supplies were good or very good in both years. Six N top-dressing treatments were applied in the main plots and five plant protection treatments in the subplots to test the responses of three varieties. 
The results were evaluated using analysis of variance, while correlations between the variables were detected using regression analysis.
The effect of the tested factors on the grain yield was significant in the three-factorial maize experiment despite the annual fluctuations, reflected in extremely variable environmental means. During the given period the effect of N fertilisation surpassed that of the sowing date and the genotype. Regression analysis on the N responses for various sowing dates showed that maize sown in the middle 10 days of April gave the highest yield, but the N rates required to achieve maximum values declined as sowing was delayed. 
In the very wet year, the yield of durum wheat was influenced to the greatest extent by the plant protection treatments, while N supplies and the choice of variety were of approximately the same importance.  In the favourable year the yielding ability was determined by topdressing and the importance of plant protection dropped to half,  while no  significant difference could be detected between the tested varieties. According to the results of regression analysis, the positive effect of plant protection could not be substituted by an increase in the N rate in either year. The achievement of higher yields was only possible by a joint intensification of plant protection and N fertilisation. Nevertheless, the use of more efficient chemicals led to a slightly, though not significantly, higher yield, with a lower N requirement. 

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Susceptibility of stem infected sweet corn hybrids to common smut disease
Published June 30, 2018
55-57

The common smut of maize (corn smut, Ustilago maydis /DC/ Corda) can cause large economic losses in susceptible sweet corn hybrids as well. The protection against this pathogen is fundamentally based on prevention. Many methods to control corn smut have been recommended or evaluated, including crop rotation, sanitation, seed treatments, modific...ation of fertility, and biological control. In spite of these frequently mentioned control strategies, the host resistance seems to be the only effective method to manage common smut in those areas where Ustilago maydis is prevalent.

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Review of the biology of plant psyllid (Cacopsylla pruni, Scopoli 1763), and its role in the spreading of European stone fruit yellows, ESFY-phytoplasma with Hungarian data
Published June 30, 2018
25-33

The European stone fruit yellows (ESFY) phytoplasma disease caused by pathogen ’Ca. Phytoplasma prunorum’ induces serious damages in cherry, sour cherry, peach, and apricot orchards mostly in Europe. Its known vector is the plum psyllid (Cacopsylla pruni). Many articles report on the biology (morphology, taxonomy, life cycle etc.) and the m...ethod of transmission of the pathogen by the vector, and the possibilities of their control. This paper reviews our knowledge about the vector, and summarises the results of an inland research carried out in a northeastern Hungarian apricot orchards. Our goal was to show some important data for the farmers or anyone who is interested in this disease and its vector. And give some known method that we can protect our orchards against them to prevent the appearance of the disease. As the psyllid that became infected with the pathogen can hold its infectionous capacity during their lifetime, it is very important to have enough knowledge about their lifecycle, that we can determine the right time and method to control them. We also have to know how to identify them; therefore, this paper lists several important data which can be helpful. The most important keys of identification are their wing color, which dark borwn in the apex and brown is in the remaining part of the forewing. The length of the antennae is also an important factor, since other genuse’s species have longer antennae than twice the width of the head. C. pruni has as long antennae as twice the width of the head. They return to Prunus species in early spring and we have to protect our orhards in this period against them. We have to use preparations with a knock down effect on them to prevent the inoculation of the pathogen into the trees in our orchards.

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Influence of Hydrological Parameters on the Biodiversity of the BerettyóRiver I.
Published December 6, 2005
215-229

The DIRECTIVE 2000/60/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL orders the measurement of the state of natural and artifical waters. We therefore applied environmental qualification methods, which allow inductions of the searched area in environmental management, conservation and water quality protection points of view. These methods are... accepted in interdisciplinary sciences, and are in use in Hungarian and international practice. We applied the range data measured along the Berettyó River, and ratified by the remote sensing, to count hydrological-hydraulical attributes of the stream, by the framework of the Hec-Ras programme. We processed the physical, chemical and biochemical water qualifications, determined the MMCP-index (the point-system of the Hungarian macrozoobenthos taxons), and estimated the Spencer index-numbers, which were based on complex environmental qualification and bioindication. Appointed, that the different results of researches are not inconsistent. This results together the spatial analysis reveal the natural and anthroponetic specialities of the river and the landscape, which determine the environmental flavours and biodiversity. The bioindicators represent better environmental status, than the physical, chemical and biochemical parameters. The natural conservationist importance of drainage canal network of Bihari-Plain is appreciated by these facts.

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Environmental Indicators – Agri-Environmental Indicators
Published May 4, 2004
248-255

close relation. This means that policies related to the economy and the environment cannot be handled without each other. The United Nations Conference (Stockholm, 1972) was the first global conference to signal that environment concerns have increasingly become subject of mainstream socio-economic policies. The process started in the Seventies..., laying emphasis on environment protection, plays an important role in the policy of international agencies. The use of environmental indicators is essential for monitoring the effects of environmental measures. The best way of evaluating sustainability if the results can be compared on a global level. International efforts are being made by the United Nations (UN), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the Statistical Office of the European Commission (Eurostat) and other international agencies to develop a framework for environment statistics. This study deals with these frameworks, paying attention to agri-environment indicators. Hungary became a member of the UN in 1955, of the OECD in 1996, and will become a member of the European Union in 2004. The first summary in connection with environmental indicators of Hungary, taking the OECD Pressure – State – Response framework as a basis, was published in 1994. As a result, comparability of environmental indicators for Hungary with those used international are given.

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Economic questions of precision maize production on chernozem soil
Published November 13, 2012
293-296

It is one of the main topical objective to establish the conditions of sustainable farming. The sustainable development in crop production also calls for the harmony of satisfying human needs and providing the protection of environmental and natural resources; therefore, the maximum consideratio of production site endowments, the common impleme...ntation of production needs and environmental protection aims, the minimum load on the environment and economicalness. Precision farmin encompasses the farming method which is adjusted to the given production site, the changing  technology in a given plot, the integrated crop protection, cutting edge technologies, remote sensing, GIS, geostatistics, the change
of the mechanisation of crop production, and the application of information technology novelties in crop production. Modern technology increases efficiency and reduces costs. The efficiency of crop production increases by reducing losses and the farmer has access to a better decision support information technology system. In addition, we consider it necessary to examine the two currently most important economic issues: “is it worth it?” and “how much does it cost?”. During the analysis of agricultural technologies, we used the precision crop production experiment database of KITE Zrt. and the Institute for Land Utilisation, Regional Development and Technology of the Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economic Sciences of the University of Debrecen.
During our analytical work, we examined three technological alternatives on two soil types (chernozem and meadow). The first technology is the currently used autumn ploughing cultivation. We extended our analyses to the economic evaluation of satellite navigationassisted ploughing and strip till systems which prefer moisture saving. On chernozem soil, of the satellite-based technological alternatives, the autumn ploughing cultivation provided higher income than strip till. In years with average precipitation supply, we recommend the precision autumn ploughing technological alternative on chernozem soils in the future. On meadow soil, the strip till cultivation technology has more favourable economical results than the autumn ploughing. On soils with high plasticity – considering the high time and energy demand of cultivation and the short amoung of time available for cultivation – we recommend to use strip till technologies. 

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The impact of applying foliar fertilizers on the health condition of maize
Published May 20, 2020
105-109

 

The nutrient supply of plants is becoming more important in plant protection since the appropriate condition of plants can be ensured by optimal and satisfactory nutrient supply to avoid nutritional deficiency diseases. Due to the extreme weather conditions, plants are forced to face several stress factors, which lea...ds to deterioration of the plant health. The increasing occurrence of droughts poses threat to nutrient uptake through the roots since all the nutrients can be accessible to the plants only if they are in dissolved form in the soil – which is not possible in the absence of water. Therefore, the importance of foliar fertilizer is becoming a more and more significant part of the nutrient supply, because with the help of this technology the development of any nutrient deficiency can be prevented.

In this experiment, we focused on the efficiency of two different foliar fertilizers on maize.  Foliar fertilizers were applied two times, once in the stage with 8 leaves and tasseling phenophase of the maize. To verify the efficiency of the foliar fertilizers, the chlorophyll content of untreated and treated plant’s leaves was measured after each application. Moreover, the length and diameter of maize cobs, thousand kernel weight, protein, oil and starch content were also measured, and the results were compared to the untreated (control) ones. According to the results, in all aspects significant differences were observed and due to the laboratory analysis of leaves, in the case of magnesium and zinc supply the foliar fertilizers were able to prevent the development of nutrient deficiency.

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Ecological Factors in Settlement Marketing Projection for Balmazujvaros
Published November 26, 2003
9-14

Marketing is a crucial tool for regional and local governments, and should be better employed before Hungary joins the European Union.
In my article I refer to the five-step process of environmental and situational analyses indispensable for a strategic plan, which serves as the basis for a marketing concept for a settlement. Furthermore, I ...present the necessity of the macro, mezo and local levels of environmental analyses. This part of my article is aimed at clarifying the notion of ecological marketing. My objective is to discuss its relation to settlement marketing.
The second part of my article investigated the emergence of ecological factors in settlement marketing, in its process, using the example of Balmazújváros. I presented the correlation between Balmazújváros and Hortobágy National Park, from which I investigated primarily important areas focusing on the protection and development of natural values.
In the course of strategic planning and the everyday operation of the town, ecological aspects have to be highlighted, and this process needs the development of the appropriate system of institutions and relationships. Now we can only see certain elements of environmental protection in the strategic settlement planning of Balmazújváros, and we seek to further enhance this process in the future.

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The Role and Significance of Soil Analyses in Plant Nutrition and Environmental Protection
Published March 4, 2006
3-8

Hungary has a rich history of soil analyses and soil mapping. Our main tasks today are the preservation of soil fertility as well as balancing the goals of production and environmental protection. The main requirement of agricultural production is to adapt to ecological and economic conditions.
In a series of consultative meetings in the pas...t seven years, representatives from Central and Eastern Europe have analyzed nutrient management practices in their respective countries. According to a joint memorandum agreed upon in 2000, in the countries awaiting accession, the quantity of nutrients used per hectare is considerably smaller than the Western-European usage targeted through special subsidies. The current low nutrient usage contradicts the principles of sustainability and that of the efficient use of resources, jeopardizing soil fertility.
In Hungary, the use of inorganic fertilizers underwent a dynamic development, which manifested itself in an almost tenfold usage growth between 1960 and 1985. This growth slowed down somewhat between 1985 and 1990 and then reduced dramatically after 1990, reaching record lows at the usage levels of the 60s. The nutrient supply has had a negative balance for the last 15 years.
The increasing and then decreasing usage trends can equally be detected in the domestic yield averages of wheat and corn as well as in the nutrient supply of soils. Yields were the largest when usage levels were the highest, and decreased thereafter. Draughts have also contributed to smaller yields. The dramatic decrease in the use of inorganic fertilizers when adequate organic fertilizers are lacking endangers our soils’ fertility.
About 50% of soils in Hungary are acidic. Acidity is mostly determined by soil formation, but especially on soils with a low buffering capacity, this acidity may intensify due to inorganic fertilizers. Sustainable agriculture requires the chemical improvement of acidic soils. According to their y1 values, the majority of our acidic soils need to be improved. This chemical soil remediation is required in 15% of the acidic soils, while it’s recommended for another 20% of these soils.
Results of the analyses conducted in the framework of the soil-monitoring system set up in Hungary in 1992 show that in 95% of the analyzed samples, the toxic element content is below the allowable limit. Cultivated areas are not contaminated; toxicity above the legal level was found only in specific high-risk sampling areas: in the vicinity of industry, due to local overload. The basic principle of sustainable agriculture is to preserve soil fertility without undue strain on the environment. The intensity of the production needs to be considered according to the conditions of the site; i.e.; nutrient management needs to be site-specific. It is recommended to differentiate three types of cultivated land in terms of environmental sensitivity: areas with favorable conditions, endangered areas, and protected areas, and then to adopt nutrient management practices accordingly. To meet all the above-mentioned goals is impossible without systematic soil analysis. Tests conducted by the national monitoring system cannot replace regular field measurements.

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Investigation of host-specificity of phytopathogenic fungi isolated from woody plants
Published May 20, 2020
155-160

Host-specificity is an important characteristic of fungal pathogens. Changing climate could create more appropriate environmental conditions for phytopathogens, thus formerly host-specify fungi could be able to colonize new hosts. Noxious plant pathogen fungi, which can infect several plant species are well-known worldwide. These genera may... expand their range of hosts because of the appearance in new geographic areas due to climate change. This new exposure can result in serious problems in agriculture because of the lack of immunity. The susceptibility of apple tree was studied through testing pathogenicity in vitro with species isolated from walnut twigs and nuts, and identified by ITS sequences. Three of four tested species, Botryosphaeria dothidea, Diaporthe eres and Diplodia seriata colonized and necrotized the infected apple branches, while Juglanconis juglandina was not able to infect the twigs. Members of Botryosphaeriaceae were the most virulent, causing the largest lesions in the fastest way. This experiment draws attention to the threat of new host-pathogen connections, which can arise because of the favourable weather conditions and can spread between neighbouring cultures. 

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Evaluation of reduced tillage technologies in corn production based on soil and crop analyses
Published September 7, 2001
47-54

Despite new cultivation methods, the proportion of conventionally cultivated land is still very high in Hungary.
Although these technologies demand more time, labour and fuel, they are still attractive to users because they require less professional skill and simple machinery. In Hungary, conventional tillage methods usually lead to soil det...erioration, soil compaction and a decrease in organic content. These side effects have caused gradually strengthening economic and environmental problems.
The technologies for those plants which are dominant on Hungarian arable lands use (winter wheat, maize, sunflower and barley) need to be improved both in the interest of environmental protection and the reduction of cultivation costs.
The Department of Land Use at Debrecen University is cooperating with KITE Sc. to carry out soil tillage  experiments at two pilot locations to prove tillage technologies already used in the USA.
The aim of our examination is to adapt new technological developments and machinery, and to improve them on Hungarian soil for local environmental conditions. With these improved machines, the field growing of plants could be executed by less manipulation and better suited to economic and environmental needs. The most significant task is to investigate and improve the conventional cultivation replacing, new soil-protecting tillage technologies, and to apply no-till and mulch tillage systems.
On the basis of the experiments’ survey data, we established that the looseness and moisture content of the soil using reduced tillage is more favourable than after using conventional technologies. The results of no-till and shallow spring tillage are behind those of winter plough or disk ripper cultivation in corn yield and production elements.
To preserve moisture content in the soil, the ground clearing and sowing while simultaneously performing no-till method presents the most favourable results. The surplus moisture gained using no-till technology is equal to 40 mm precipitation.
Regarding the yield of winter wheat we established that the tillage methods do not affect plant yield. Both disk ripper and conventional disc cultivation showed nearly the same harvest results (5.55 or 5.5 t/ha), where the difference is statistically hardly verifiable from the no-till method. From the individual production of corn and the number of plants planted in unit area,  calculated results prove that no significant difference can be detected between the production of winter plough and disk ripper technology. Although the yield achieved with the no-till method is less than with the previously mentioned technologies, the difference is only 9-10%. We received the lowest production at shallow spring tillage.
Evaluations have shown a 1.1 t/ha (13%) difference in the yield of maize, between winter tillage and the disk ripper method, in this case the traditional method resulted in higher yield. In winter tillage, the yield of maize was 1.9-2.1 t/ha (23-25%) higher than in the case of direct sowing and cultivator treatments. No significant difference could be noted between the yields of direct sowing and cultivator treatments.
Our research so far has proved the industrial application of reduced tillage methods in crop cultivation technologies.

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Comparison of the technological background of aquaponic systems
Published May 20, 2020
47-52

Aquaponics is the combined culture of fish and plants in recirculating aquaculture systems, an ecologically sustainable horticultural production technique with long traditions.

The objective of this study is to compare flood-and- drain, and the water crossflow system and examine the differences in the water quality, fish yi...eld and plant growth parameters for Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and basil (Ocimum basilicum). During the study, water quality parameters of two treatments were compared in temperatures, pH, EC and NON were significantly different (p <0.05). Leaf area of the basil plants grew to an average of 20.37 cm2 (± 9.02 cm2). The plants’ biomass production was significantly different (p< 0.05) in the two systems. The biomass production showed lower yield, 458.22 g (± 214.59 g) in the constant flow system that in the flood- and- drain system 692.9 g (± 175.82 g). Fish Growth parameters were better in constant flow system (FCR 5.48 g/g ± 0.19). However, the specific growth rate (SGR) demonstrated that fish grew faster in flood- and- drain system 1.38 %/day (± 0.29).

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New challenges in soil management
Published September 5, 2018
91-92
Soil management represents two important tasks that are harmonization of the soil protection with demands of the crop to be grown on the given land under prevailing farming condition. Further goals are to preserve and/or develop the soil physical, biological and chemical condition and to avoid the unfavourable changes of the soil biological a...ctivity and the soil structure. Classical authors emphasised the importance of creating proper seedbed for plants. In the physical approach, tillage was believed to play an important role in controlling soil processes. Consequently, the period of several centuries dominated by this approach is referred to as the era of crop-oriented tillage (Birkás et al., 2017). The overestimation of the importance of crop requirements resulted in damaging the soils, which inevitably led to turn to the soil-focused tillage. Since the first years of climate change, as the new trends have raised concern, tillage must be turned into a climate-focused effort with the aim of reducing climate-induced stresses through improving soil quality.
The development of soil management has always been determined by the economical background. At the same time, deteriorating site conditions have contributed to the conception of new tillage trends by forcing producers to find new solutions (e.g. dry farming theory in the past or adaptable tillage theory nowadays). Győrffy (2009) recited the most important keywords were listed in 2001 and that seemed to be important in the future of crop production. These keywords (endeavours) were as follows:
− Biofarming, organic farming, alternative farming, biodynamic farming, low input sustainable agriculture;
− Mid-tech farming, sustainable agriculture, soil conservation farming, no till farming, environmentally sound, environmentally friendly, diversity farming;
− Crop production system, integrated pest management, integrated farming, high-tech farming;
− Site specific production, site-specific technology, spatial variable technology, satellite farming;
− Precision farming.
Győrffy’s prognosis proved to be realistic and the efforts mentioned above have mostly been implemented. New challenges have also appeared in soil management in relation to the last decades. The most important endeavours for the future are:
1) Preserving climate-induced stresses endangering soils.
2) Turn to use climate mitigation soil tillage and crop production systems.
3) Applying soil management methods are adaptable to the different soil moisture content (over dried or wet may be quite common).
4) Use effectual water conservation tillage.
5) Use soil condition specific tillage depth and method.
6) Adapting the water and soil conservation methods in irrigation.
7) Preserving and improving soil organic matter content by tillage and crop production systems.
8) Considering that stubble residues are matter for soil protection, humus source and earthworm’ feed.
9) Site-specific adoption of green manure and cover crops.
10) Applying site-adopted (precision) fertilization and crop protection. Considering the development in agriculture, new endeavours will occur before long.
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Susceptibility of maize hybrids to corn smut diseas
Published February 3, 2016
39-42

Corn smut disease is one of the most common maize diseases. In the previous years the disease lost from its importance, however nowadays it is becoming more and more important and widespread. The protection against it encounters great difficulties, therefore it is important to emphasize prevention and resistance based protection. The aim of the... research was to investigate under laboratory circumstances the resistance of Hungary’s most commonly cultivated maize hybrids to corn smut disease. Twelve species were investigated. We distinguished two susceptibility groups within the hybrids based on the investigated parameters. The results are intended to assist the protection against corn smut disease and to make a suggestion for the farmers so that they could apply more environmental friendly and economical production.

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Research on the allelopathic effect among the species Tanacetum vulgare and some agricultural crops
Published November 10, 2010
105-109

The research presents the results of the allelophatic effect upon the germination and growth of plants, immediately after springing, viewed as the interaction between the species of Tanacetum vulgare sin Chrysanthemum vulgare and three other crops: wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), rape (Brassica napus ssp. oleifera L.).... The experiments that were performed consisted in applying treatments with aqueous extracts obtained from the roots, leaves, stems and flowers harvested from T. vulgare plants upon the seeds of the three agricultural crops mentioned before. In all aqueous extracts, the results indicate the presence of some chemical compounds that have inhibiting allelophatic effect. The plants upon which tests were made showed great sensitivity, the results on their germination and growth being significantly negative and highly significantly negative.
The conclusions of this research sustain the idea of setting new research objectives in order to discover the chemical compounds from T. vulgare extracts that have such a stong effect and the possibilities they offer.

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Long term researches regarding the irrigation influence on sugarbeet crop inthe Crisurilor Plain
Published May 6, 2013
11-15

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The paper is based on the researches carried out in the long term trial placed on the preluvosoil from Agricultural Research and Development Station Oradea, Crisurilor Plain in during 1976–2012.

The soil water reserve in 0–75 cm depth decreased bellow easily available water content every year and in 32% of years the soil water reserve decreased bellow wilting point. For optimum water supply an irrigation rate of 2665 m3 ha-1 (variation interval 500–5090 m3 ha-1) was needed.

The irrigation determined improving of water/temperature + light report (Domuta climate index) with 47.4% in average in the period May–September. A statistically very significant connection was quantified between this indicator and the yield.

Daily water consumption increased in the irrigated variant, the biggest difference in comparison with unirrigated variant was registered in August, 86% in comparison with unirrigated variant. As consequence, the value of the total water consumption increased with 50%, variation interval was 11–154%. The irrigation covered 37.8% of total water consumption, the variation interval was 8.3%–67.9%.

The yield level of the sugarbeet increased in average with 61%, the variation interval was 9–227%. Standard deviation was lower in the irrigated variant and this emphasizes an improve of the yield stability with 25.1%. The sugar content of the sugarbeet roots from irrigated variant increased statistically very significantly in the droughty years and differs significantly in the rainy years.

Water use efficiency increased in the irrigated variant with 7% and irrigation water use efficiency was between 7.9 kg yield gain 1 m-3 irrigation water and 17.4 kg yield gain 1 m-3 irrigation water.

The positive influence of the irrigation on microclimate, water consumption, yield level, stability and quality and on water use efficiency sustain the need of the irrigation in sugarbeet from Crisurilor Plain.

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Evaluation of the microbial soil quality indicators in agricultural soils from Crisurilor Plain
Published May 6, 2013
79-80

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The researches were carried out in 2010 and 2011 on the haplic luvisol cultivated in three variant such as: pasture, cropland, and orchards. Based on the total number of microorganisms monitored in the haplic luvisol (aerobic mesophilic heterotrophs, yeast and mould, Actinomycetes, nitrogen fixing bacteria and nitrifying bacteria) was calculated the bacterial indicators of soil quality (BISQ) and was appreciate the bacterial potential of the haplic luvisol. Seasonal analyses were carried out, and annual BISQs have been calculated too. The values of the bacterial indicators of the haplic luvisol in different cultivation conditions (pasture, cropland and orchards) indicate a high density of the bacterial groups in 2010 and 2011. In 2010 the values of the BISQs are included between 3.617 (minimum in autumn, in pasture) and 5.458 (maximum, in spring, in pasture). In 2011, the minimum value (3.622) was registered in pasture, in autumn, and the maximum value (4.851) in the haplic luvisol cultivated with maize, in spring. In 2010 and 2011, based on the bacterial indicators of the soil quality values, on the first position is the cropland (4.750, 4.721) followed by orchards (4.615, 3.985) and pasture (4.537, 3.758).

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Researches regarding the influence of the some technological elements on water use efficiency in maize from Crisurilor Plain
Published May 6, 2013
5-9

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Plain and the influence of the hybrid, plant density, crop rotation, nutrient supply, weeds and irrigation on water use efficiency were studied.

Choosing of the hybrid with the best water use efficiency is very important because a hybrid from 500–600 FAO group (Fundulea 376) in unirrigated conditions and a hybrid from FAO group over 600 (Fundulea 365) obtained the biggest water use efficiency; the hybrid Fundulea 365 obtained the highest irrigation water use efficiency, 20.1 kg yield gain 1 mm-1 irrigation water.

One of the most known hybrid in the area is Turda super and the highest water use efficiency was obtained using the plant density of 55 000 plants/ha in unirrigated variant and 70 000 plants/ha in irrigated variant. The highest irrigation water use efficiency, 20.7 kg yield gain 1 mm-1, was obtained at 70 000 plants ha-1.

In maize monoculture was obtained the lowest values of the water use efficiency in unirrigated and irrigated variant: in the wheat-maize crop rotation the values were higher than in maize monoculture and in the wheat-maize-soybean were registered the highest values. The same situation was registered regarding the irrigation water use efficiency.

Farm manure (30 t ha-1) and especially manure (30 t ha-1) +chemical fertilizers (N90P45) determined a higher values of the water use efficiency in comparison with the control. In the variant with organic + mineral fertilization was registered the higher value (19.4 kg yield gain mm-1) of the irrigation water use efficiency.

Water use efficiency was much lower in the variant with weeds in comparison with the variant without the weeds; the differences were of 69% in unirrigated variant and of 64% in irrigated variant, very significant statistically. Irrigation water use efficiency from variant with weeds was lower than the value registered in the variant without weeds; the difference (68%) was very significant statistically.

In average in period 1976–2012, the irrigation determined the increasing in water use efficiency with 22%, 19.4 kg mm-1 vs. 15.8 kg mm-1, but not in all the years caused the irrigation increasing in water use efficiency in comparison with unirrigated maize.

The results research emphasized the need of the optimization for technology elements studied and a better water use efficiency will be obtained.

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