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Effect of arsenic treatments on the element content of green peas
Published May 16, 2017
203-208

The agricultural environment is contaminated with heavy metals and other toxic elements, which means more and more threats. One of the most important toxic element is the arsenic (As).
The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of As-treatments on the element content of the different parts of the green peas (root,stem, leaf, po...d, pea) in the 4. phase of the plant development. Plants were grown in green house. Arsenic was applied in a form of arsenate (As[V]) and the plants were treated with 0, 3, 10, 30, 90 and 270 mg kg-1 arsenic.
According to the results the Ca content of root and pod was increased in the case of the 3 mg kg-1 As-treatment, after that decreasing tendency was observed. In the case of the 270 mg kg-1 As-treatment, the Ca content in the root was increased, because some element is able to concentrate in the lower biomass. The Ca-content of stem and leaves was reduced when the plants were treated with more than 30 mg kg-1 As. The lowest As-treatment (3 mg kg-1) increased the Na content in the root, stem and leaves, however in the case of the higher As-dose, decreasing tendency was observed. In the case of the generative plant parts the 3 mg kg-1 As-treatment also increased the Na content, nevertheless in the case of the higher As-treatments lower Na content was measured, however in the case of the highest As-treatment (270 mg kg-1) the Na content was increased in the generative plant parts, probably the Na was concentrated in the lower biomass. In the case of the 90 and 270 mg kg-1 As-treatment the Mo-content also was increased in the generative plant parts. The 270 mg kg-1 As-treatment caused a similar tendency in the case of the generative plant parts as a result of the lower biomass. In the case of the pod and leaves, the lower As-doses did not cause significant changes.
The Mo content was increased in the root and pea when the plants were treated with 3 mg kg-1 As, but in the case of the higher treatments it was decreased. In the case of the stem it was reverse, the lowest As-tretament (3 mg kg-1) decreased, nevertheless the further As-doses increased the Mo content.

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Evaluation of mineral element content of beetroot during the different stages of the growing season
Published September 5, 2018
459-537

In modern nutrition, bioactive materials of different vegetables are especially important to be researched. The experiment was carried out on March 30, 2016 (sowing date). Mineral element content (B, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, S, Zn) was evaluated on the 60th, 85th and the 105th day of the vegetation period. The data are presented as the mean of... five varieties which can give the real state of these parameters of beetroot grown on lowland chernozem soil.

In the young beetroot leaves (60 days) the mineral element content was higher than in the older ones (85 days). The calcium and magnesium content of the leaves was much more favourable (10 times higher) than in the root. The potassium content of leaves has reached the amount of 5000 mg kg-1, but at the same time more than 3000 mg kg-1 was detected in the improved root. This value is favourable for the potassium supply of the human organism.

The sulphur content (1300 mg kg-1) of the leaves was the highest on the 85th day of vegetation period. Similar tendency was detected for boron content (2.45 mg kg-1), while for iron content it was higher (28.23 mg kg-1) in the younger leaves (60 days).

Finally, it can be concluded that the increased element content of beetroot leaves will be a favourable source of mineral element supply of the human organism.

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The effect of sulphur and nitrogen supply on the growth and nutrient content of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
Published June 30, 2018
65-70
Sulphur is an essential element for plants. Decreasing sulphur deposition from the air, and the use of more concentrated phosphate fertilizers, which contain no sulphur, has led to reports of sulphur deficiencies for wheat. Sulphur deficiency significantly affects yield and also the quality of wheat. The pot exper...iment was set up on calcareous chernozem soil at Látókép, Hungary, test plant was spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L). Seven treatments were used where nitrogen and sulphur were supplied as soil fertilizers in increasing rates (NS1, NS2, NS3) and in foliar fertilizer as well (NS1+fol., NS2+fol., NS3+fol.). Plant aboveground biomass production was determined in samples taken in the stages of development BBCH 29-30, 51-59, 61-69, 89. The nitrogen and sulphur content of straw and grain were measured. N/S ratios of grain and straw were calculated. The weights of grain were ranging between 8.6–16.1 g/pot. NS2 and NS2+fol. treatments produced the highest values. Foliar fertilizer had no further effect on grain. Analysing the values of the straw, it was observed that tendencies were similar to values of grain. The NS2 treatment produced the highest weight of straw and the NS3 rate already decreased that amount. The obtained results show the unfavourable effect of excessively high rate applied in NS3 treatment. The supplementary foliar fertilizer had no significant influence on the weight of straw. Both N and S-uptake of plant was very intensive at the stem elongation stage, then the N and S-content of plant continuously decreased in time in all treatments. The N-content of grain ranged between 2.215–2.838%.
The N-content of grain slightly increased with increasing of nitrogen doses. In the higher doses (NS2, NS3) foliar fertilization slightly increased the nitrogen content of grain, although this effect was not statistically proved. The N-content of straw varied from 0.361 to 0.605%. The growing dose of soil fertilizer also considerably increased the nitrogen content of straw. Foliar fertilization further increased the nitrogen content of straw. The S-content of grain ranged between 0.174–0.266%. The lowest fertilizer dose (NS1) significantly increased the sulphur content of grain. The further increasing fertilizer doses (NS2, NS3) did not cause additional enhance in sulphur content of grain.
The foliar fertilizer also did not change the sulphur value of plant. The increasing amount of soil fertilizer and the supplementary foliar fertilizer had no effect on the sulphur content of straw. The treatments influenced the N/S ratios of grain and straw. On the basis of experimental results it can be concluded that the examined nitrogen and sulphur containing soil fertilizer had positive effect on the growth and yield of spring wheat grown on the calcareous chernozem soil. The soil fertilizer application enhanced the grain nitrogen and sulphur content. The highest rate of fertilizer (600 kg ha-1) proved to have decreasing effect on the yield. The sulphur and nitrogen containing foliar fertilizer did not have significant effect on the yield parameters but slightly increased the nitrogen content of plant.
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The effect of sowing time on the yield and the variance of the seed moisture content a harvest of maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids
Published May 23, 2006
39-49

Sowing time is an important crop technology element of maize. We studied the effect of this factor on the growth and production of maize in an experiment carried out near Hajdúböszörmény, in 2003 and 2004, and near Debrecen, in 2005.
The soils of the experiments were humic gley soil and chernozem. Weather in both years differed greatly. ...2003 was drought. Neither the distribution, nor the quantity of the precipitation were suitable in the growing season for maize. This fact basically determined the results.
In 2004 and in 2005, there were favorable and rainy seasons. The distribution and quantity of precipitation were suitable between April and September. The average temperature was also suitable for maize.
In 2003, we tested seven hybrids at four sowing times. Hybrids with a shorter vegetation period gave the highest yield at the later sowing time, while the hybrids with a longer vegetation period gave them at the earlier sowing time. The yield of PR34B97, PR36N70, PR36M53 hybrids were the best at every sowing times. The moisture loss of hybrids in the late maturity group was faster in the maturity season, but the seed moisture content was higher than the hybrids with early sowing time. The seed moisture content was very low due to the droughty year. In two hybrid cases, this value was higher than 20% only at the fourth sowing time.
In 2004, we examined the yield and seed moisture contents of nine hybrids. In the favorable crop year, the yield of every hybrid was the highest at the second and third sowing times. Yields of PR34H31 and PR38B85 hybrids were significant. The seed moisture content at harvest was higher than the previous year, due to the rainy season. In the case of hybrids sown later, this value was higher by 30%. However, we noticed that this value was lower at the earlier sowing time, than at the later.
In 2005, we applied three sowing times. Unfortunately, the results of the third sowing time could not be analyzed, due to the low plant density. The yield of the six hybrids varied from 12 to 14 t/ha at the first sowing time. At the second sowing time, the yields fluctuated and each hybrid had the lowest yield, except the PR37D25 hybrid. At the latest sowing time, the yield of the PR34B97 hybrid was the lowest. However, this low yield was due to damage from the Western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera) imago. The moisture content at harvest of the hybrids varied from 16 to 24% at the first sowing time. Yields at the second sowing time were higher. The low yield of the PR34B97 hybrid coupled with a higher seed moisture content. In addition, the maximum value of the LAI was more favourable at the first sowing time, and ranged between 5-5.5 m2/m2.
The crop year had a more dynamic effect on maize than the sowing time. First of all, the quantity and distribution of precipitation played an important role in respect to yield safety.

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Comparison of the sample preparation methods worked out for the examination of the element content of wine
Published July 31, 2012
77-82

The examination of the potentially toxic elements content of the wines is not easy task, because the most elements are in little concentration (mg kg-1 or μg kg-1) in the wine and the wines contain great amount of organic matrix. The efficient sample preparation is essential for the accurate determination of element conte...nt. The eim of our research was to determine which sample preparation method will be the most efficient in examination of wines with ICP technology. The examined wine sample was a 2008 Chardonnay from the Eger wine region. We did the sample preparation and analysis examination in University of Debrecen, Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economic Sciences, Institute of Food Science, Quality Assurance and Microbiology.
We did the analysis examinations with ICP- MS (inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy). We always did the sample preparations and the examinations in three times rehearsal. The applied sample preparation methods: dilution with distilled water, open digestion and microwave digestion. 
We were able to measure B, Al, Mn, Fe and Zn with only dilution and open sample preparation. In the smaller quantity present Sr and Ba were measurable in the wine in the case of all three methods well. We were able to measure the Co with dilution and open digestion method,  while Cr, Ni, and Te with only dilution method. In the case of arsenic we were not able to measure reliable result with dilution and open digestion method because of organic matrix and other components
(alcohols, monosaccharides, polysaccharides, polyalcohols and inorganic salts). On the whole we are able to say that in the case of certain elements (B, Mn, Fe, Zn, Sr, Ba) the open digestion and dilution sample preparation is applicable well, however, in the case of certain elements (As, Al, V, Cr, Se, Mo, Cd, Hg, Pb) we have to develop the methods. It may be development of one of the way, if we develop sample preparation methods to examined element specifically and not
to wine generally.

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Determination of element contents of commercial and homemade jams
Published June 30, 2018
71-75
Various products could be prepared by using fruits as raw materials. In Hungary, the most popular fruit products are spirit, jams, preserves, juices and dried fruits. Jams are made from different fruits, with different fruit content, technology and additives. They can be used for different products or they can be ...consumed by themselves. These products and their related production processes have great traditions in Hungary. In addition, they are widely used.
The aim of our study was to determine the element content of jams and to compare these samples based on their micro- and macroelement content.
In this study, 26 fruit jams with different botanical origins were examined. 10 samples were commercial, and 16 samples were homemade products. The determination of micro- and macroelements was carried out by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer and Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometer. Different element contents were measured [B (249.7), Ca (422.6), Fe (259.9), K (769.8), Mg (280.2), Na (589.5), P (185.9), S (182.0), Al (27), Mn (55), Cu (65), Zn (66), Sr (88), Ba (137)]. Based on element contents, the jams showed statistical differences.
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Correlation between cultivation methods and quality in some vegetable species
Published November 13, 2012
313-317

Quality parameters of 5 table root varieties were tested on 3 sowing dates with different cultivation methods: open field on 15 April and 9 July 2010 and under plastic tents on 19 August. The highest red pigment content (betanin) was measured in the varieties Akela and Mona Lisa (~ 80 mg 100 g-1) of the second (July) crop. This crop ...is in general use in Hungary. In comparison, in the late sown varieties (August, under plastics) a further pigment increase (10–20 mg 100 g-1) was observed in the same varieties as related to the earlier sowing dates. Yellow pigments (vulgaxanthins) showed similar trends. Roots of the late sowing date (with harvest in December) contained the highest vulgaxanthin values (103.3–124.18 mg kg-1).
Varieties reacted differently to temperature changes during the production period and thus to sugar accumulation. In the second crop (July) higher water soluble solids content was measured on the average of varieties (10.12%) in comparison to the April sowing (7.76%). Beetroots of the spring sowing are recommended for fresh market while the second (July) crop with autumn harvest can satisfy industry requirements. Late sowing under unheated plastic tents supply us with fresh beetroot in late autumn and early winter and prolong the usability of plastic tents. 
Six lettuce species/subspecies were tested in the open field and under plastic tents in 3 repetitions for nitrate nitrogen, vitamin-C, polyphenol (gallus acid equivalent – mg GAE 100 g-1) and mineral element (Ca, K, Mg, Na) contents. Our measurements showed lower nitrate nitrogen values under plastic than in the open field (89.10± 8.13 and 127.06±14.29 mg kg-1) on the average of genotypes. Lettuce grown in the field had higher vitamin-C content (1.4 mg%) which is nearly 50% more than in plants under plastic. The highest polyphenol content was found in samples from the field with a conspicuous value of 804.17±56.47 mg GAE 100 g-1 in Piros cikória. Samples grown under plastic were richer in mineral elements (Ca, K, Mg, Na) which can be explained by the higher nutrient content of the soil. In this environment superior Mg content was observed in Edivia (4616.33±
311.21 mg kg-1). 

Besides the well- known headed lettuce, Piros cikória (Red chicory),the red leaved Lollo Rossa and Tölgylevel (Oak leaf lettuce) should be
mentioned which well deserve further testing in order to supply us with nourishing, healthy food. 

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Changes of Quality of Winter Wheat During Maturing
Published December 6, 2005
105-112

We analysed the flour of two winter wheat varieties to determine the effect of maturity state and grain position in the ear on the element composition of flour. Samples were taken from the 14th to the 42th day of anthesis. Ear samples were cut into three (basal, central and apical) parts, the trashed grains were milled, and the element composit...ions of the flours were determined.
We found that the grain position within the ear has an effect on flour element content. Flours of apical grains had lower nitrogen, phosphorus and sulphur contents than flours of central and basal grains. The nutrients can be divided into two parts, based on the formation of element content during maturation. Nitrogen, sulphur and copper contents changed continuously during maturity, while the P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Sr and Zn contents decreased until a specific value and became nearly constant in the second half of maturity. We found that – although the nitrogen concentration of flours changed continuously – the amount of nitrogen in the flours reached a constant value for the second half of maturity.

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Comparison of quality parameters of producers' and commercial honeys
Published November 2, 2009
31-39

Honey is our essential food since ancient times. In Hungary about 25 000 tons of honey are produced each year, and most of the product (80%) is exported. Hungarian honeys have excellent quality but because of scandals of honey adulteration the interest and recognition may decrease. Therefore we must elaborate a method with which the establishme...nt of adulteration is simple and cheap. In this study we concentrate on simple quality parameters which inspection is not elaborate. These parameters for example sugar- and moisture contains, proline content, electrical
conductivity, element content, pH, HMF content, degree of acidity. We examined these parameters in producers’ and commercial samples. We succeed fund parameters which characteristic of one type of honey thus we have possibility identify of honey type. For example the proline content was very low in the producers’ linden honey (mean 126 mg/kg). This value is lower than the regulation, but in case of commercial linden honey this parameter is higher than regulation. According to electrical conductivity and Potassium content is provable the type of linden honey.

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Element Content of Herbaceous Plants in the Floodplain Meadows
Published May 4, 2004
55-58

Animals require well-balanced nutrition. The elemental content of the vegetation of meadows is influenced by as many factors such as heat, rainfall, irrigation, soil type and nutrients, meadow types, species, aspects of the vegetation period and cultivation.
Natural meadows used extensively are common sights on river floodplains. Since chemi...cals are banned and the species number is high, measuring the elemental composition of plants on these meadows is beneficial. Cenological survey and element content measurements were held on the rich flora of four natural meadows in the year 2001.
Weeds, in a wider sense, are plants not directly involved in growing, although their nutritional values make them important costituents of feed. Meadows are enriched by their relatively high microelement content.
On the sampling sites, the ratio deviated from the ideal 2/3 parts monocotyledon and 1/3 part dicotyledon, but this did not mean a Mn deficiency as it would have been assumed.

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Changes in toxic elements content of soil after sewage sludge treatment in energy willow plantation
Published May 16, 2012
7-10

The primary purpose of our experiment was the solution of municipal excess sludge treatment by a renewable energy resource used willow (Salix viminalis L.) plantation. Tests were carried out to state whether the applied sewage sludge has caused any accumulation of the toxic elements in the studied soil layers, and - based on the results –to s...ee whether the plantation is suitable for the treatment of municipal sewage sludge.
The excess sludge (sludge before dewatering) is beneficial for the willow, because it contains a 3–5% dry matter and therefore, a lot of water, too. This high water content ensures the high water amount needed for the intensive growth of the willow. On the other hand, the wastewater treatment plant can save the dewatering cost which corresponds to about 30% of the water treatment process costs. The amounts of the sprinkled sewage sludge were calculated on the basis of its total nitrogen content. Treatments were the followings: control, 170 N kg ha-1 year-1 and 250 N kg ha-1 year-1. The mean values of the toxic element concentrations in the sewage sludge did not cross the permitted limits of the land  accommodating.

The measured toxic element values of the soil were compared to the limits of the 50/2001. (IV.3.) Government Regulation.The  sprinkled sewage sludge on the bases of the total N content did not cause accumulation of heavy metals in the soil and the treated plants were also healthy without any signs of toxicity. 

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Nitrogen Content of Hungarian Soils and Nitrogen Fertilization
Published December 10, 2002
51-61

For crop production and agricultural production, the most important natural resource is the soil that can optionally renew. Paralelly with this, soil plays a major role in the geological and biological cycle of elements. As a result of the big (geological) and small (biological) element cycles, the elements and combines neccessary for organisms... can accumulate in the soil creating suitable living conditions for plants and other organisms. Soil is a heterogenous system both horizontally and vertically, and soil constituents show great variety in all the three dimensions, in addition, most of the parameters can also change between two examination dates. When talking about the factors influencing plant production, one should take into account this variation and heterogenity in time and space. When making fertilization recommendations, these factors should all be considered. In any consultation system, most of the mistakes and errors made are due to the unsatisfying soil testing and the negligence of soil heterogenity. In the practice of fertilization the biggest mistake is the improper soil sampling, then comes the methodical mistake of soil testing, which is followed by the inaccuracy of instrumental analysis and the subjectivity of result evaluation, but the latter two are negligible compared to the others. Under normal, i.e. production conditions, the quantity and distribution of nutrients in the soil are greatly dependent upon the applied technology, the amount and form of the applied natural and artificial fertilizers and the quality of fertilization.
Fertilization recommendations are needed because in the layer which is accessible for plant roots only a part of the nutrient content is available for plants in a specific production cycle. An illustration of this is that though the upper 1 m layer of an average chernozem soil contains more than 5000 kg N, 12000 kg K2O and 1500 kg P2O5 (form of expression mostly used in Hungary), the application of fertilizer doses which are just fractions of these quantities is essential. This is due to the fact that the available amount of the total nutrient content depends from the quality of soil, the environmental factors (the physical and chemical qualities of the soil) and the specific nutrient’s qualities (solubility, adsorption). Knowledge of these processes and the examination of the factors influencing the actual nutrient content are vital for working out a fertilization practice, which does not put more strain on the environment than neccessary.

All of the above mentioned should be considered when applying inputs in the fields. In a well-functioning practice that considers the economic and environmental conditions (unfortunately the present production and economic conditions do not enable an appropriate level and degree), three nutrients are supplemented generally (and were supplemented in the last decades): nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium.
Studying the nutrient balance of the Hungarian field production’s last hundred years, we can draw some interesting conclusions.
The nutrient balance became positive for nitrogen and potassium in the second half of the 1960’s, while for phosphorus it was positive from the first half of the 1960’s and this period lasted until the end of the 1980’s.
Neither before the 1960’s, nor since the 1990’s has the amount of nutrients supplemented in a specific year reached the amount of the nutrient uptake of the same year.

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Az NPK-trágyázás hatása a kukorica tápelemfelvételének dinamikájára, öntözött és nem öntözött viszonyok között
Published March 27, 2002
23-27

The effect of NPK-fertilization on the dynamics of nutrient uptake of maize (Zea mays L., cv. Clarica) was examined on chernozem soil under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions in a field experiment.
The following results were made:
• the element concentrations in the plant decreased over time,
• there is no difference between th...e dynamics of nutrients on irrigated and non-irrigated sites because rainfall was satisfactory for plants in vegetation period,
• the N doses not only significantly increase the nitrogen content in maize, but also have a noticable effect on Ca and Mg concentrations,
• because of the acidifying effect of N-fertilizers, increasing the amount of N-fertilizer increased the Mn, Zn, Cu content of the plants,
• the P doses have a significant effect on the maize P and N content and the Zn concentration of the plant via P-Zn antagonism in the soil,
• as the high K doses treatments alter the ion ratios in the soil, the Ca, Mg content of the plant decreased.

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The effect of collecting area on the element content of Hungarian acacia honeys
Published September 5, 2018
129-138

Six macroelements and twelve microelements were identified in thirty-six Hungarian acacia honeys collected from ten counties by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). One-Way ANOVA (LSD and Dunnett T3 test) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were used to ...determine the statistically verified differences among the honey samples with different geographical origin.

Significant differences were established among the samples from different counties in Na, P, S, Fe, Ni, Cu and Sr concentrations. Based on the macroelement content of honeys, the separation of samples with different geographical origin was not successful because the percent of correctly categorised cases was only 64.9%. However, examining the As, B, Ba, Cu, Fe Mn, Ni and Sr concentration, the separation of different groups was convincing since the percent of correctly classified cases was 97.2%. Thus, the examination of microelement concentration may be able to determine the geographical origin of acacia honeys.

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Molybdenum - accumulation dynamics of cereals on calcareous chernozem soil
Published December 16, 2012
81-85

This work is about the molybdenum-accumulation of cereals analyzing soil and plant samples from a field experiment set in
Nagyhörcsök by Kádár et al. in 1991.
In this long-term field experiment different levels of soil contamination conditions are simulated. Soil and plant samples were collected
from the experiment station to study... the behaviour of molybdenum.
In this report results of maize, winter wheat, winter barley and soil analysis are presented. The conclusions are as follows:
– Analysing soil samples from 1991 we have found that roughly half of the molybdenum dose applied is in the form of NH4-acetate+EDTA soluble
– Comparing element content of grain and leaf samples we have experienced that molybdenum accumulation is more considerable in the  vegetative plant parts
– Winter wheat accumulated less molybdenum then maize in its vegetative parts. Comparing molybdenum content of winter wheat to winter barley we found that the concentration of the element in wheat was lower by half than in the winter barley. It seemed that molybdenum accumulated to the least degree in winter wheat.

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Relation of availability and barley uptake of some potentially toxic elements
Published February 23, 2008
7-10

A small-plot microelement load field trial was set up on brown forest clay soil with eight elements (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn), on 3 levels each (0/30, 90, 270 kg element ha-1). The soil was treated with soluble salts of elements once at initiation (1994). In the seventh year of the experiment (2001) winter barley was the test plant. The ...total element content was determined in plant samples (shoot, straw, grain) after microwave digestion using cc.HNO3+cc.H2O2. The element composition of the prepared samples was determined using ICP-MS technique. In the experiment toxic effects of treatments and yield loss could not be observed. Zn and As contents in barely shoots were only moderately increased by increasing microelement loads. Effects of Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb and Al treatments could not be observed. On the other hand, Cd accumulation was significant in the shoot. Cd content was also increased both in straw and grain. Results of this experiment prove that Cd remains mobile in the soil-plant system for a long time. Its accumulation can be observed both in vegetative and reproductive parts of plants without toxic symptoms and yield loss.

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The impact of various grape stock cultivars on the As, Cu, Co and Zn content of the grape berry (must, seed)
Published March 20, 2013
39-44

...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Scientific research from the last decades showed that the inappropriate industrial and agricultural production caused an abnormal increase of the potentially toxic elements in the soil. Unfortunately the acidification of the soil is an increasing problem in Hungary. According to Várallyay et al. (2008) 13% of the Hungarian soils are highly acid. Accumulation of toxic elements differs in the genetically diverse plant species. The root of the plant constitutes a filter so that the rootstock is also kind of a filter system, which may prevent that the scion part (such as berry) accumulate high levels of various potentially toxic elements from the soil. The aim of research was to determine how different grape rootstocks influence the As, Co, Cu and Zn content of the musts and seeds. Thus, specifying which of the grape rootstocks takes up the lowest level of these 4 elements (As, Co, Cu and Zn), and accumulates in berries, so could reduce the potentially toxic element load of the grape berries. The grape rootstock collection of the University of Debrecen was set up in 2003 in 3x1 m spacing on immune sandy soil. Grafting of ‘Cserszegi fűszeres’ was started in 2010. We could evaluate yields harvested from 12 rootstock varieties of the experiment in October 2011. We obtained valuable differences in the arsenic, copper, cobalt and zinc concentrations of musts and seeds of ‘Cserszegi fűszeres’ grafted into different rootstocks. The results obtained from the 2011 harvest support the statement that the choice of rootstock might be an important factor to increase food safety. The differences in concentration of the four elements observed in case of the rootstock may have been caused on one hand by the rootstock effect, and on the other hand, the vintage effect has a very significant impact on the vines element uptake. Several years of experimental results will be needed to answer these questions.

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Comparison of macroelement and microelement contents of conventionally and organically grown crops
Published December 16, 2012
87-92

Nowedays one of the most important issues to discuss is the healthy nutrition: feeding our bodies with high quality nutrients, which is free of chemical residues. The demand for healthy and nutritious food is increasing worldwide, that results in the growing popularity of consumption of organic food. Several studies dealing with the nutrient co...ntent of traditional and organic food have been published lately, since it became clear that eating food contaminated with chemical residues damage to health, food and the environment. Therefore it would be desirable to find out if organic food is really superior to conventional one. In our study we analyzed the dry matter, ash, macroelement and trace element content of organically and conventionally grown crops (carrot root, potato tuber and parsnip). Our results provide further information to consumers about the nutritional value of organic and conventional crops.

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The Effect of Year and Irrigation on the Yield Quantity and Quality of the Potato
Published October 11, 2006
12-16

In Hungary, the growing area of potato area reduced dramatically in the last few decades, additionally we are lagging behind the Western European countries as regards yields and the competitiveness of production is further decreased by the great alternation in yields from year to year, the unpredictable market conditions, bad consumption habits... and many times unfortunately the lack of quality products.
The ecological and climatic conditions of Hungary are not everywhere suitable for potato, in the area of Debrecen the amount of rainfall was lower, and the monthly average temperature was higher than the requirement of potato in its growing season in 2002 and 2003.
The experiment was carried out at the experimental site of the University of Debrecen, Farm and Regional Research Institute, at Látókép. In our experiment we examined the yield and some quality parameters of 8 and 9 medium-early varieties in large parcels in 2002 and 2003 respectively. Out of the examined varieties 3 are of Dutch, and 6 are of Hungarian breeding.
The experiment was set up on 49.5 m2 parcels on calcareous chernozem soil after winter wheat as a forecrop in both years. The 9 varieties were examined in 4 repetitions in randomized blocks, out of which two repetitions were irrigated, and two were non-irrigated.
We examined the yields of the varieties, the distribution of tubers according to size and their percentages, and the changes in specific parameters of quality and inner content due to irrigation. We studied the dry matter content, the starch content, the under-water mass, the amount of reducing sugars, the colour index of frying and the element contents of tubers.
Summing up, it can be stated that among the agrotechnical year effect, variety and irrigation factors have considerable impact on potato yield quality and quantity. On the basis of our results, it can be stated that in potato production variety should be chosen in accordance with the aim of production and technology should be adapted to that specific variety.

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Variation of boza nutrition parameters based on raw materials
Published February 3, 2016
67-70

Boza is a ceral based fermented drink. Raw material of boza could be rise, millet, wheat and rye. Because of the diversity of raw materilas and the method of fermentation boza might show varied quality and nutrition value.

Nowadays healthy and conscious nutrition are playing more and more important roles in our lives. People pay an ever... growing attention to the nutrition value of products, such as protein- and sugar content, components with antioxidant properties, and the mineral content of the products. In our research we wanted to know how the protein,-, sugar-, total polifenol-, mikro- and macro element content of products change.

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Response of sugar beet to different foliar fertilizers
Published December 21, 2008
127-136

The yield and quality of the sugar beet are mainly determined by level crop production system; therefore the effects of foliar fertilization were studied. Our field trials were carried out in 2005  and 2006 in Hajdúböszörmény, at two experimental sites. In our trials the effects of Biomit Plussz, Fitohorm and Kelcare Cu (having high Cu... content) as foliar fertilizers, as well as a fungicide with high sulphur content, Cosavet DF, were studied and
compared. Effects of treatments were studied in four replicates. 
We took root samples at 4 week intervals, starting in August. The quality of root (sucrose, potassium, sodium and alfa-amino N content) was determined from filtrated beet broth, by an automatic beet laboratory system, called VENEMA. Leaf samples were taken three times in the growing season, element composition was measured by ICP-OES.
We found that the crop and the sugar yield were significantly influenced by the foliar treatments both of the two years.

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Investigation of the Quality of Winter Wheat in a Sulphur Fertilisation Experiment, 2001/2002
Published May 11, 2003
153-156

We have started a small parcell and a factorial S fertilization experiment with winter wheat in the 2001/2002 cropping year to examine its effect on yield and quality. The scene of experiment was the Latokep Experimental Station of the DE ATC (calcareous chernozeem) in case of small parcell examination and the Agricultural Company of Felsőzsol...ca (brown forest soil) in case od factorial examination.
The protein and gluten content of the grain was investigated with PerCon Inframatic 9001 NIR Analyser, then we have measured these parameters with PerCon 8620 infra appliance. After the milling we measured the following parameters: glutenindex, farinographic parameters (farinographic index, water absorption capacity, dough development time, stability, softening, extension) and valorigraphic index.
Based on the results there’s no justified relation between the fertilization and the protein and gluten content. The valorigraphic index of the samples taken from Felsőzsolca factory characteristically increased as a result of the S-fertilization. In the small-parcell experiment the values of the water absorption capacity, the dough development time and the softening parameters from the valorigrphic parameters depended significantly from the mineral treatments. Signifikant quality improvement wasn’t experieced.
There was sampling in all of critical phenophase (…). The green plant samples were examined on element content with ICP-OES. These measurements are currently in progress.

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Using sensors in precision crop production
Published November 13, 2012
267-270

Proper plant nutrition that takes into consideration both the requirements of plants and ecological conditions is one of the most important precondition of successful plant production. An important element of the N-fertilization of wheat is that the optimum zone of nitrogen supply is significantly narrower than that of other plant species, ther...efore it can easily happen that we apply higher or lower nitrogen doses than the optimal one. A possible solution to this problem can be precision agriculture. Applying the methods of precision agriculture we can take into consideration the heterogeneity of fields. By applying precision methods either online or offline we can intervene faster than if we would rely only on regular soil and plant analysis procedures. The determination of the doses of nitrogen and the timing of application are influenced also environmental and
economic aspects. The chlorophyll content of the leaves indicates the nitrogen status of plants, since there is a relationship between the nitrogen content and the amount of chlorophyll in the leaves. According to plant analysis results there was a strong and significant relationship between the values of the NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index)and the total nitrogen content measured in the leaves.

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Element content analyses in the Institute for Food Sciences, Quality Assurance and Microbiology
Published November 13, 2012
203-207

The role of chemical elements to ensure and promote our health is undisputed. Some of them are essential for plants, animals and human, others can cause diseases. The major source of mineral constituents is food, drinking water has a minor contribution to it, so the knowledge of elemental intake through food is crucial and needs continuous moni...toring and by this way it promotes the food quality assurance and dietetics.
With the evolution of spectroscopic methods increasingly lower concentrations could be determined, so the elemental composition of a sample could be more precisely and fully described. Due to the results the gathered knowledge up to the present is supported and new observations can be done helping us to understand such complex systems as biological organisms are.
The quality of a food is determined by the full process of its production, consequently it starts with agricultural production so elemental-analysis usually cover the whole soil – plant – (animal) – food chain, by this way the „Fork-to-Farm” precept is true in elemental analysis field also.
The history of elemental analysis in the University of Debrecen, Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economic Sciences, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences and Environmental Management, Institute of Food Processing, Quality Assurance and Microbiology goes back to 1980s when the so called Regional Measurement Central gave the background for research. The continuous deployment resulted in an obtain of an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES) in 1988, which extended the scope of examinations due to its excellent performance characteristics
compared to flame atom absorption (FAAS) and flame emission spectrometers (FES). The instrumental park retain up to date correlate to the developing analytical techniques due to acquiring a newer ICPAES in 1998 and an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer in 2004 – which sensitivity is three order of magnitude better compared to ICP-AES. The Institute supports the work with its own ICP-AES and ICP-MS since 2011. 

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Change of soil nitrogen content in a long term fertilization experiment
Published March 5, 2015
39-44

The most important aim of sustainable agriculture is to ensure our natural resources – such as soils – protection, which includes fertility preservation and the use of appropriate methods of cultivation.

If we want to get accurate information about the occurred changes, way and danger of changes, we should track the resupply and eff...ect of the mineral nutrients and the removed quantity of nutrients with the harvest.

Nitrogen is an essential element for living organisms and it is present in the soil mainly in organic form. In general only a low percentage of the total nitrogen content can be used directly by plants in the soil. The mineral nitrogen is incorporate by plants into our bodies. This inorganic nitrogen is produced by the transformation of organic contents through mineralization processes and it gets into the soil by fertilization. This is how nitrogen turnover occurs when mineral forms become organic and organic forms become mineral.

The objective of this publication was to introduce – through some element s of nitrogen turnover- how changing the properties of soil in a long term fertilization experiment.

We established that the fertilization is influenced the soil pH. With the increase of fertilization levels increased the acidity of the soil, maybe it is related with the number of nitrification bacteria. The fertilization and the rotation affected to the quantity of nitrate.

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