The increase of the grain yield of maize is closely correlated with its seasonal dry matter accumulation. Dry matter is accumulated into the grain yield during the grain filling period. The following maize hybrids were involved in the experiment: Armagnac FAO 490, Loupiac FAO 380 and Sushi FAO 340. In order to determine dry matter content, two...samples per week were taken on the following days: 22nd, 25th, 28th, 31st August, 4th, 7th, 14th, 18th, 22nd, 25th, 29th September and 2nd, 6th, 9th, 13th October. In the course of sampling the weight of 100 grains from the middle section of 4 ears was measured in 4 replications. Dry matter content was determined after drying to constant weight in a drying cabinet at 60 °C. Harvesting was performed on 13th October 2017.
The daily precipitation sum was determined by local measurements, while the daily radiation and temperature data were provided by the Meteorological Observatory Debrecen of the National Meteorological Service in Budapest. Among the agrometeorological parameters, an analysis was made of the precipitation during the growing season, effective heat sums during the vegetative and generative phase, and the water supplies. The daily heat sums were determined using the algorithm proposed.
The amount of precipitation in the winter period before the 2017 growing season was 210 mm. The soil was saturated until its field capacity. The rather dry and warm March and April had a favourable effect, but there was no worthy amount of precipitation until May (51 mm) due to the condition of the dried seedbed. Sowing was performed on the 5th of May 2017 in a randomised small plot experiment. There was favourable precipitation and temperature during the growing season, thereby providing ideal conditions for maize development, growth and yield formation. There was near average amount of precipitation in each year. The total amount of precipitation in the summer period is 342 mm. Temperature was mostly above the average, but there was no long and extremely warm period.
The Armagnac hybrid reached its highest dry matter mass 126 days after emergence. Physiological maturity was reached sooner (on the 119th day) in the case of Loupiac, and even sooner in the case of Sushi (116th day). The thousand grain weight of Sushi (which has the shortest ripening period) was 286 g at the time of physiological maturity, while that of Loupiac was 311 g. Compared to Sushi, Armagnac showed 12 g more dry matter accumulation (306 g). In the case of all three examined hybrids, physiological maturity was preceded by an intensive phase, when the dynamics of dry matter accumulation was rather quick. On average, Sushi gained 2.8 g dry matter per day between 103 days following emergence and physiological maturity, while the same values were 3.2 g for Armagnac and 3.3 g for Loupiac. The aim of the regression line slope is to predict the behavior of the dependent variable with the knowledge of the values and characteristics of the independent variables using the regression line equation. Furthermore, to determine how the location affected the dynamic of dry matter accumulation in the Armagnac, Loupiac and Sushi hybrids. In regression analysis, the coefficient of explanation showed that the effect of day in the Armagnac was 97%, in the Loupiac 94%, in the Sushi 90 %. The determination coefficient (R2) is useful in determing how the regression equation fits. But, as we have seen, the determination coefficient alone is not sufficient to verify the model’s accuracy, in addition to the determination coefficient (R2), the normality of the data or the residuals, the variance of the variables at different levels, the independence of the data relative to time and non-oblique. Observations are evaluated for the correctness of the fitted model.
Dry matter values decreased evenly and slightly following physiological maturity. According to our research results, it was established that physiological maturity is followed by a moderate dry matter loss. Until harvesting, Armagnac lost 40 g of its thousand mass weight in 29 days, while the same value pairs were 69 g in 36 days for Loupiac and 29 g in 39 days for Sushi. Loupiac – which had the highest weight at the time of physiological maturity – lost the most of its dry weight; therefore, Armagnac and Sushi had higher values at the time of harvesting.
An improvement in the quality of maize grain by increasing the level of components responsible for its biological value is possible
by using genetic means. However, a change in the genotype, together with improving the nutrient properties of the grain, also has some
adverse consequences connected with a fall in yield and in resistance to
Field experiments were conducted during three years (2003, 2004and 2005) to evaluate environmental effects on grain yield and
quality responses of maize hybrids. Twenty one hybrids of various maturity groups (FAO 150-400) were planted to achieve an optimum
(60-70 000 plants per hectare) plant populations and grown under the medium-N (80 kg N ha-1) fertilization. Environmental conditions
significantly affected maize hybrid responses for grain yield, starch, oil and protein contents, and consequently, starch, oil and protein
yields per hectare. Hybrids of flint type, which have a short vegetation period, had high protein and oil content but the yield averages
were low due to the slower rate of starch incorporation. Hybrids of the dent type have a longer growing season and more intense
carbohydrate accumulation, but low protein and oil contents. In wet years there was a higher rate of starch accumulation, while dry
years are favorable for protein and oil accumulation. Positive correlation existed between starch content and grain yield and 1000-
weight as well as between oil content and volumetric weight among tested hybrids. Negatively correlation existed between grain oil and
starch content as well as between oil content and grain yield and 1000-weight. Thus, end-users that require high quality maize may need
to provide incentives to growers to off set the negative correlation of grain yield with oil and protein content.
In our research a chernozem soil sample formed on loess was collected from an area under cultivation. Our aim was to determine the lead adsorption capacity using a soil column experiment. The study showed saturation of lead content of the soil. The lead accumulation capacity of Lactuca sativa L. was measured in the sections of roots and leaves...applying pot experiments. It could be observed that the lettuce accumulated lead easily from the chernozem soil. The lead content was increased in the analyzed sections of the plants against an increasing lead content.
A small-plot microelement load field trial was set up on brown forest clay soil with eight elements (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn), on 3 levels each (0/30, 90, 270 kg element ha-1). The soil was treated with soluble salts of elements once at initiation (1994). In the seventh year of the experiment (2001) winter barley was the test plant. The...total element content was determined in plant samples (shoot, straw, grain) after microwave digestion using cc.HNO3+cc.H2O2. The element composition of the prepared samples was determined using ICP-MS technique. In the experiment toxic effects of treatments and yield loss could not be observed. Zn and As contents in barely shoots were only moderately increased by increasing microelement loads. Effects of Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb and Al treatments could not be observed. On the other hand, Cd accumulation was significant in the shoot. Cd content was also increased both in straw and grain. Results of this experiment prove that Cd remains mobile in the soil-plant system for a long time. Its accumulation can be observed both in vegetative and reproductive parts of plants without toxic symptoms and yield loss.
Molybdenum, as a constituent of several important enzymes, is an essential microelement. It can be found in all kind of food naturally at low
levels. However, environmental pollution, from natural or anthropogenic sources, can lead to high levels of the metal in plants. Our study is based on long-term field experiments at Nagyhörcsök, wher
This work is about the molybdenum-accumulation of cereals analyzing soil and plant samples from a field experiment set in
Nagyhörcsök by Kádár et al. in 1991.
In this long-term field experiment different levels of soil contamination conditions are simulated. Soil and plant samples were collected
from the experiment station to study
In this report results of maize, winter wheat, winter barley and soil analysis are presented. The conclusions are as follows:
– Analysing soil samples from 1991 we have found that roughly half of the molybdenum dose applied is in the form of NH4-acetate+EDTA soluble
– Comparing element content of grain and leaf samples we have experienced that molybdenum accumulation is more considerable in the vegetative plant parts
– Winter wheat accumulated less molybdenum then maize in its vegetative parts. Comparing molybdenum content of winter wheat to winter barley we found that the concentration of the element in wheat was lower by half than in the winter barley. It seemed that molybdenum accumulated to the least degree in winter wheat.
Joint influence of cadmium and nickel was investigated on the feature of their accumulation by the vegetative organs of 10-days' old maize shoots. It was established that most intensively noted metals are taken in by the roots of shoots in the first 7 hours stressing influencing, while in leaves they appear only after a 7-hour long exposition....It was stated that the absorption process of the noted metals by a root system is carried by two-phase character. The indexes of inner-tissue contamination are calculated. Activating by the cadmium and nickel ions of lipid peroxidation as marker of the stressing influencing, and also was shown the proper increase of intensity of functioning of ascorbate peroxidase as the antioxidant enzyme protection of cell.
The influence of industrial pollutants on the intensity of lipid peroxidation in the assimilatory organs of arboreal plant was investigated. The differential changes of the probed indexes are set depending on the species. Information is got can testify to participation of lipid peroxidation products in forming of reactions-answers of arboreal p...lants on influence of industrial dust borne extract with content of heavy metals. Determination of level and rates of accumulation of Zn, Ni, Pb and Cd, in the leaves of arboreal plants in the conditions of different
contamination level allowed to take species to two groups. To the first (phytoextraction potential exceeds a base-line level in 10 times) belong Populus bolleana Lauche, P. italica (Du Roi) Moench, Picea pungens Engelm and Sorbus aucuparia L. To the second (exceeds a base-line level from 5 to 10 times) belong Acer negundo L., Aesculus hippocastanum L., Betula pendula Roth and Tilia cordata Mill. The most substantial increase of peroxidation secondary product content (more than in 2.5 times) is peculiar for B. pendula, A. hippocastanum and P. pungens Engelm., that well conforms to the rates of heavy metals translocation, it has however species-specific character.
The primary purpose of our experiment was the solution of municipal excess sludge treatment by a renewable energy resource used willow (Salix viminalis L.) plantation. Tests were carried out to state whether the applied sewage sludge has caused any accumulation of the toxic elements in the studied soil layers, and - based on the results –to s...ee whether the plantation is suitable for the treatment of municipal sewage sludge.
The excess sludge (sludge before dewatering) is beneficial for the willow, because it contains a 3–5% dry matter and therefore, a lot of water, too. This high water content ensures the high water amount needed for the intensive growth of the willow. On the other hand, the wastewater treatment plant can save the dewatering cost which corresponds to about 30% of the water treatment process costs. The amounts of the sprinkled sewage sludge were calculated on the basis of its total nitrogen content. Treatments were the followings: control, 170 N kg ha-1 year-1 and 250 N kg ha-1 year-1. The mean values of the toxic element concentrations in the sewage sludge did not cross the permitted limits of the land accommodating.
The measured toxic element values of the soil were compared to the limits of the 50/2001. (IV.3.) Government Regulation.The sprinkled sewage sludge on the bases of the total N content did not cause accumulation of heavy metals in the soil and the treated plants were also healthy without any signs of toxicity.
Pot experiment was performed to investigate the effects of increasing NH4NO3 doses with or without Microbion UNC bacterial fertilizer
application on dry matter production of ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). Experiment was set up on calcareous chernozem soil of Debrecen-Látókép and on humus sandy soil of Őrbottyán. The bi-factorial trials w
To the effective control of invasive weeds are essential to prevent establish, if has already happened obstacle to massive accumulation, and promoting the efficient and rapid eradication, if it is possible. The Woolly cupgrass (Eriochloa villosa /Thunb./ Kunth) belongs to weeds which “hard to control” especially in corn. One of the difficul...ties of effective control is the prolonged emergence causing avoidance of several individuals the contact with pre-emergent herbicides. Another problem arises due to the intensive use of post-emergence herbicide products with short duration of action. To optimalize of timing of treatment is essential for successful control of later emerging weeds. The recently established Woolly cupgrass in Hungary shows resistance or reduced susceptibility to substantial portion of herbicides used in corn. The data collected from small-plot trials demonstrates that application of sulfonylurea or selective monoctyledonous herbicides can be effective against the Woolly cupgrass.
Molybdenum is not a well-known microelement, but being a constituent of several important cellular enzymes it is an essential microelement. Molybdenum occurs in all foods, but at very low levels. There does not appear to be any particular foods or types of foods, which in the absence of extrinsic factors, naturally have high levels of molybdenu...m. However, environmental pollution, from natural or anthropogenic sources, can lead to high level of the metal in plants.
Our study is based on the long-term field experiments of Nagyhörcsök, where different levels of soil contamination conditions are simulated. Soil and plant samples were collected from the experiment station to study the behaviour of molybdenum: total concentration, available concentration, leaching, transformation, uptake by and transport within the plants, accumulation in different organs, phytotoxicity and effects on the quantity and quality of the crop. In this work we present the results of maize and peas and the soil samples related to them.
According to our data molybdenum is leaching from the topsoil at a medium rate and it appears in the deeper layers. In the case of plant samples we found that molybdenum level in the straw is many times higher than that is in the grain, so molybdenum accumulates in the vegetative organs of the plant. The data also show differences in the molybdenum-uptake of cereals and Fabaceae (or Leguminosae).
...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">All organisms are exposed to countless environmental effects, which influence in a disadvantageous way their life processes. They continuously adapt to the changing conditions and respond to the stress impacts by defence mechanisms. Through different signal transduction pathways they are able to increase or decrease the expression of their genes and consequently modify their metabolic processes. My interest focuses on alternative oxidase (AOX) enzyme whose expression is often increased under biotic and abiotic stress. The so far proven and putative functions of the AOX play a role in the ability of organisms to adapt to different conditions, such as heavy metals accumulation, pathogenic infection, oxidative stress and lack of oxygen or nutrients.
Forests are unique global factors which ensure life for almost every living being on Earth. They play a major role in controlling water flows, preventing erosion and controlling the oxygen content of Earth’s atmosphere. By the end of the XXth century, it was realized that forests help to nature maintain and are vital parts of our natural envi...ronment. By the time societies realized this fact, economic and environmental effects had amplified which endanger forests. Due to their good water control and water protection abilities, and their function in climate control, mountain forests can provide a suitable environment for themselves, for their successful growth.
Forests play a major role in soil protection, especially in mountain areas where they prevent soil erosion. By converting surface waters into subsurface waters, forests help with the accumulation of subsurface waters, which are the sources of springs, rivers and streams. In the summer, they protect the soil from drying out by creating a special microclimate. They positively affect the climate of surrounding territories.
The protection of the environment is our common task. All pollution that exposes our soils, plants or the environment – as taken in any proper or extended sense – will appear sooner or later in the food chain and in human beings who are on the top of the food-chain pyramid. The aim of our work is to give a brief overview of the effects of s...elected industrial wastes on the physiological parameters of corn plants. Sewage sludge and lime sludge were examined. These materials contain lots of useful element for plants (e.g. iron, phosphorus, potassium, zinc). However, their aluminum, chrome and lithium contents are also considerable. The element contents in sewage sludge and the filtrates of lime sludge, as well as the dry matter accumulation and relative chlorophyll contents, were measured. The disadvantageous and advantageous physiological effects of the examined materials were confirmed. The compensation effect of the environment is excluded; however, the neutralization of environmental impacts is not infinite under natural circumstances.
The environment is contaminated with heavy metals and other toxic compounds. One of the most important toxic element is the arsenic (As).
The objective of our study was to investigate the effect of As on fresh and dry weight of sunflower and maize in the early growth phases.
Seedlings were grown in climate room on nutrient solut...ion which were treated with 3, 10 and 30 mg kg-1 arsenic. The plants were treated separately with As(III) and As(V). After 14 day, changes in fresh and dry weight of maize shoots and roots were recorded. In the case of sunflower these parameters were measured after 21 day.
The applied As(III) and As(V) decreased the fresh and dry mass of the shoots and roots of seedlings, especially at concentration 30 mg kg-1. We can draw the conclusion that the treatments of the maize and sunflower roots with arsenic had negative effects on the biomass accumulation. We found that the sunflower plants are more sensitive to arsenic toxicity than maize plants, and all data demonstrate that the As(III) is more toxic to these plants than the As(V).
In this paper we analysed the change of the chemical composition and nutritive value of Timothy observed during the spring of 2005. The nutritive value of Timothy was observed between the end of April and the beginning of June relating to the following parameters: crude protein, crude fibre, crude fat, ash, N-free extract, net-energy growth, ne...t-energy lactation, net-energy maintenance, Metabolizable Protein Energy dependent, Metabolizable Protein N-dependent. We also analysed whether a relationship between the environmental factors that affect the
growing period of grasses and the chemical composition can be detected or not. While testing for correlation, the number of days from 1st January, the amount of heat accumulation, solar radiation and rainfall were considered as independent coefficients.
For the estimation of weather conditions we calculated the climate index. The observed year can be described as a year with a rainfall above the average and abundant solar radiation. A correlation can be detected between the change of parameters of nutritive value and the quality of the current year. In 2005 the result of the analysis of nutritive value was showed a significance difference with respect to each chemical composition at the rate of P<0.001 depending on the time when the samples were taken.
According to the outlined data it can be stated that the change of the value of crude protein and ash show decreasing tendency agreeing the research literature. In parallel with the change of nutritive value, the amount of crude fibre and N-free extract increased. However, the value of Net-Energy maintenance showed an alteration only in the first half of the observed period. The same alteration tendency can be detected in the Net-Energy growth and the Net-Energy lactation.
...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Scientific research from the last decades showed that the inappropriate industrial and agricultural production caused an abnormal increase of the potentially toxic elements in the soil. Unfortunately the acidification of the soil is an increasing problem in Hungary. According to Várallyay et al. (2008) 13% of the Hungarian soils are highly acid. Accumulation of toxic elements differs in the genetically diverse plant species. The root of the plant constitutes a filter so that the rootstock is also kind of a filter system, which may prevent that the scion part (such as berry) accumulate high levels of various potentially toxic elements from the soil. The aim of research was to determine how different grape rootstocks influence the As, Co, Cu and Zn content of the musts and seeds. Thus, specifying which of the grape rootstocks takes up the lowest level of these 4 elements (As, Co, Cu and Zn), and accumulates in berries, so could reduce the potentially toxic element load of the grape berries. The grape rootstock collection of the University of Debrecen was set up in 2003 in 3x1 m spacing on immune sandy soil. Grafting of ‘Cserszegi fűszeres’ was started in 2010. We could evaluate yields harvested from 12 rootstock varieties of the experiment in October 2011. We obtained valuable differences in the arsenic, copper, cobalt and zinc concentrations of musts and seeds of ‘Cserszegi fűszeres’ grafted into different rootstocks. The results obtained from the 2011 harvest support the statement that the choice of rootstock might be an important factor to increase food safety. The differences in concentration of the four elements observed in case of the rootstock may have been caused on one hand by the rootstock effect, and on the other hand, the vintage effect has a very significant impact on the vines element uptake. Several years of experimental results will be needed to answer these questions.
The use of superphosphate as P-containing fertiliser decreased in the last years in many countries in accordance with strict air pollution laws, and the S-deposition decreased from the atmosphere to the soil as well.
Winter wheat is the one of the S-demanding plants. Recently, the gradually increasing S absence endanger the formation of requ
We examined the effect of treatments on the sulphur-, nitrogen content and the N/S ratio of winter wheat in the whole upperground plant and in the grain and straw at harvest in a arable land sulphur fertilization experiment on brown forest soil (Agricultural Company of Felsőzsolca).
We analysed the samples from spring to harvesting, in the critical phenophases. In this study we discuss only the values from the stooling and stalking and the results of analysis of grain and straw in the harvest.
We experienced that the concentration of sulphur in the whole upperground parts of winter wheat showed increase to the end of vegetation independently of fertilization. The N/S ratio was between 8% and 12% in the beginning of the growth period in the whole upperground plant, while the ratio in the grain at harvest was between 13 and 14%. When we examined the whole upperground plant, stalk and leaf at stalking, we got the highest sulphur content in the leaf. Mostly the middle level sulphur fertilization dose (4 l/ha) increased the sulphur accumulation in the green plant. At total maturing, the greatest part of accumulated sulphur is in the grain, but then the effect of fertilization is less glaring.
Application of fungicides have advantages and also some direct or indirect disadvantages, such as imbalance and/or fungicide resistance in microbe population. To avoid these problems the development of alternative, eco-friendly methods like mostly spraying with oils are in the focus nowadays. The investigations of the effects of fungicides on m...icrobiota in some cultivations can give a more complex view to this topic and developmental possibilities. In the present study, our aim was testing of the effects of paraffine oil (as alternative fungicide) on microbial properties (CFU and rate of filamentous fungi and yeasts) of Chardonnay and Kékfrankos leaves and berries.
Our results from 2014 showed that the application of paraffine oil as sole spray agent can decrease the presence of saprophytic filamentous fungi on the berries of Chardonnay (susceptible for fungal infections). In the case of Kékfrankos berries opposite properties were observed, which may be the result of the absorption of oil by the thick wax layer of this variety. The oil treatment did not affect the yeast population of Chardonnay and Kékfrankos berries contrary to negative effect of the regular pesticide treatment. The selective fungicide effect of paraffine oil against filamentous fungal population caused the accumulation of yeast cells in the mycobiota of grape berries. The careful use of this yeasts in spontaneous fermentation can improve the aroma profile of wines. The year of 2015 did no prefer the growth of fungi, therefore no interesting properties were detected in the mycobiota of grape varieties. The occurence of the harmful saprophytic filamentous fungi predicted to be increased in mild climate agricultures as the result of the climate change.
In summary, the paraffine oils are seem to be promising tools for the eco-friendly control of harmful fungi of grapes.
Conducted are researches of dynamics of glutathione reduced form maintenance in the leaves of arboreal plants which grow in the zones of different level of contamination by industrial emissions of“Red Lead Factory” LTD and ArselorMittal Kryvyi Rig. For comparison, similar investigations were conducted in the intact Botanic Garden in s....c.t. Sofievka. Findings testify to absence of negative influence of industrial emissions and, thus, the arboretum of botanical garden also can be examined as conditional control. It was stated that it is set a few strategies of active oxygen forms and their metabolites deactivation, appearing in cells under action of environment negative factors. To our opinion, fluctuation of glutathione reduced form maintenance can examine as an index of plants stability, on which investigational species can be distributed on steady and moderato steady.
...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">Barramundi (Lates calcarifer) is a predatory fish species native in Southeast Asia and Australia. Based on the geothermal potentiality of Hungary the high market potential warm-water fish barramundi can be produced economically. Living nourishment organisms such as Artemia nauplii play an essential role in the larval rearing of barrramundi. However, zooplanktons in natural aquatic enviroments contain minerals in a higher concentration than the usually fed newly hatched Artemia. Therefore the goal of recent study was to investigate the effect of cobaltchloride on the larval growth and survival of barramundi when fed individually and combined with Zn and Mn supplemented Artemia.
Hibrid maize is cultivated on larger plots, therefore the sown areas of hibrid maize are heterogeneous from a pedology aspect. Heterogenity causes problems during tasseling, chemical plant protection and harvest. The heterogenity of sown areas can be compensated by fertilization which is based on soil analysis. We carried out research into chan...ge of the soil on four soil types from 1987 to 2005.
There were no significant changes in pH, hydroiodic acidity, CaCO3-content, humus-content on meadow chernozem soil. We detected equalization of salin content in the examined soil layers. There were no significant changes in the measured values on chernozem meadow soil and solonetz meadow soil in 2005. We discoverd equalization of saline content on chernozem meadow soil, but the changes were not as obvious as the changes on meadow chernozem soil. We found salinization in the 30-60 cm soil layer on type meadow soil that may be due to water movement.
Molybdenum as a constituent of several inmportant enzymes is an essential micorelement. It can be found in all kind of food naturally at low level, however, environmental pollution, from natural or anthropogenic sources, can lead to high level of the metal in plants. Our study is based on the long-term field experiments of Nagyhörcsök, where...different levels of soil contamination conditions are simulated. Plant samples were collected from the experiment station to study the behaviour of elements: uptake by and transport within the plants, accumulation in different organs, phytotoxicity and effects on the quantity and quality of the crop.
In this work we present the effect of molybdenum treatment on the uptake of other elements. Molybdenum is proved to be in an antagonist relationship with copper and sulphur, while molybdenum-phosphorus is a synergist interaction.
However, in most of the plants we studied increasing molybdenum-treatment enhanced cadmium-uptake. We have found the most significant cadmium-accumulation in the case of pea, spinach and red beet.
An important problem refers to soil weeds seed bank with special reference to brown luvic soils and relationship between vegetal remains
(roots + stub) and nutrition regime – crop rotation plant. A great number of seeds can be found in first 20 centimeters of soil (plowing
layer). This fact causes a high weeds density, which has a negat