Nowadays global warming is a major issue to our environment. This issue is generated by the modern human activities like industry and intensive agriculture. This research is about methane emission from rice paddy fields. The aim of the study is to lower the methane emission from the field with the help of using different type of fertilizers, wh...ilst we keep in focus the efficient economic operation. The main experimental field is Matsuo paddy field, (Matsuo town, Sanbu city, Chiba prefecture) which is analyzed by the Chiba University’s soil science laboratory, they provided the data for this study. During the study three type of fertilizer was analyzed which are all organic and the control was a regular chemical fertilizer. For all fertilizers the cost and income of the production were calculated and the profit was weighted with the methane emission what a specific fertilizer produced during the cultivation. In the future if the organic fertilizers are in focus than it is necessary to find a new material what can be competitive with the chemical fertilizers in focus of GHG emission or find an alternative way of the usage of methane in biogas production.
revolutions and changes. Effects of these changes can be sensible at all parts of agricultural production. It results in new ownership and organisation structure. Agriculture has to suit to the new circumstances of changed firm-size and structure. These kinds of changes essentially define conditions of agricultural production in the future, and... they have an affect on husbandry of enterprises.
To be succeed in managing changes, we have to know the reasons of these alterations and nature of them. It is very important to get to know the advantages and disadvantages of the typical change-management methods and its typology. These methods are more elaborated and widespread at industrial enterprises. It is necessary to get to know the nature, characteristics and reasons of changes, and we should work out ways agricultural companies, taking notice of their speciality.
The methods and means of examinations
We aimed to point out what kind of changing processions were typified the activity of agricultural ventures. What are the speciality, strains, the arousing and obstructive factors of nowadays changes. We made questionnaire and sent them to numerous enterprises.
Most of the answers show that leaders are „floating with flow” and most part of their power is used to fight back actually challenges. Generally consciousness is missing, so they are not govern the events still more they are passive objects of occurrence.
Naturally, the given answers show, that the most important changes of past are changing of markets, importance of quality production and changes in the structure of enterprises. And – especially at companies, which deal with plant growing –, modifying of structure because of compensation.
Innovation, as a factor influencing the success of farming, is of outstanding importance also in agriculture. Only those businesses (enterprises, companies) can be successful in the longrun which are able to adapt the new technological elements and to make their own developments occasionally and make them suitable for practical utilization.
The development and implementation of precision agriculture or site-specific farming has been made possible by combining the Global Positioning System (GPS) and the Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Site specific agronomic applications are of high importance concerning the efficiency of management in crop production as well as the protectio...n and maintenance of environment and nature. Precision crop production management techniques were applied at four locations to evaluate their impact on small plot units sown by wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) in a Hungarian national case study. The results obtained suggest the applicability of the site specific management techniques, however the crops studied responded in a different way concerning the impact of applications. Maize had a stronger response regarding grain yield and weed canopy. Wheat was responding better than maize concerning plant density and protein content performance.
I my current essay I tried to prove that the European Union modified its economic policy due to the financial and economic crisis and the fierce global competitiveness requirements. The main emphasis was laid on the increase of competitiveness. Competitiveness became preferred
to cohesion and the economic and social closing up of the newly j
This tendency strengthens the establishment of the two speed Europe concept and causes tensions between the core regions and the peripheries.
The integration of plant breeding and plant transformation is needed because we have to create a homozygous genotype of great agronomic value by conventional breeding before the application of genetic technology with which we modify it by using a gene or genome sequence. The aim of integrated plant breeding is to trigger such advantegous change...s by genetic technology which can not be achieved via conventional breeding or just with considerably weaker efficacy. By transformation, the plant’s agronomic performance, the efficiency and security of its production will improve and it will enable more versatile uses of the plant. Genetic technology is one sequence of a new plant variety’ breeding. To create a transgenic variety, the isolation of a gene or a sequence of a gene from the donor genome for tranformation, a homozygous plant or target genome that is suitable for transformation and is created via conventional breeding methods, an effective transformation technique and the establishment of the new variety from the transformed, fertile plant are needed. The transgenic plant should be made suitable for establishing a variety by conventional breeding so that it could be produced securely, its growing could contribute to the development of modern, sustainable agriculture, its seed could be produced profitably, it could meet the reqiurements of DUS and that the changes indicated by the transgene could provide such economic advantages compared to the original variety, which have real commercial value.
The aim of the study was to examine the achievement of Hungarian agricultural companies and partnerships, particularly agricultural co-operatives based on the aggregated database of National Tax and Customs Administration (NAV)1. From the methodological aspect, descriptive statistical methods and time series analysis were used. One of the most...important conclusions is that the socio-economic weight of the agricultural co-operatives was strongly decreased in the period after the EU accession. The other important statement is that apart from the general examination of economic actors on aggregated level the comparative analysis of the single organizations forms would be needed. In the case of co-operatives, separated examination of the former type producer co-operatives and the so-called new type ones (e.g. marketing co-operatives etc.) would be necessary.
...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica is a native pathogen in East Asia and has been introduced into North America and Europe. Historical records and population genetic studies revealed at least three major introduction events from Asia into Europe.
Managerial activity is a process constituted by well separable functions, tasks. The functions and the content of managerial activity are influenced by several factors.
This multi-sided affectedness focused our attention on the analysis of management tasks. We aimed to formulate responses for the questions how and to what extent the activiti
Our findings suggest that the realization of certain management functions is influenced by several factors. Without striving for completeness, we could only evaluate 9-11 factors per function. The evaluation of information sources is considerably differentiated in terms of the activities, tasks of organizations. In the assessment of plans, the potentials for realization and repetition were judged differently, whereas non-organization changes and individual planning similarly. The findings of impact factors in decision making are largely different, as well in terms of organizational activities, but all the interviewed ranked the interests of the organization high. Analysis on control indicated that managers attributed higher importance to issues of content than to methodological ones.
Our investigations follow Fayol’s classical groups based on managerial tasks. We studied the following five tasks in the process of management: information tasks, planning, decision-making, instructions and control. We performed our studies with the inclusion of agricultural organization managers, with questionnaire surveys. The interviewed were asked to qualify the impact factors on the five investigated management tasks on a scale ranging from 1-5. We identified the following company groups: small company, medium company and large company.
We performed our analysis on the basis of company sizes as well, seeking to formulate responses on how size influences the qualification of the investigated factors.
Our findings suggest that the interviewed company managers attribute higher than average roles to the tasks of the management process. The qualification, ranking of management tasks are considerably influenced by company sizes. Relationships and venues are important in the implementation of information tasks, whereas the viability of plans is essential in the process of planning. Usefulness and company interests are highlighted in decision-making. In the case of instructions and decision-making, we stressed the significance of content elements as opposed to formal ones.
We wish to present a method to quantify the value modifying effects when comparing animal farms. To achieve our objective, multi-variable statistical methods were needed. We used a principal component analysis to originate three separate principal components from nine variables that determine the value of farms. A cluster analysis was carried o...ut in order to classify farms as poor, average and excellent. The question may arise as to which principal components and which variables determine this classification.
After pointing out the significance of variables and principal components in determining the quality of farms, we analysed the relationships between principal components and market prices. Some farms did not show the expected results by the discriminant analysis, so we supposed that the third principal component plays a great role in calculating prices. To prove this supposition, we applied the logistic regression method. This method shows how great a role the principal components play in classifying farms on the basis of price categories.
Environmental, natural, social and economic processes undergoing both in Europe and in the world predict such a 21st century that is characterised by increasing resource-crisis from both economic and ecological aspects. Therefore, it is very important for Hungary to see what happens to its natural resources, epecially to its agricult...ural land, water reserves as well as the biodiversity of the local unique flora and fauna. One of the most significant issues of the rural areas of Hungary is whether we can preserve the natural habitats and the various biodiversity of the related species, the favourable biological background of agriculture. In addition, whether we are able to provide high quality food for the country as well as for the broader reagion, whether we are able to produce energy from the resources available as well as to provide sufficient opportunities for the population to live and work. These can be considered as the most significant issuesof the coming decades which determine the strategy of the Hungarian rural economies in long term.
Agriculture in Hungary was characterised by the duality of large-scale farms (co-ops and state farms) and small-scale private enterprises until the beginning of the 1990s. Due to the privatisation and transformation of co-ops farm structure has significantly changed. The transformation of the structure is not considered to be a completed proces...s. Level of concentration and integration on private farms are rising, new co-operation forms are appearing and new types of enterprises and producers’ groups are being formed.
Concentration and integration have great importance in the dairy sector among agricultural enterprises. In recent years, milk production in the European Union has been characterised by concentration, leading to greater competitiveness. Today, most dairy producers belong to different kinds of producers’ organisations as concentrated demand may only be competitive by meeting concentrated supply. In Hungary, the problems of production have been the fragmentation and decrease of the average farm size while, at the same time, concentration has occurred in the processing sector. Establishing producers’ groups may be one of the solutions for improving competitiveness production.
ITS (internal tanscribed spacer) profiles of the aDNA (ancient DNA) of seed remains extracted from an extinct sample recovered from the 15th century (Budapest, Hungary) were compared to 31 modern melon cultivars and landraces. An aseptic incubation followed by ITS analysis was used to exclude the exogenously and endogenously contaminated (Asper...gillus) medieval seeds and to detect SNPs in ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of rDNA (ribosomal DNA). SNPs were observed at the 94–95 bp (GC to either RC, RS or AG) of ITS1; and at 414 bp (A-to-T substitution), 470 bp (T to Y or C), 610 bp (A to R or G) of ITS2. The results facilitate the final aim of molecular and morphological reconstructions of ancient melon tpyes.
An important ambition of EU regional politics is the reduction of disparities. An important strategical objective of the Commission is to terminate underdevelopment and to ensure the development of the regions based on the principles of solidarity, equity and justice. The commission has dedicated forty percent of its common budget to achieve th...ese goals. The differences in development are significantly influenced by the economic characteristics of the specific region, the quality and quantity of human resources, the accessibility of the region and factors influencing local quality of life.
The new spatial structure has been formed by the processes of the change of regime, the events of nineties and the economic renewal based onforeign capital investments parallel with crisis phenomenon. The economic, political and social consequences of the transformation have significantly transformed spatial structure and increased disparities. New disparities have formed, which strengthened due to the formation of east-west slopes and local crisis zones. The outstanding improvement of the capital resulted in great regional development differences, which can be detected when examining regional distribution of gross domestic product. The Eastern part of the country was most heavily affected by the collapse of heavy industry and agricultural mass production based on the Eastern markets.
It is of key importance for the region to strengthen regional competitiveness, which requires the application of consistent development-politics. Economic development is the most important, which can also draw the possibility of establishing welfare infrastructures. It is important to develop the processing industry, the supply networks and to ease the lack of capital it is also important to involve foreign capital. Developing agriculture plays an important role in transforming the structure of the economy. Since the conditions of the region, its traditions and long-term competitive advantages are favorable, thus can represent a greater ratio in the economy than the EU average. The modernisation of the agricultural sector can be promoted by supporting marketing, quality agricultural development and producer-retail cooperation. It is also highly important to promote development in transportation and informatics infrastructure and human resources.
In the future – based on the strength of the region – it is necessary to achieve such a consistent regional development politics, which by validating the principles of regional politics, serves the interest of utilizing regional development supports most efficiently and prevents the irreversible underdevelopment of the region and promotes fast development.
In recent years the regulations of the EU unambiguously determine that the biodegradable wastes should be used for biogas production or composting. The direct use of sewage sludge in agriculture is limited by its hazardous microelement content, but it can be used effectively in composting. The limitation parameters can be extinguished with corr...ect compost-mixture and technology variants. The exact determination of the technologies and mixtures result a stable, constant quality product. The compost, as a classified product, is friable structured. The end-product is a
homogeneous mould with good water capacity, does not contain any weed seeds and pathogenic organisms. The compost does not have a acidify effect on the soil. It is an effective fertilizer thanks to its macro and microelement content.
Nowadays the climate change has an increasing effect on the animals. The warming climate brings up several problems on the area of the animal husbandry, which ones are really important. From the first time the living beings have defensive mechanisms against the heat shock. In current examination we use– from Hungary and from other countries c...ollected –samples of sheep breeds, which are living on different climate. Our fundamental assumption was, that the animals living on other climate adapted to the changes of the environment and there are differeces in their genetic background. These fixed mutations we are looking for in the HSP70 heat shock gene, but we haven’t found any polymorphism yet. We are going to involve further breeds and more individuals in the investigations.
...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The research results of ecological passportization for the municipal treatment facilities sewage disposals were presented (its chemical composition and sanitary measurements). There were determined the availability of the sewage disposals for irrigation and the prospects of use in agriculture.
Host-specificity is an important characteristic of fungal pathogens. Changing climate could create more appropriate environmental conditions for phytopathogens, thus formerly host-specify fungi could be able to colonize new hosts. Noxious plant pathogen fungi, which can infect several plant species are well-known worldwide. These genera may... expand their range of hosts because of the appearance in new geographic areas due to climate change. This new exposure can result in serious problems in agriculture because of the lack of immunity. The susceptibility of apple tree was studied through testing pathogenicity in vitro with species isolated from walnut twigs and nuts, and identified by ITS sequences. Three of four tested species, Botryosphaeria dothidea, Diaporthe eres and Diplodia seriata colonized and necrotized the infected apple branches, while Juglanconis juglandina was not able to infect the twigs. Members of Botryosphaeriaceae were the most virulent, causing the largest lesions in the fastest way. This experiment draws attention to the threat of new host-pathogen connections, which can arise because of the favourable weather conditions and can spread between neighbouring cultures.
The effect of extended drought conditions on soil, the unfavourable cultivation technologies and the application of chemicals have been enhancing the processes of physical and biological soil degradation, so the fertility of soil is gradually declining.
The effects of two cultivation methods – traditional ploughing (TP) and conservat
chernozem soil were examined in a long term experiment. Different parameters of the biological activity of soil were determined. These are
the numbers of total bacteria, microscopic fungi, aerobic cellulose decomposing bacteria, as well as the activities of some important soil
enzymes and CO2 production.
Conservation tillage seemed to be a more favourable cultivation method for the majority of microorganisms, the activities of urease and
dehydrogenase enzymes and CO2 production, compared to the traditional ploughing system. These parameters increased significantly,
especially in the upper layer of conservation tillage plots. Concerning the plant cultures, the majority of microbiological parameters were
higher in the soil of vetch (Vicia sativa L.) depending on the cultivation methods, so involving the pulses to the crop-rotation seems to be
very important in this soil type.
According to the ninth year’s results, the importance of conservation tillage as a means of protecting the soil biological activity in meadow
chernozem (Vertisols) can be established; it was proven by microbiological investigations.
The most important aim of sustainable agriculture is to ensure our natural resources – such as soils – protection, which includes fertility preservation and the use of appropriate methods of cultivation.
If we want to get accurate information about the occurred changes, way and danger of changes, we should track the resupply and eff...ect of the mineral nutrients and the removed quantity of nutrients with the harvest.
Nitrogen is an essential element for living organisms and it is present in the soil mainly in organic form. In general only a low percentage of the total nitrogen content can be used directly by plants in the soil. The mineral nitrogen is incorporate by plants into our bodies. This inorganic nitrogen is produced by the transformation of organic contents through mineralization processes and it gets into the soil by fertilization. This is how nitrogen turnover occurs when mineral forms become organic and organic forms become mineral.
The objective of this publication was to introduce – through some element s of nitrogen turnover- how changing the properties of soil in a long term fertilization experiment.
We established that the fertilization is influenced the soil pH. With the increase of fertilization levels increased the acidity of the soil, maybe it is related with the number of nitrification bacteria. The fertilization and the rotation affected to the quantity of nitrate.
Various abiotic stresses including high salinity strongly affect seed germination. Three Hungarian wheat landraces Gamási, Fóti and Kartali have been tested for seed germination, seedling growth and chemicals parameters when seeds were soaked in gibberellic acid (GA3) at the concentrations of 0, 75 and 150 ppm and at four levels of salinity s...tress 0, 5, 10 and 15 dSm-1. A laboratory experiment took place at Research Institute of Nyíregyháza. Factorial Experiment based on Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) in four replications has been conducted. Seed soaking in GA3 before sowing significantly affected germination characteristics, seedling properties and the results of chemical analysis. The highest germination as well as K+ content of seeds were observed at seed soaking into 150 ppm GA3. However, Na+ and proline contents in seedling were decreased. The behavior of the tested Hungarian wheat varieties was genotype-dependent. Increasing salinity stress up to 15 dSm-1 significantly affected germination characteristics, seedlings parameters and chemical analysis. Fóti variety turned out to be the best at 150 ppm GA3 compared to the other two varieties. Moreover, it had the lowest Na+ and proline contents and highest K+ content.
Special purpose language courses have always pushed the boundaries that set them apart from, for instance, courses offered in a business department. When we as foreign language teachers enter the special purpose language classroom and begin to explore such areas as ecology, agriculture, biology, mathematics or even law, we inevitably have had t...o immerse ourselves in those disciplines, in order to be effective. Foreign language departments, like those from any other field of academia, are continually developing courses with cross-disciplinary topics which challenge the competence of our staffs. However, my experience tells me that our ability as language teachers to integrate knowledge from across the disciplinary spectrum is misunderstood, mistrusted and under-exploited. This article explores this unused, and sometimes undiscovered, potential.
...5); font-variant-ligatures: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; text-decoration-style: initial; text-decoration-color: initial;">The author briefly overview the history of the 60-year-old Hungarian Plant Protection Service, which has improved to a model by its ’golden age’ period with a well organized system and excellence of specialists on the chemistry period of Hungarian agriculture. The profound changes both in policy and economy resulted a serious structural changes which continue even nowadays. Meanwhile country borders have been opened than EU membership of Hungary have generated new challenges by appearance and spread of new pests.
Nutritional imbalances accompanied with growth retardation of crops at early growth stage were found since the last 40 years on certain arable lands in eastern Croatia. In this regard, phosphorus (P) deficiencies in maize and wheat were found mainly on acid soils of the western part of the region, potassium (K) deficiencies in maize, soybean on... the hydromorphic neutral to alkaline calcaric drained gleysols of Sava valley lowland, while zinc (Zn) deficiencies were observed mainly in seed-maize and soybean on neutral calcaric eutric cambisols of the eastern part of the region. Cold and moist spring is factor promoting P deficiency symptoms. As oasis of normal crops existed on same arable land, comparison of plant and soil composition was possible from typical sites. P nutrition disorders were in connection with the lower P and the higher aluminum (Al) and iron (Fe) concentrations in the top of plants and the lower soil pH values. K-deficiency as result of strong K fixation and imbalances with high levels of magnesium (Mg) were the main responsible factors of low maize and soybean yields on some drained gleysols. Chlorosis incidences typical for Zn deficiency in maize and soybean were in close connection with the higher soil pH, the lower quantities of mobile Zn, here and there the higher mobile P in soil, the lower concentrations of Zn and the higher levels of Al and Fe in plants. Overcoming the above mentioned disorders and normalization of yields were achieved using ameliorative fertilization either by K or P fertilizers and in case of Zn by foliar spraying of crops with 0.75% ZnSO4 solution. Also, alleviations are possible by selection of more tolerant genotypes of field crops to specific types of nutritional disorders. From this aspect, some practical solutions were recommended for maize with reference to K nutritional problems.