No 55 (2014)

Published February 25, 2014

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Articles

Computer simulation modeling of Leaf Area Index (LAI) in maize
5-8

This study presents a PHP-based model capable of calculating maize leaf area index. The model calculates LAI from emergence to 75% silking. The basis of calculation is represented by the daily average temperature values. The usability of the model was tested using three years' temperature and LAI data series from the values obtained by the weat...her station set up at the Látókép Experiment Site of the University of Debrecen, Centre for Agricultural Sciences between 1994 and 1996. During the running of the model, it was observed that temperature affects the intensity of leaf development to a various extent.

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Objectives of the EU in the field of biomass use and utilisation
9-12

The energy independence very important for the European Union, while simultaneously sparing the natural environment in order to increase the use of renewable energy sources . A further development is the key issue of how renewable energy sources available can be better utilized to improve the efficiency of economic competitiveness. EU renewable... energy policy is determined by five principles : The first is the environment, including the carbon dioxide and other pollutants to reduce emissions . The second increase energy security and at the same time reducing dependence on imports. The third aspect of local and regional development. With this realignment of economic and social development levels of different areas they want to achieve. This point is closely related to rural development and create new jobs . The transformation of the agricultural structure is an important aspect , which is that they can reduce the overproduction of food by providing alternative land use options , such as the cultivation of energy crops.

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The use of renewable resources is an opportunity and an obligation
13-17

The renewable energy sources could be used in energy production, while no or only very slightly emit harmful substances to the environment. The solar, wind, hydropower, biomass and heat rational utilization of land contributes to greenhouse gas emissions.
Renewable energy sources also reduces the dependence on fossil fuels, thus contributing... to increase security of supply. The creation of local jobs to strengthen the area's population retaining ability.

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Using integrated remote sensing methods in the Nagyerdő Natura 2000 area
19-24

The more widely use of GIS, remote sensing technology provides appropriate data acquisition and data processing tools to build several national and international biodiversity monitoring system of environmental protection and natur conservation. The ChangeHabitats 2 is a similar international project, which uses airborne hyperspectral and airbor...ne laser scanning (airborne LiDAR) sources beyond traditional data collection methods to build a monitoring system of Natura 2000 habitats. The goal of our research, on one hand, was to separate the most typical species of trees which can be found in the largest coverage in the research plots of Debreceni Nagyerdő Nature Reserve from field and airborne remote sensing data, use image classification that based on spectral and geometry (height) characteristics of the trees. On the other hand our goal was to evaluate the efficient use of the integration of mobilGIS, airborne hyperspectral and airborne LiDAR data collecting methods to complement or substitut of the traditional, field data collecting methods. We used ArcGIS 10.2 and Exelis 5.0 GIS software for data evaluation, in which the mosaicing, the selection of plots and the spectral image processing were carried out.

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The setting of fenological-stadium of plum (Prunus domestica) rootstock-variety combinations in 2011–2013
25-29

We planted experimental trees, namely 6 plum varieties and 6 plum rootstocks in the spring of 2010, which of aim were the phenological -phases of variety-rootstock combinations analyses.

We observed 18 plum varieties – rootstocks combination in Kecskemét, in Garden of Kecskemét Collage. We set the examination with 2 kind irrigations.... A plum combination appear in the examination in 6 repetition depend on irrigation. The vegetative period started bursting of buds in 2011 March 15–18.; 2012 March 16–19. and 2013 March 12.–April 2. This was followed green buds stadium shorter or longer periods, than appeared white buds stadium and in the following day we could see started of flowering. The main flowering kept 7–10 days, except in 2012, when arriving frozen by April 8. morning stopped the main flowering. Following flowering we observed fruit falling 3 occasion, these weren’t noticed calendar date. These were in order: fruit falling after set, fruit falling in June, fruits falling before harvest. In 2013 these fruit falling there weren’t considerable. The ripening was characteristically varieties. The most of earlier ripening was ‘Katinka’/‘St Julien A‘, from which we didn’t harvest in 2011, but in 2012 July 17, and in 2013 July 9. pick up some plum fruits. The ‘Cacanska lepotica’ ripped in July 21–30, this was followed in ripening time the ‘Topfive’ in July 19.–August 6., The ‘Toptaste’ in August 5–23., The ‘Jojo’ in August 2–26., and the ‘Topper and ‘Katinka’/‘Mirobalan ’ stopped ripening in August 22.–September begin. The colouring leaves and the falling leaves started continue after harvesting, but we experienced the end of the falling leaves in the first bigger frozen time, October 24.–November 26.

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Effect of genotypes and cropyear on thedifferent cultivation parameters of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.)
31-34

The experiments were performed in the Research Institute of Nyíregyháza Research Institutes and Study Farm, Centre for Agricultural Sciences University of Debrecen of 1500 m2 asparagus plantation. The asparagus was planted in 2011. We were determine the number of shoots, plant height and fold thicknes of asparagus hybrid. We can co...ntinuously monitored the growing parameters of asparagus. The harvest of asparagus was started in 2013, so we were able to measure to quantity. The weather was characterized by warm and matched precipitation in the growing season (April–July) in 2011 and 2012. Contrarily, the weather was very hot and dry after the late frost in 2013. The Vitalim produced the largest quantity, then the Cumulus and the end of Grolim hybrid. Number of shoot and plant height sequence is identical to the previous one. The Grolim asparagus hibrid has the largest basal diameter.

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Ecotoxicological impact of DON toxin on maize (Zea mays L.) germination
35-40

Fusarium graminearum is one of the most significant arable pathogen in Hungary, and various types of trichothecene mycotoxins (mostly DON, deoxynivalenol) are detected most commonly in cereals (Biró et al., 2011). Fusarium infection and mycotoxin production could not be eliminated, and infected maize by Fusarium sp. cannot be exploited as food..., seed, or animal feed. However it can be raw material of biogas production. In this research we would like to investigate the content and effect of the toxin in the end product of biogas production on plant germination. The Fusarium sp. can cause mildew and seedling mortality in seed of maize (Zea mays L.), so we examine the effect of this on germination. In preliminary examination Fusarium sp. was not detected in the bioreactor of the Institute after the retention time (30 day), however it can be assumed that during the hydrolysis of the fungus growth and mycotoxin production also increased exponentially. There were no appropriate tools to detect the toxin in the end product of biogas production so modelling of anaerobic hydrolysis was necessary. The effects of hydrolyzed product for germination were also detected.

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Sour cherry as a functional food
41-47

The antioxidant capacity of ’Debreceni bőtermő’, ’Újfehértói fürtös’ and ’Érdi bőtermő’ cultivars were determined by FRAP (Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma), DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity) and photochemiluminescence method. In sour cherry, the most antioxidant effects of natural bioactive... compounds are anthocyanins. Our results show that the photochemiluminescence method out of applied assays is ratheris suitable to determine the antioxidant capacity of red soft fruits and tart cherries. The correlation is good between the determined anthocyanin concent by this technic and pH-differential spectrophotometry. However, both FRAP and DPPH assays are inaccurate.

The anthocyanin composition of ’Debreceni bőtermő’, ’Újfehértói fürtös’ and ’Érdi bőtermő’ ’Csengődi csokros’ sour cherry varieties were analised. There are big differences between the accumulation of anthocyanan compounds of cultivars. ’Csengődi csokros’ produce melatonin in large quantity. On the evidence of the results, we can say that the hungarian sour cherry cultivars are suitable for functional food development.

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Connections between the folk dance culture and regionality in the area of Derecske and Mikepércs
49-54

The culture of folk dance has been prominently cultivated in Hungary nowadays, however some regions are yet to be discovered by ethnographers. Stopping this gap by this time is almost impossible due to the small number of informants. Nevertheless, memories of ethographers’ collections, motion pictures, photographs, notes and the choregraphies... made from them endure, on the basis of which traditions can be reconstructed, that were so typical of some townships at one time and have been forgotten by now. What can a recreated tradition mean to a community, that sometime was left to waste by them? This is the problem the article is dealing with through the history of Derecske and Mikepércs, two townships in Hajdú-Bihar county, revealing the regional relationship system as well as late and recent potentials of the area.

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Caliometric characterisation of crop production byproducts
55-58

By the decreasing tendency of the fossil energy resources more emphasis put on the usage of renewable energy resources. The consideration of environmental protection and the efforts of the European Union make current the widespread usage of renewable energy within biomass energy. One of the determinative trends of biomass energy is the direct c...ombustion of biomass. Characteristically woody stocks are produced for this aim, but there is a considerable potential in several byproducts of growing herbaceous plants or of other processes.

In our study three byproducts of plant production have been investigated which appeared at the harvest. The Higher Heating Values of wheat, maize and sunflower byproducts have been determined by an IKA C2000 Basic adiabatic calorimeter. According to the statistical analysis of the measured data the HHV of the byproducts are different, and these values are in a negative correlation with the amount of ash in % (R2=0.873) appeared by the combustion.

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Rippl-Rónai’s color in the native parks: production and using of new, synthetic Wild sage color-mixture
59-64

The climate changes is becoming more damaging to ornamental plants. Besides ornamental species and varieties of plants on public spaces. It will be necessary to use domestic, well adaptable climate-tolerant plant species.

One field of our growing ornamental plants researches from 2001 in the Centre of Agricultural Sciences of University... of Debrecen, is studying drought patient, mainly Hungarian improved annual varieties, which are able to get acclimatized with the landscape. Moreover, we have in view to work out new, economical seedling production technologies. In the program, the excellent drought- and frost tolerant annuals and perennials belongs to the climate change tolerant plants. From the evaluated of species we want to create and spread the application. of the new types of ornamental horticulture culture.

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The impact of production methods and row orientation on carrot quality in the case of various cultivars
65-69

Carrot is a wellknown and favoured, really important vegetable. Carrot’s cultivation is important, although its growing field has been reduced in last few years. The suitable cultivar and landstructure are essential to produce good quality carrot. The ridge cultivation is widely spread on plasted soils. At this type of cultivation relationshi...p between line orientations and carrot quality is less studied. That is the reason we tried to examine in our experiment the relationship between ridge highness and line orientation (N-S and E-W) and carrot’s morphological features at different genotipes. The experimental was settled in the Experimental Garden of the University of Debrecen on limy chernozem soil by plain, raised bed and ridge cultivation in 2013. In the experiment we examined four longgrowing cultivars (Danvers 126, Fertődi vörös, Rekord, Chantenay). The sowing was at 24th April. The harvest was at 15th October, 2013. In the multi factorial (type of cultivation, line orientation, cultivar) experimental we explained the effect of treatments on carrot root shoulder diameter and root weight.

In our experiment we stated that line orientation had no significant effect on shoulder diameter at different cultivations. The only exception is Fertődi vörös which has reached the biggest shoulder diameter (5 cm <) at N-S direction on raised bed. By examining the carrot rootweight we stated that they were higher in raised bed and ridge cultivation than in plain cultivation with the exception of one cultivar (Chantenay). This carrot had found ideal environment for growing between each cultivation conditions. That is why we can state that if you grow carrot on plasted soil and there is no possibility to make a ridge, use short, tapered and rounded ending root type for successful growing.

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Seed biology and possibility of improvement of seed germination capacity on Virginia mallow (Sida hermaphrodita L. Rusby)
71-76

Sida hermephrodita or Virginia mallow is a perspective perennial herb in the Malvaceae family able to yield a biomass crop through the last two decades. Additionally, the plants have a lot of uses and benefits for instance it can use as a fodder crop, honey crop, ornamental plant in public gardens. It has favourable features like fast growing a...nd resistance against the disease and climatic fluctuations, etc. Sida is in the beginning phase of domestication therefore it has a serious disadvantage: the low and slow germination as a big part of wild plants. Due to the expressly low germination percent the need of seed showing of driller is should tenfold, 200 thousand seeds/acre instead of 10–20 thousand what is not available and expensive Therefore practical purposes of our research of seed physiology was to increase the seed germination percent in a available, basically wild Sida population. In the first stage of our experiments we examined two factors relating to seed germination percent and seed germination power during our research: the influence of hot water treatment and the effect of exogenous or endogenous infection of seed. However, in our germination tests, utilizing scarified seeds with hot water (65 oC, 80 oC, 90 oC), from 29,3% to 46% germinated from those samples which were collected from the population of Sida hermaphrodita in Debrecen. The average germination for all season was 5–10% without treatment and rinsed using hot water up to almost 50%. When physically scarified used, the oldest seeds showed the best germination (46%) after the hot water operation in spite of the previous studies. We discovered that apparently there are close relationship between the seed fresh weight or water uptake capability and the percentage of infection. Following these recognition we modified our technique,in such a way that we fractionated the seeds based on their fresh weight/or relative density before we carried out the treatment. When we filtered the floating seeds on the surface of water, the hot water treatment was performed considerably better on the sunk seeds after separation. Therefore, by this special priming process we were able to reach 80% germination capacity of Virgina mallow seeds under laboratory conditions (26 oC without illumination).

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Study of the biodegradation of slaughterhause feather waste by Bradford method
77-81

The 15–20% of the by-products of meat- and poultry industry – that unsuitable for human consumption – contains keratin. The slaughter technology of poultry produces large amount of poultry feather with 50–70% moisture content. This means more million tons annually worldwide (Williams et al., 1991; Hegedűs et al., 1998). The keratin con...tent of feather can be difficulty digested, so physical, chemical and/or biological pre-treatment is needed in practice, which has to be set according to the utilization method. The microbiological and enzymatic degradation of feather to soluble protein and amino acids is a very favourable and relatively cheap opportunity to produce valuable products of the resulting feather. Our applied treatments were based on the determination of the most effective method, which is able to follow the biodegradation of waste poultry feather.

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Spectral analysis of stress symptoms caused by apple powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha
83-88

An orchard can be examined on the basis of spectral data, using methods with which the reflected radiation can be divided into a large number of (several hundreds) small spectral channel (some nm). Calculated on the basis of such hyperspectral data from different index numbers the water supply of foliage conditions can be well characterized....>

The research site is an intensive apple orchard, which located in University of Debrecen, Agricultural Sciences Centre, Farm and Regional Research Institute at Pallag. During my experiments the preliminary evaluation of spectral, non-invasive measurement method are carried out for detecting stress symptoms caused by Podosphaera leucotricha.

Based on the results narrow band greenness indices (NDVI705, mNDVI705, mSR705 and REP) can be used for determination of diseased canopy and for the detection of stress symptoms of Podosphaera leucotricha,. These statements can be utilized in precision plant protection systems, since it can be a basis for such integrated active sensors with LED or laser light source, measuring reflectance at the certain spectral range, which can facilitate real time status assessment of orchards and can control precision fungicide utilization.

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Decarbonisation and renewable energies in Hungary
89-93

The decarbonisation of the power sector signifies reducing its carbon dependency. The aim of several programmes is making a conversion to a sustainable & low-carbon economy. Some of the targets by the EU are legally binding, thus appear in the national legislation and strategies. To meet the objective, we need to use renewable energy soures... expansively.

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Visualization techniques in agriculture
95-98

This paper describes a dynamic map representation method which provides a flexible, spectacular and cost-effective opportunity for the illustration and description of spatial data due to its parametrability, web-based publication and the free sowftare it uses in multi-user circumstances.

The tasks of the database serves and the processi...ng were performed by an ASUS WL-500 G Premium v2 router and a 80 GB hard disk. The database contains the measured data of the nitrogen fertilisation experiment established on the Látókép Experiment Site of the Centre for Agricultural Sciences of the University of Debrecen. The tests showed that the generation time of the processor which was run through the router did not significantly increase. Therefore, the configuration developed by us is suitable for users who do not wish to invest into a large and expensive server, but they still want to view their data quickly and easily, as well as to reach them from anywhere.

The available data were not sorted into a database which was performed with Quantum GIS in a way to have an optimum database structure which is adjusted to the expected areas of use and the expected running speeds were also taken into consideration. The processor which processes the database items was written in PHP language. The main role of the processor is that it produces a KML file real time which is suitable for viewing with a given map viewer client (e.g. Google Earth). This application makes it possible to view information related to geographical objects, values stored in the database or those calculated by the processor on a map in 2D or 3D in a versatile way.

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Impact of environmental changes resulting from different sowing dates on maize yield
99-104

Three Debrecen maize hybrids of different genotypes (Debreceni 285, Debreceni 377 and Debreceni 382) were examined on chernozem soil in a field experiment. During the two years of the experiment (2009–2010), we wanted to get to know how the examined hybrids reach to different sowing dates and what impact early, optimal and late sowing has on ...yield.

In 2009, balanced soil and air temperature resulted in steady emergence. However, the low temperature in early April and the cooling down in mid-May 2010 caused a delayed emergence.

The grain moisture content at harvesting and the high yield showed a strong crop year effect. In 2010, yield was much lower (1.664 t ha-1) and grain moisture was significantly higher (34%)than in 2009.

In 2009, early sowing resulted in yield decrease (P<0.05), but it also significantly reduced grain moisture at harvesting (P<0.05). Although late sowing slightly increased yield (not significantly), but grain moisture at harvesting increased by 9.2%. In 2010, optimal sowing date was shown to be the best alternative from the aspect of yield, but there was no significant difference in comparison with early and late sowing. Grain moisture at harvesting greatly increased (13.3%).

The Debreceni 382 maize hybrid reacted to sowing dates flexibly, neither early, nor late sowing affected its yield significantly and the grain moisture at harvesting showed 12% increase in the case of the late sowing date. In 2009, maize hybrids Debreceni 285 and Debreceni 377 reached their highest yield in the case of the sowing date which was shown to be optimal (23rd April), while the different sowing dates had no effect on yield in 2010.

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The change of youth unemployment based on the concept of precariat
105-108

Youth unemployment is a hot potato issue worldwide, including Hungary and its reduction is a major focal point in every country. Today's labour market is characterized by uncertainties and unpredictability while flexibility, project-related employment are emphasized, which pose different expectations on employees than before. This phenomenon is... included in the concept of precariat. In the present study the labour market status, future potentials and options of youths in the Derecske district of Hungary are described.

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Effect of PRPSOL soil conditioner on the physical status of the soil in conventional and reduced tillage systems
109-113

The effect of PRP-SOL soil conditional on soil compaction, moisture content and bulk density is studied in a long-term soil cultivation experiment from 1997 on a heavy textured meadow chernozem soil, in reduced and conventional tillage at Karcag Research Institute. Our investigations were made in the vegetation period of corn, in June and after... harvesting, on stubble. Soil compaction was measured with a penetrometer, the actual moisture content was determined by gravimetric method. The bulk density values of the regularly cultivated soil layer of 0–10 and 10–20 cm depths were defined from undisturbed soil samples. We established that after 3 years the application of the soil conditioner has positive effect on soil compaction and moisture status of the top layer in the reduced tillage system. We could not figure out this positive effect in the case of conventional tillage.

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Operational experiences of a geothermal heat pump system
115-118

Energy consumption nearly 40% operation translates of the buildings in Hungary. In the last 5–8 years we can see a breakthrough in the field of low energy buildings, increasing the demand for buildings 'energy efficient', and realized several successful investments in our country. Nowadays thanks to the application system the number of public... buildings increased environmental energy recovery system has been growing such as solar power, heat pumps.

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Marketing analysis of the Villány wine region
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Hungarian wine is not in such a bad position as it is considered. We have outstanding specialists and the country’s natural conditions are also proper. In Hungary, there are wine production and wine consumption has a major traditions. The role of marketing in our wine industry is growing more and more, and this trend is expected to continue i...n the future. The development of tourism in wine-growing regions and advertising would considerably promote the popularity of Hungarian wine.

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Wine tourism of Tokaj- hegyalja
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The wine is still in Hungary in Hungarian history, culture, and one of the key elements of the economy are considered . Last, but not to the point of producing and selling the wine regions of livelihoods. Thousands of years in wine-producing traditions preserved in the modern winemakers, wine competitions demonstrate their skills. The Tokaj win...e region of the World's major and significant wine regions in Hungary.

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Overview of higher education funding models
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t can be defined in the course of the review of the financing characteristics of higher education that every model has its advantageous feature which is missing from the others, at the same time; it has its weaknesses as well. None of the basic models can meet the complex requirements of the nowadays society and government, thus the choice betw...een the models have to be based on the preferences of decisionmakers and society. In most countries the combination of models are implemented, which compensate the weaknesses of the basic models, however, the models formed by the combination of different principles are neither perfect.

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