Effect of seedling quality on growth, yield and quality of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)64-72.Views:191
A two trial greenhouse experiment was carried out at Rwanda-Israel Horticulture Centre of Excellence located at Mulindi Station to evaluate seedling quality on growth, yield and quality of tomato. The seedlings were grown in different growing media and produced seedlings with varying quality indices. The growing media of peat moss 100% (T2) and sand + goat manure + carbonized rice husks 50%: 10%: 40% (T8) were revealed in seedlings with the highest mean quality indices of 31 and 28 respectively, while sand 100% (T2) presented the lowest quality indices during both trials. The transplants were planted in polybags filled with 2:1 of topsoil and kitchen manure arranged in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. Collected data were subjected to analysis of variance and means were separated using HSD test at a 5% level of significance. The results revealed that the seedlings grown in T1 (S1) and T8 (S8) consistently presented tomatoes with better growth performance and yield. S1 and S8 produced mean yield of 93.59 and 92.35 t/ha respectively while S2 had the lowest yield with 53.86 t/ha. The fruit produced from seedlings grown in T4 (S4) had the highest mean sugar acid ratio of 5.88 but not significantly different from 5.61 and 5.44 of S1 and S8 respectively. Hence, there was a positive relationship among seedling quality and growth and yield performance of tomato but not in fruit quality.
Evaluation of fruit quality of old apple cultivars originating from the foot of the Carpathian Mountains, for utilization in breeding and in organic farming15-24.Views:286
In the frame of the apple breeding program at the Department of Fruit Science old cultivars found in the Carpathian basin were involved in examination as well. Beside testing susceptibility to fire blight (Erwinia amylovora of old genotypes (historical, local and regional cultivars) originating from scattered orchards of Visk (foot of the Carpathian Mountains), fruit quality was also evaluated and other open-field observations were made.
According to the results of inner content examinations, 'Szemes alma' and 'Sikulai alma', chosen as gene sources for breeding to resistance against fire blight, had inner content values worthy to mention in some aspects, and competing with those of the control cultivar 'Jonathan'. The quality of 'Pónyik alma', also recommended as a gene source is confirmed by the data of earlier literature. Further three cultivars ('Batul', 'Vilmos renet', 'Zöld sóvári') also proved to be good based on resistance against Erwinia amylovora, the first two cultivars are suitable from the point of view of fruit quality, too.
In our field observations, susceptibility to apple scab and powdery mildew was evaluated. Among cultivars selected from the foot of the Carpathian Mountains on the base of resistance against Erwinia amylovora, the production value of 'Szemes alma' is worsened by its high susceptibility to apple scab. Further selected cultivars ('Sikulai', 'Pónyik alma', 'Batul', 'Vilmos renet') are not too susceptible to fungal diseases and their fruit quality is also suitable, therefore they can be recommended for direct planting in ecological farming or in restoring scattered orchards.
Effect of Fertileader® Vital on green pea maturation57-59.Views:199
The changes of tenderness of three green pea varieties with different maturity were studied after Fertileader® Vital fertilizer treatment. The fertilizer treatment caused signifi cant differences in the tenderness of treated plants in every year. After the second measuring time; the treated plants showed better quality than the control ones. The treated varieties kept their tenderness longer due to this foliar fertilizer, the yield have better quality so even better suited to the requirement of canning industry. Use of Fertileader® Vital is of an economic importance because high economic benefi t can be realized in one hectare after Fertileader® Vital treatment. By using this foliar fertilizer 12,840 HUF extra profi ts can be realized by producing green peas of I. quality class instead of yield with II. quality category. This extra profit could increase to 447,840 HUF considering that green peas belong still to the II. quality class after fertilizer treatment when the quality of non-treated plants are no more suitable for the canning industry.
The effect of nitrogen supply on specific yield and fruit quality of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.)7-21.Views:157
The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of nitrogen supply on yield and fruit quality of apple cultivars and to explore the relationships between canopy density and the different fruit quality parameters.
The experiments were carried out at Kálmánháza, in Eastern Hungary in a private orchard in 2003-2004. The response of four apple cultivars ('Elstar', 'Gala Prince', 'Granny Smith', 'Idared') to different nitrogen dosages was studied. The assessed and calculated indices were: yield, fruit diameter, fruit height, shape index, fruit mass, firmness, dry matter content and colouration. The results indicated that nitrogen fertilization has a significant effect on the yield and fruit quality of apple cultivars. The calculated specific yield values were reduced by the application of nitrogen via the increase in the volume of the canopy. An opposit trend was observed for fruit diameter, fruit height and fruit weight, which increased with increasing nitrogen supply. The reduced shape index caused flattening of fruits.
However, the improvement of fruit quality via increasing nitrogen dosage is only virtual, since these dosages increase the fruit size, but firmness, dry matter content and colouration are diminished, which decreases the value of the fruits on the market.
The authors also studied the relationships between canopy density responsible for assimilation and light supply of the fruits and the different fruit quality parameters. The closest linear inversely proportional relationship was found in the case of colouration. There was a negative linear relationship between canopy density and firmness or dry matter content. The relationship between canopy density and fruit mass could be described by a quadratic polinomial function.
Consumer preference for apples: the role of attributes influencing the choice and consumption37-43.Views:241
Consumers consider good quality fruits to be those that look good, are firm and offer good flavour and nutritive value. Nowadays, consumers are, however, increasingly interested in food qualities which cannot be discovered by looking, tasting or smelling the products but their roles are not yet really cleared up. Therefore the objective of this study was to explore the importance of selected kinds of attributes (taste, size, colour, cultivar, origin and price) in fluencing the choice of apples of customers. In accordance with several authors, fruit qualities (taste, size and colour) seemed to be the major attributics influencing the choice of apple independently of people's age and gender. However, the size of fruit had lower importance with increased age. Generally, females gave higher importance rating for most attributes than did male. The price was getting more important for consumer's choice with age which can be connected with their socioeconomic situation. The origin of fruit and the cultivar did not have important influence on consumer's choice. Authors also investigated the preference of consumers for six selected apple varieties ('Jonagold', 'ldared', 'Royal Gala', 'Golden Reinders', 'Braeburn' and 'Granny Smith'). and pointed out the role of the origin in fruit quality and in choice of apple in the case of 'Granny Smith' cultivar. Apple fruit samples from Austria, Argentina, Chile, Hungary and South Africa were involved in this study. Authors evaluated fruit quality parameters of above cultivars and compared them to consumer preference. Consumer preference usually represented the quality attributes of the fruit well. It is also concluded that degree of liking of apple cultivars varies through gender and age. Children and young consumers preferred 'Royal Gala', 'Granny Smith and 'Braeburn' mostly. In spite of 'Idared' is one of the cultivars grown on the largest area in Hungary, the lowest preference ratings were given for it in both gender categories. Middle-aged consumers (between 25 and 50 years or age) preferred crispy apples with red or blemished skin color ('Royal Gala' and 'Jonagold'). 'Jonagold' and 'Idared' were the most preferred cultivars for the consumers above the age of 50 likely because of their relatively low price, as price plays a significant influencing role in the purchase of these consumers. The relatively expensive and soury 'Granny Smith' appeared not really preferred by this age group. In spite of the significant differences in instrumentally measured fruit quality parameters among 'Granny Smith' fruit samples from different countries, consumers did not give significantly different preference rating scores for those.
Water relations of apple and influence on fruit quality (minireview)59-63.Views:267
The saving of soil water content and the improvement of adaptability of plants to periodical insufficient water and use of deficit irrigation technology become more important because of the occurrence of frequently dry periods. The water use efficiency of apples can be increased by the choice of appropriate rootstocks and determination of water requirement of varieties that depend on their growing periods and climatic factors. Depletion of soil water resources need to develop efficient irrigation techniques for quality apple production. A new deficit irrigation strategy (PRD) has been developed that based on partial water supply of root-zone. This does not result a decrease in the sizes and yield of the fruit. The larger fruit size and lower firmness in frequently irrigated trees can result in excessive internal growth stresses that cause higher rate of fruit splitting. Many studies revealed the relationship between irrigation and yield quantity. Recent researches investigate the effects of irrigation on apple fruit quality particularly on the colouration and post-harvest quality. Use of cooling irrigation improves the development of coluour an apple fruit but its schedule can influence on the incomes. Aroma volatiles are responsible for odour and contribute to overall flavour of the fruit and its processed products. Deficit irrigation had only affects some volatile aroma but no the all of concentrations in apple fruit. In the future the high apple quality for consumers could be provided with improvement of transpiration-yield model based on the water requirement of varieties and economic irrigation schedules.
Specialities of the vegetation start and level of primary fruit set affect fruit quality17-22.Views:158
Thinning is a h ighly crucial point of the apple production technology. According to results of numerous studies the earliest thinning is deemed to have the best amending effects. There can be considerable difference between trees of the same cul tivar and age in a plantation in respect to their flowering, in the numbers of fruits set and also in their canopy volume. Thus it can be crucial -just l ike in the case of pruning- to establish a fruit thinni ng su i ted for specif ic characteristics of actual trees. This experiment was established to examine how does primary fruit set (fruit load before thinning) and further on specific (fruit/TCS cm2) and absolute (fruit/tree) fruit-load of the trees affect quality attri butes at harvest. Our experiment was establ ished in a plantation on medium-tight loamy soil in north-east of Hungary. Harvest date was determined w ith the joint observation of the calendar date, starch-index, flesh firmness, background colour and fruit weight. Three fruit-load levels were established based on local experience and on data of several years, I Ot/ha lower and higher besides the advised optimum yield in the same orchard with slender-spindle shaped 'Gala must' cultivar standing on M9 rootstock in 1m x 3,8 m spacing. In the establishment of the 15, 25 and 35t/ha fruit-load levels on 20-20 apple trees total number of fruits set was counted at each tree. After this number of apples due to be removed was defined using an objective index on the basis of trunk cross sections (fruit/TCScm2) (Lafer, 1999). The following attributes were measured: weight (g), flesh firmness (lb/cm2) total soluble solid content (Brix %) and total titrate-able acid content (g/J).From the data on sugar and acid content quality index (Pomona value) was determined (Thialult, 1970). We could ascertain, that in an orchard, of the same aged but in concern to trunk cross sections somewhat different trees besides the specific index (apple/TCS cm2 the absolute fruit load (fruit/tree) can also be an important data, that has considerable effect on the internal quality. Secondly we could observe, that higher level of fruit load before thinning (primary fruit set) negatively affects quality index of the apples irrespective of the specific fruit load level (fruit/cm2 TCS) set later. Results underlines necessity of the earliest chemical thinn ing.
The role of meteorological variables of blossoming and ripening within the tendency of qualitative indexes of sour cherry7-10.Views:210
We analyzed the relationship to sour cherry quality parameters of average temperature, maximum temperature, minimum
temperature, night and day-time temperature, precipitation and climatic water balance variables. Three cultivars of sour cherry were included
in the selection: “Debreceni bôtermô”, “Kántorjánosi”, and “Újfehértói fürtös”.We conducted regression analyzes on the three varieties, but
present only those that proved to be the best fit.We couldn’t find any significant differences in the weather tolerance of the varieties. The data
base of sour cherry quality parameters covers the 1998 to 2008 intervals. The researched parameters were the following: dry matter content
(%), sugar content (%), C-vitamin (mg), total acid content (%). Maximum temperature, the difference of night and day-time temperature and
minimum temperature all have a significant correlation with the investigated quality parameters of sour cherry. Minimum temperature shows
a quadratic relationship with sugar content, while night and day-time temperature differences show the same with dry matter content. The
other weather parameters had a linear correlation with the quality parameters of sour cherry. The research results show that an increasing
amount of precipitation causes decreasing tendency in total acid content of sour cherry, so that increasing temperature has a positive influence
on total acid content. Big differences in night and day-time temperature also has positive effects on the dry matter and sugar content of sour
cherry while the amount of precipitation has a negative effect. High minimum temperatures cause decreasing sugar content respiratory energy
losses are significant if dawn temperatures do not drop considerably.A more favourable climatic water balance has a positive effect on vitamin
C content in cases of a large negative water balance, vitamin C content is generally low.
Dried fruit quality judging on different sweet cherry varieties grown in Hungary41-44.Views:172
The modern consumer's habit needs new material to enrich biological complete human foods. The mueslis contain more and more part of dried fruit. The organic nutrition prefers fruit, grown in that area, where they will be consumed. Therefore we thought on cherries, because earlier, almost all kind of fruit, including cherries, were dried. First of all we collect all sweet cherry varieties grown in Hungary (by the National List), (Harsányi &. Mády, 2005) than they were dried similar way to the dried plum. After a short storage the samples were judged, by different consumers. The aim was to know, which variety gives the best result, i.e. which variety is the most suitable to gather round for dried fruit. At the judging we used the methods, worked out by the National Institute for Agricultural Quality Control in Hungary. Our work shows orders, which varieties were the best, from different point of view. (e.g. colour, size; firmness of flesh, flavour, and total score). The best varieties by total score will be shown and characterised shortly (Apostol, 1996; Beschreihende Sortenliste Steinobst 1997; Brózik & Kállay, 2000; Tóth, 1997; Harsányi & Mády, 2005; Horváth, 2004; Tomcsányi, 1979).
Effects of a band application of polyolefin-coated diammonium phosphate on the nutritional quality of rhubarb and Swiss chard39-42.Views:663
Dietary intake of large amounts of nitrates and oxalates presents a health hazard. In this study experiments were conducted with two oxalate accumulating vegetables rhubarb (Rheum rhabarbarum L.) and Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla L.)) using POC-DAP in order to improve their nutritional quality. In the rhubarb experiment oxalate content was significantly reduced by band application of POC-DAP, while effects on ascorbate and nitrate contents were ambiguous. The improved nutritional quality in the POC-DAP treatment was rather a cause of ammonium nutrition than a cause of less amount of released fertilizer nitrogen. In the Swiss chard experiment oxalate and nitrate contents were reduced, while ascorbate content was increased by a band application of POC-DAP. The improved nutritional quality in the POC-DAP treatment was the cause of both the less amount of released nitrogen and the realised ammonium nutrition. It was also found that by using POC-DAP for Swiss chard cultivation, labour and energy costs of top-dressings could be eliminated without yield decrease. It was concluded that the nutritional quality of rhubarb and Swiss chard could be improved by using a band application of POCDAP.
Comparative analysis of the production risk of major fruit species119-122.Views:131
Hungary possesses excellent agri-ecological potentials even in an international comparison. Despite their decreasing economic weight, agriculture and food production are of great significance, since the supply of the population with high quality and inexpensive food is a fundamental social demand and one of the essentials of the quality of life. The development of vegetable and food production is of great importance both from the aspect of healthy nutrition and comparative advantages (cheap workforce, professional expertise, traditions of production, climate favourable for quality). Within the Hungarian fruit production apple and sour cherry are essential branches in virtue of their significance. It is widely known, that – though to a different extent in the case of certain fruit varieties – satisfaction of the need for appropriate habitat is one of the important conditions of a decent quality and secure production. In my research, I analyse the territorial distribution, production standard and production risk of the Hungarian apple and sour cherry branches. I did not have the opportunity – because of the imperfections of the database – to compare long time series, therefore I examine the random effects affecting production by using the data of 3 years (they have the same content). I ranked and assessed each habitat and the production risks of certain fruit species compared to each other on the basis of indexes of relative deviation.
Impact of planting dates on yield and pod quality traits of snap bean under short-temperate season climates57-63.Views:124
Snap bean, a warm-season crop, have low frost tolerance. The optimal temperature for seed emergence and plant growth is important. Therefore, appropriate planting dates for adapted varieties has paramount significance in improving pod yield and quality of snap bean under short cool season climates. Three snap bean cultivars planted at 3 different dates were examined to evaluate the effects of planting dates on snap bean pod yield and quality traits in a 2-year study in a short season climate in Manitoba, Canada. Results of this study showed that three, two weeks apart, planting dates had a non- significant effect on marketing yield of three different cultivars tested in this study. Planting dates showed significant effect on un-marketable yield, pod fresh weight, pod length and total soluble solids. Higher marketable and un-marketable yields along with longer pod length and soluble solids, in all three cultivars, were more profound when seeded at mid and late planting dates. Snap bean grew under higher temperature and accumulated more growing degree days (GDD) when planted in mid June and early July when compared to early June planting. These results conclude that marketable yields of snap bean were not significantly affected by planting dates when seeded-two weeks apart-in shorter growing environments which allow commercial and market gardeners, in northern areas with shorter growing seasons to optimise planting snap bean, without reducing pod yield and quality.
Pomology of gene resources bearing resistance to Erwinia amylovora29-33.Views:115
The ecological farming and an increasing demand for healthy fruits free from chemical residuals necessitated the reevaluation of the existing cultivars and breeding suitable cultivars for the new requirements. We have gathered the old genotypes known in the Carpathian Basin, and we have selected the most suitable ones according to fruit quality and resistance to diseases in the last fifteen years. The main aim was the selection of resistant genotypes against fire blight and powdery mildew as gene sources for our breeding program. On the other hand, we consider the best quality traditional cultivars as extensive landscape elements (wayside tree rows or extensive squash producing plantations).
During the pathological evaluation 'Szemes alma', 'Pónyik', 'Sikulai', 'Tordai piros 'cavil' and 'Szabadkai szercsika' cultivars proved to be good resistance sources (due to their outstanding resistance to fire blight). The latter four cultivars are not susceptible even to fungal diseases, and their quality is also acceptable so those are commendable for ecological farming or for renewing the sparse orchards. According to fruit quality and low susceptibility to diseases 'Batul' and 'Vilmos renet' can also be offered for extensive organic production.
We have made original or renewed pomological descriptions of the selected cultivars, and we also publish their characters according to the terms of UPOV TG/14/8 based on to our evaluations.
Treatments for improving tree growth, yield and fruit quality and for reducing double fruit and deep suture incidence in “Desert red” peach trees7-19.Views:256
Five years old “Desert red” peach trees budded on Nemaguard rootstock and grown in sandy soil at commercial orchard Al-Nubaria city, El-Behira Governorate-Egypt were treated with some agricultural treatments involving thinning out pruning, fruit thinning and foliar application of potassium silicate (25% S +10% K2O) at 0.1% and super grow (20% N, 20% P2O5 and 20% K2O) at 0.3% in 2014 and 2015 seasons, to study their effects on yield and fruit quality and the relationship between nutrient balance and yield of “Desert red” peach trees. Beside, testing the influence of used treatments on two physiological disorder, double fruit and deep suture %. Also, economic evaluation of different treatments was done. All obtained data were statistically analyzed using a randomized complete block design. Depending on the obtained results in this study, it could be concluded that application of thinning out pruning 35%, fruit thinning by leaving 15 cm between fruits on one-year old shoot at 20 days after full bloom and foliar application of potassium silicate which sprayed five times during each growing season at fruit set, the second fruit development stage, the beginning of the fruit color change and twice after month from harvest, most profitable treatment for peach trees grown under conditions of this investigation. This treatment gave the best vegetative growth, yield, fruit quality, higher crop value with high net income /fed. from “Desert red” peach trees, in addition, reduced the percentage of double fruit and deep suture by more than 50% in both seasons, therefore, the study recommends this treatment for “Desert red” peach growers.
Effect of hail protecting nets on the quality of apples77-80.Views:227
Today, successful fruit growing depends largely on the security of production. Among the technological elements of a secure growing system, the use of hail protection nets serves special attention. Components of security are the regularity, conspicuous large yields with excellent quality, which determine the prices and profitability as well (Szabó et al., 2010). In the European Union, most of the apple growing countries produce higher yields by 10-20% than Hungary. The conditions of better yields are partly due to a more favourable ecological milieu, partly to more developed technologies and serious discipline of the operations. Our own competitiveness could be developed first of all in those moments. As a consequence of global climatic changes, excesses of weather, i.e. hail-storms became more frequent. Different methods of protection against hail are developed abroad but also in Hungary. The examination of effects of the hail protection nets compared with the check without nets has been the purpose of our experiments. The growing system was the intensive one with high planting densities. Fruits of the two subsequent years have been compared as grown with and without hail protective nets. It turned out that in one season when shoot growth was stimulated, the shadowing effect of the net increased in addition the growth and at the same time braked the differentiation of flower buds, which exerted negative effects on yield of the next year. Let alone this phenomenon, the quality of fruits was not influenced by the hail protection net.
Effect of foliar spraying with algae suspension on leaf and fruit quality parameters of apple varieties35-38.Views:193
Foliar nutrition experiment was made to investigate the effect of algae products on fruit quality of apples (Malus domestica Borkh.). The study was conducted in 2011 at Siófok inWest-Hungary on cv. ‘Jonagored’ and ‘Idared’grafted on M9 rootstock. In our trial leaf diagnostic and fruit quality measurements were made to study the effectiveness of applied products. Relative leaf chlorophyll content was determined by a portable chlorophyll meter. Fruit weight and shape index were measured. Fruit inner qualifying parameters like titratable acid content and Brix value were also determined. It can be stated that the used products had traceable effect on investigated fruit parameters. Although, leaf N content was not effected by treatments significantly, relative leaf chlorophyll content significantly increased by both treatments. Used products significantly increased the fruit weight and shape index. Applied treatments significantly decreased the pH of pulp. Treatments increased the acid contents (fumaric, citric, malic) of apples and decreased the amount of monosaccharides. It means that the applied treatments pushed out the ratio of acid/sugar.
Vegetative Indicators of sour cherry cultivars and resistant clons55-58.Views:173
Sour cherry is a hungaricum. Hungary has several excellent and self fertile sour cherry cultivars. Hungarian sour cherries have a name for fruit quality and they are suitable for fresh consumption. Today breeding is focused not only on fruit quality, but also on disease resistance. The new, investigated cultivars have these characteristics too. But growth characteristics are also very important because they contribute to successful production. The vegetative and generative properties of the cultivars are different. If a cultivar is very productive, the ignorance of cultivar-specific pruning may result in the decrease in tree condition and fruit quality. The properties of producing fruiting wood greatly determine the renewal capabilities of cultivars. Knowing these properties is essential in case of sour cherries, the fruit species that requires a lot of sunlight and tends to produce bare wood. The research of candidate cultivars until now focused on fruit quality. Our aim was to investigate the vegetative characteristics of the resistant ‘bosnyák’ cultivar group in detail, defining the growth characteristics of these cultivars.
Foliar application of zinc and its effect on greenhouse grown cucumber79-82.Views:154
The experiment was conducted to examine the effect of the foliar application of zinc on yield and crop quality and on fruit mineral composition of cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus cv. Mustang) which were grown in peat in containers under unheated conditions and were not showing visible signs of zinc deficiency.
In the trial the following 3 treatments were set up in 4 replications: Znl = 0.35 g/litre Zn, as foliar fertilizer; Zn2 = 0.7 g/litre Zn, as foliar fertilizer, control = no foliar fertilization. Foliar fertilization was applied 5 times with 10 day intervals. After their planting out the plants were fertigated daily with water soluble complex fertilisers. Fruits were harvested twice a week, 16 times in all, and were divided into three quality classes (class I, class II and substandard). Shoot length of the plants (plant height) was measured on 3 occasions. Zinc content of the fruits and leaves was analysed at two times.
From the results of the trials it can be concluded that the 0.35 g/litre Zn (0.35 mg/ml) foliar fertilisation had beneficial effect on cucumber both in terms of yield and quality. Under the conditions of the experiment (daily fertigation through drip irrigation) the effect of a more concentrated foliar application of zinc seemed less beneficial.
The zinc content of the fruits showed no evident increase in response to foliar fertilization, while a significant increase was seen in the leaves, particularly with the more concentrated Zn treatment. This indicates that in the case of cucumber zinc, through its assimilation in vegetative parts, has an indirect effect on fruit development.
Effect of a nanotechnology-based foliar fertilizer on the yield and fruit quality in an apple orchard29-32.Views:477
Nutrient management is a determining element of the technology in fruit production. Significance of foliar fertilization has been increased continuously over the last years, as it can improve directly the vegetative and generative performance of the trees. In this study we aimed to evaluate the effect of a nanotechnology-based foliar fertilizer (Bistep) with 1, 3, and 5 l/ha dosages on the yield and fruit quality parameters in an apple orchard during 2016 and 2018. According to our results, crop load increased with 29% in the third year of the experiment with the application of 5 l/ha Bistep treatment compared to the control treatments. Fruit weight was also improved in each year, as values of fruit weight in all treatments were higher than the control one (3.0-13.0% growth). Fruit surface color increased with 2-18% due to the foliar fertilizer. During the three years, leaf length was 9.5-9.9 mm on the control trees, as 9.8-10.4 mm was measured on the fertilized ones. In conclusion, yield and fruit quality can be improved in apple orchard using a nanotechnology-based foliar fertilizer.
Examination of fruit juices produced with aseptic technology65-70.Views:127
The quality of finished products with a 100% fruit content is influenced to the greatest extent by the fruit-base (fruit pulp and fruit juice concentrate) used. In terms of the production of the fruit juice, the minimization of the quantity of the dissolved oxygen, which can cause detrimental oxidation processes to start, is a very important aspect. Scientific experiments specify de-aeration before pasteurization as the solution to the problem. The choice of the packaging material and the manner of packaging also contribute to the preservation of the alimentation-biological and pleasure value of fruit juice. On the basis of the results of the experiments, regarding the parameters which are important in terms of quality, i.e. dissolved oxygen content, C-vitamin concentration, deepening in the colour and sensory features, Tetra Bric Aseptic packaging proved to be better in the examined cases. Storage circumstances also influence the quality of fruit juice.
Colour and water content detection of sweet cherry by portable spectrometer23-26.Views:285
Based on the most recent data, the average amount of sweet cherry produced in Hungary is around 10-12 thousand tons. Therefore fast and effective method is important for sweet cherry fruit quality analyses. The aim of the study was to examine the applicability of reflectance measurements for sweet cherry fruit quality analyses. In our experiment five cherry species (Vera, Cristalina, Germersdorfi, Noir de Mechet, Canada Giant) were examined in order to measure the spectral differences between species. Further more, spectral alteration was examined between different health and maturity status of the fruits in the case of a specified, the Germesdorfi species. The four new indices are appropriate tools for cherry quality analysis. Thus reflectance measurements can also support more precise and automated fruit selections. The methods for the differentiation of species could also be viable at a concerned habitat; however, the climate, habitat and soil conditions strongly affect the yield quality. Concerning the fast determination of water content, WBI could be a reliable method for the assessment
N:K ratio and its effect on paprika yield and quality in hydroculture35-38.Views:143
Earlier results of experiments with paprika grown in soil have shown the high sensitivity of the crop to nutrient supply. According to these findings, yield and also fruit quality are highly affected not only by the nitrogen and potassium level, the concentration of nutrient solution, but also by the nitrogen-potassium ratio. Our preliminary tests have also proved, that the composition of the nutrient solution, first of all, the N/K ratio has a definite effect on the yield quantity and quality. Therefore we have investigated the ratio of the two nutrients with the aim of developing a nutrient solution of optimal composition for white fruited paprika forcing. The most balanced burden of the plants was found when the N/K ratio was 1:1. The highest yield was produced with N/K 1:1.3. Significant yield reduction (30%) was found with the treatment N/K 1:1.9 as compared to the 1:1.3 and 1:1.6.
The quality and storage efficiency of some apple varieties as a function of picking date, area of production and duration of storage99-103.Views:139
Numerous apple varieties have been tested parallel with traditional Jonathan varieties during four years, 1990-1994 on three different geographical areas of Hungary. The picking time took place at three different times in a year: ten days before the probably optimal picking time, at close-to-optimal picking time, and ten days after the optimal picking time. The effect of storage on quality of fruits have been tested in February, March, and April under circumstances of a semi-industrial storage experiment.
The results of experience can contribute to answer numerous current, from point of view of practice important topics:
- The stochastic relations between various fruit quality parameters at different varieties
- The change of fruit — quality during storage
- The effect of different picking date on storage losses
- The possibilities of storage — loss predicting by the utilization of multiple regression analysis.
The most important results of experiences are as follows :
- The starch — degradation test and Streiff — index are well applicable for practical purposes to determine the optimal harvest-date.
- On base of analysis of various losses and physiological diseases the high importance of mass loss is obvious. In the variety Jonnee the earlier picking date considerably increased the mass loss. The effect of variety on mass loss is rather limited. In the Jonathan varieties the Jonathan spot was a rather important physiological disease. The late picking time increased the frequency of Jonathan - spot. At optimal date of harvest at Jonnee the frequency of Jonathan -spot was lower, than at Jonathan M 41. In the Jonathan M41 and Jonnee the importance of scald was rather limited, but in the Wellspur Delicious and Smoothee this disease occurred relatively frequently. In the Smoothee the earlier picking time considerably increased the probability of scald.
- The multiple regression analysis yielded reliable results, fit for prediction of storage losses and diseases on the base of chemical and physical properties, determined at the time of picking.
Interaction of nutrient supply and crop load of apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.)33-35.Views:135
Long term fertilisation trials were combined with storage experiments with 'Jonathan' apple trees and fruits to study influence of tree nutrition on quantity and quality of crop. The site of experiments is a typical Carpathian-basin environment with loamy silt soil, high lime content and arid summers. Conclusions has been drown from six years' set of data. Augmented levels of soil fertilisation increased cropping capacity of apple trees, however, the fruit load has not met with cropping capacity in every year. More the def cit came into view in crop load, less the fruit quality resulted in. The deficit in cropping capacity, however, could not have been determined with simple rates as fruit weight per trunk circumference or similar. Better determination was obtained where foliar nutrient contents were correlated to crop per tree figures. In general terms, the N and Ca content in leaves increased with yields when K and P content formulated reciprocally. When storage quality of 'Jonathan' apple fruits were related to crop load (kg/tree), influence of crop deficit became visible. As the crop load and foliar nutrient levels interacted, the fruit quality (number of disordered apples after 6 month of storage) subjected of both physiological phenomena. Higher determination degree were obtained when crop load was assessed together with single or multiple foliar analysis data.
What mechanisms are involved in cabbage-clover intercropping and a further proof of the 'host plant quality' hypothesis47-51.Views:118
Over 10 years of field trials show reductions of most of the pests in Brassicas undersown by clover. The pest-reducing effects are due to the 'appropriate / inappropriate landings' hypothesis (Finch, 1996), and the 'host plant quality' hypothesis (Theunissen, 1994). To find out the mechanisms within the 'host plant quality' hypothesis in the most promising intercropping (collards undersown by clover) glasshouse experiments were conducted to see whether intercropping influences the mean relative growth rate, fecundity and time of maturity of Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Homoptera: Aphididae) a common pest of Brassicas.
The treatment modelling intercropping showed the smallest mean relative growth rate, delayed the maturity and slowed down the growth of cabbages. The treatment modelling monocropping showed the highest mean relative growth rate and the maturity was reached earlier. These results may indicate that intercropping delays the growth of settled aphid populations, giving another proof that in the case of clover undersown cabbages the 'host plant quality' hypothesis is likely to be acting. The differences between treatments where the roots of clover and cabbages were separated and allowed to grow together suggest that the effect is via the roots by competition.