A possible way of the development of Hungarian agriculture is the selection and growing of new fruit species and varieties featuring special qualities, with high biological nutritive and health protecting properties due to their natural composition. A reserve for such new fruits is the native dendroflora, e.g. those wild-growing trees and shrub...s of Hungary, which bear edible fruits. The publication is giving a summary of chemical analyses done on the fruits of the plants listed below. The research team on the project started the work in 2001 with
woody species (genera) as follows:
- common elder (Sambucus nigra) clone named Szcs-1, Szcs-2, Szcs-3, Szcs-4, Szcs-5, SzcsK-1, SzcsK-2
- dog rose (Rosa canina) types: clones named Sz-1, Sz-2, Sz-3, Sz-4 and Sz-5 .
- native rowans: Sorbus dacica, S.rotundifolia, S. degenu, S.bakonyensis cv. Fánivölgy
- hawthorns: Crataegus monogyna, C. orientalis,C..v lavallei.
- cornel cherry: Cornus mas cv. Császló.
The present paper is reporting on the content of the following compounds in the fruits: dry matter (refractometric values), total acid content, ascorbic acid, 13-carotene, pectin, minerals and carbohydrates. The results have shown that these wild fruits have excellent composition. Besides their curative effects, their content of minerals, ascorbic acid and 13-carotene has surpassed that of the traditional fruits. These fruits are rich in ascorbic acid, 13-carotene and pectin. The high content of the above-listed, biologically active compounds makes the new wild fruits studied suitable for the preparation (and later: mass-production) of special curative and exclusive products.
There is a very difficult equation for malnutrition and over-consumption. That means malnutrition even of vitamins and/or minerals (Ca, Cu, Fe, I, Mg, Se and Zn, vitamin A) affects more than two billion people worldwide, largely due to low concentrations or poor bioavailability of the nutrients in the diet. In some developed countries in contra...st, over-consumption, particularly of over-refined cerealbased foods, has contributed to the development of an epidemic of metabolic diseases. So, producing nutritious and safe foods sufficiently and sustainably is important target at the same time challenge of modern agriculture. In the past, great efforts have focused only on increasing crop yields, but enhancing the concentrations of mineral micronutrients has become an urgent task. The main daily food source is the staple crops specially in developing countries of the world, i.e., wheat, rice, cassava, beans, sweet potato or maize. These kind of plants are often deficient in some of mineral elements. Thus, the increasing of bioavailable concentration of micronutrients in edible crop tissues (via biofortification) has become a promising strategy in modern agriculture, providing more nutritious foods, to more people, with the use of fewer lands. Biofortification of these trace elements can be achieved application with agronomic process such as soil or foliar fertilization or crop breeding even conventional technic and/or genetic engineering. This review highlight progress to date and identify challenges faced in delivering biofortified vegetable crops as well as the agronomic approaches and tools to improve crop yield and micronutrient content of food crops.
In our days about 2 million tons of garlic are grown in the world. Garlic was used as medicine already in ancient Egypt. It contains approx 33 sulfur compounds, several enzymes, 17 amino acids and minerals. We determined the content of diallyl sulfone, boron, calcium, copper, iron, potassium, magnesium, natrium, phosphorus and zinc in fi ve gar...lic varieties (3 French, 2 Hungarian). We searched if there were signiffi cant differences between the varieties.
Fruits are essential part of the human diet: they provide vitamins, minerals, antioxidants to the mankind. Physiologically they can be divided into two groups-climacteric and nonclimacteric - depending if they display any respiratory peak and dramatic increase in ethylene biosynthesis or do not. Ethylene is a gaseous hormone playing a very impo...rtant role in several physiological processes in plants. While climacteric fruits, like apples, bananas, tomatoes, peaches, apricots show increased ethylene biosynthesis and dramatic respiratory peak during their ripening, nonclimacteric fruits, like strawberries, grapes, citrus do not.
The most widely used fruits for studying nonclimacteric ripening are strawberries: several papers are focusing on the identification and characterization of ripening related genes from this plant. Therefore here we attempt to summarize the most important advances in strawberry fruit development, and ripening.
Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi mushroom), the object of our experiments, is also known to contain medicinal compounds. This fungus has been used for many centuries as medicine in China. The fruiting body of the fungus contains carbohydrates, amino acids, little protein, fat, alkaloids, vitamins and minerals. Two groups of its substances are reported... to be effective particularly. One of them is constituted by the polysaccharides, whose antitumor and immunostimulating effects are well demonstrated, and the other is constituted by the triterpenes. The latter include ganoderic acids, ganolucidic acids and lucideric acids. These acids have been reported to suppress liver hyperactivity (Lelley 1999). The experiment was carried out with 8 Reishi mushroom strains in 3 repetitions. Experiments were performed on 3 different substrates The spawn run period took approximately 2 weeks, the first fruiting bodies appeared on the 33rd day from inoculation, but the formation of the fruiting bodies took almost 70 days on the different substrates. Spawn run presented a diversified picture as influenced by the specific substrates. No spawn run was seen with any of the strains on the substrate composed of 100% wheat straw. Among the strains the fastest spawn run was produced by GA02 and GA06. The earliest start of spawn run was registered for substrate 1 after 1 week.
The transplant-growing with root balls gets more and more popular and time to time the only method even in high-quality lettuce transplant-growing. To work out the technology of transplant-growing in trays it was needed to define the accurate physical and chemical consistency of applied soils.
The transplant production in trays could be...come a good method in field-grown lettuce technologies. The production of transplants of good quality with this technology could be realised only by accurate soil mixtures.
The matter of transplant-growing substrates could be a low-moor turf. Its qualities could be positively influenced by adding minerals like bentonite in amount of 5 (or 10) V%.
To ensure enough phosphorus for the demands of transplants we have to add more fertilisers. The best results by lettuce we got by adding 4 kg/m3 superphosphate to the soil mixture.