Sour cherry is one of the most famous and characteristic Hungarian fruit what is also commonly used in food production as a colour additive. The sour cherry cultivar, ‘Oblachinska’ was shown to be a rich source of antioxidant compounds, including mainly anthocyanins. Valuable compounds in fruit juice – vitamins, polyphyenols etc. –are h...eat-sensitive molecules, which should be taken into account during the process of concentration to prevent degradation. Osmotic distillation seems a suitable option to product high quality sour cherry juice because this process does not require high temperature or pressure. Raw juice with approximately 15°Brix was used for the experiment and tried to concentrate up to 60° Brix where the water activity low enough to inhibit the microbiological deterioration. Before and after the process, TPC (total phenolic compounds) and FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) was measured using spectrophotometric methods to determine the effect of the osmotic distillation. Our results point out that osmotic distillation is a promising method to concentrate sour cherry juice and prevent the loss of valuable compounds.
The effect of STS and 1-MCP on the postharvest quality of carnation and rose cut flowers was studied. Cut flowers of Dianthus c..aryophyllus L. cv. Asso and Rosa hybritia cv. Baroness were treated with silver thiosulfate (STS) at 0.4 mM with sucrose at 50 g 1-t and 1-methylcyclopropene ( I -MCP) at 0.5 g m<...sup>-3 for 611.
Pretreatment with STS and 1-MCP significantly extended the vase life and minimized the % loss of initial weight of carnation and rose cut flowers comparing to the untreated control. The two chemicals applied inhibited the chlorophyll degradation and carbohydrate loss and hence, significantly improved the postharvest quality of carnation and rose cut flowers comparing to the control. Ethylene production by cut flowers was inhibited as a result of using these chemicals. In general, there were no differences between STS and (-MCP but the later does not have the heavy metal implications of STS treatment, and hence, using 1-MCP pretreatment for extending the vase life of carnation and rose cut flowers was recommended.
In this study we carried out experiments with soil samples originated from the Haschberg variety elderberry orchard and wild-growing plants from Szigetcsép Experimental Farm.
During the examinations we wanted to know how the black polyethene foliar soil coverage influences the quality of soil and the distribution of different nitrogen...forms.
We studied the individual covered (foliar soil coverage for every plant), the full covered (foliar soil coverage was laid in the rows) and the uncovered threatments.
During the experiments we pointed out that the foliar coverage influences the condition of the soil unfavourably. Because of the coverage there is less air flow in soils, the lack of oxygen leads to degradating of soil life and results humus materials of poor quality.
Broadly the success of genetic transformation of plants requires non-chimeric selection of transformed tissues and its subsequent regeneration. With rare exceptions, most plant transformation protocols still heavily utilize antibiotics for the selection of transgenic cells containing an antibiotic-degrading selectable marker gene. The morphogen...ic capacity of in vitro chrysanthemum and tobacco stem and leaf explants change with the addition of aminoglycoside antibiotics (AAs). Of 6 antibiotics tested, phytotoxicity occurred at 10-25 and 50-100 pgml-I in chrysanthemum and tobacco explants, respectively, depending on the size of the explant and the timing of application. The presence of light or darkness also had a significant effect. The use of transverse thin cell layers (tTCLs) in conjunction with high initial AA selection levels supported the greatest regeneration of transgenic material (adventitious shoots or callus) and the lowest number of escapes. Flow cytometric analyses demonstrate that regeneration can be predicted in both species, depending on the ploidy level of the callus. Endoreduplication was not observed in chrysanthemum, even at high AA levels, but occurred (8C or more) in tobacco callus, even at low AA concentrations (5-10 pgml-1). The higher the AA level, the greater the DNA degradation and the lower the 2C and 4C values.
The effects of the ethylene precursor ACC and two inhibitors, AgNO3 and AVG, on root formation were tested in in vitro shoots of passion fruit (Passiflora Midis f.flavicalpa Deg.). The organogenic response was assessed on the basis of percentage of shoot-forming. roots, root number and length. The time course of eth...ylene production was also monitored. ACC inhibited root formation by delaying root emergence and increasine, callus formation at the basis of the shoots. In addition, ACC caused a marked increase in ethylene production, coupled to leaf chlorosis and senescence with lower rooting frequencies, number and length of roots. IAA supplementation increased ethylene production. Both ethylene inhibitors, AgNO3 and AVG, at appropriate concentrations reduced callus formation at the basis of shoots. AVG increased the number of roots per shoot, but drastically reduced length of differentiated roots. Regarding to leaf pigments, ACC promoted a marked reduction on carotenoids and total chlorophyll, whereas AVG and AgNO3 delayed explant senescence and pigments degradation, not differing from IAA supplemented and non-supplemented control treatments. The results confirm previous reports on the beneficial effects of ethylene inhibitors on in vitro rooting and suggest its reliability to be used as an alternative approach to evaluate sensitivity of Passiflora species to ethylene.
Between 1950-1989, the production and trade of ornamental plants in Hungary was characterised by meeting the demands of the home and that of the Eastern-Block market and by a minimal external trade with the Western countries. After the socio-economical changes in 1989/90, the trade of flowers gradually became liberalised and the Hungarian growe...rs had to face the concurrency of steadily increasing import from the West and from all over the World. This tendency coincided with the physical and mental degradation (outdating) of most of the glasshouses, along with the decline of several former large growers of the communist type (state or cooperative), the appearance and growth of new private companies and the building (rebuilding) of new plastic houses and (mainly second-hand) glasshouses. In spite of the above-listed problems, the production as a whole did not (or only slightly) decrease and/or even an increase occured in many areas mainly in the open-ground production. In 1998, the protected flower cultivation comprised round 110 ha of glasshouses, 180-220 ha of plastic structures and 3-5 ha of frames, with the main crops as follows: cut flowers and cut foliage 220-240 ha; pot plants (with geraniums) 30-40 ha; bedding plants (without geraniums) 20-25 ha; "transit--greenhouses (for redistribution only) 3-5 ha: other (eg. propagation of woody ornamentals) 3-5 ha. The structure of open-ground production was as follows: Total 1150-1210 ha, including: Nursery products: woody ornamentals 880 ha; perennials 10-15 ha; rose bushes 30-35 ha. Other open-ground crops: flower bulbs 50-60 ha; dried flowers 130-140 ha; open-ground cut flowers 25-30 ha; flower seed 30-35 ha; (biennial) bedding plants 10-15 ha.
Effects of two widely used sanitation practices were evaluated at farm-scale level on leaf degradation and primary infection by Venturia inaequalis in an organic apple orchard (Eperjeske) on two apple cultivars (Jonathan and Prima) from 2011 to 2013. The tested sanitation practices were eradication of fallen leaves by collection and disc cultiv...ation. Treatments of eradication of fallen leaves by collection and disc cultivation reduced signifi cantly (P< 0.001) leaf litter density with 70–85 and 40–55%, respectively, compared to untreated plots in both years. Above treatments in the same order reduced spring scab incidence with 40–50, and 10–20%, respectively, compared to untreated plots. Incidence of leaf scab in autumn was not signifi cantly lower (P< 0.05) in the treatments in the years.
Numerous apple varieties have been tested parallel with traditional Jonathan varieties during four years, 1990-1994 on three different geographical areas of Hungary. The picking time took place at three different times in a year: ten days before the probably optimal picking time, at close-to-optimal picking time, and ten days after the optimal...picking time. The effect of storage on quality of fruits have been tested in February, March, and April under circumstances of a semi-industrial storage experiment.
The results of experience can contribute to answer numerous current, from point of view of practice important topics:
- The stochastic relations between various fruit quality parameters at different varieties
- The change of fruit — quality during storage
- The effect of different picking date on storage losses
- The possibilities of storage — loss predicting by the utilization of multiple regression analysis.
The most important results of experiences are as follows :
- The starch — degradation test and Streiff — index are well applicable for practical purposes to determine the optimal harvest-date.
- On base of analysis of various losses and physiological diseases the high importance of mass loss is obvious. In the variety Jonnee the earlier picking date considerably increased the mass loss. The effect of variety on mass loss is rather limited. In the Jonathan varieties the Jonathan spot was a rather important physiological disease. The late picking time increased the frequency of Jonathan - spot. At optimal date of harvest at Jonnee the frequency of Jonathan -spot was lower, than at Jonathan M 41. In the Jonathan M41 and Jonnee the importance of scald was rather limited, but in the Wellspur Delicious and Smoothee this disease occurred relatively frequently. In the Smoothee the earlier picking time considerably increased the probability of scald.
- The multiple regression analysis yielded reliable results, fit for prediction of storage losses and diseases on the base of chemical and physical properties, determined at the time of picking.