20% of the cucumber crop of the world belongs to the parthenocarp type. Parthenocarp cucumber forcing has a great importance in Hungary, too. In our country the whole area of parthenocarp cucumber forcing was approximately 500 ha of the last years (2000-2002) and 75-85000 tons of yield has been harvested (MGYSZT, 2003). It means 15 — 17 kg/m<...sup>2 as an average yield. In European forcing systems, parthenocarp cucumber is usually planted in January or February and it is harvested in spring or early summer. In Hungary cucumber forcing is the most profitable in two separate periods: spring and autumn, the reason for it is the changes of the average prices of fresh market cucumber, but spring forcing is still the most profitable. Forced cucumber cultivars are mostly parthenocarp; non-parthenocarp cultivars are grown in summer preferably. Cucumber cultivars, forced in our country, are hybrids, and 90% of them are offered by foreign seed companies (KristOfne, 1998.). The productivity of these hybrids is high and the productive period is quite short. All the mentioned details give the reason why it is important to know everything about the productivity, the dynamics of growth, and the possibilities of timing of parthenocarp cultivars, and it is also important to learn how to control all these parameters. Our spring cucumber-forcing experiment aimed to characterize of those parameters mentioned.
Cucumber leaves have been sprayed with a solution of hydrogen peroxide (H202) or Pharmaplant-turbo combined with organic or inorganic fertilizers under plasic house. Under the influence of H202, leaves exhibited resistant against Podoshaera fusca fungus, the causal agent of cucumber powdery m...ildew. H202 (15 mM) was able to decrease the disease severity from 90.4% to 12% in two experiments conducted in two seasons. Pharmaplant-turbo (Turbo) is new chemical compound and used as an antifungal compound. Turbo in 1 ml/L was able to decrease the disease severity from 90.4% to 11.5% in the both experiments as well. Both of H202 and Turbo were combined with organic treatment (compost + compost tea + seaweed extracts) which showed significant effect against cucumber powdery mildew fungus and strongly suppressed it as compared to control leaves. Organic treatment produced higher vegetative growth characters and greater early and total yields as compared to inorganic treatment, also organic fruits produced the lower nitrate content and the higher ascorbic acid content as compared to inorganic fruits. Our study have indicated that, H202 and Turbo combined with organic fertilizers play a role in the resistance of cucumber against powdery mildew by decreasing the disease severity. We suggest to give more attention to the direct application of H202 in low concentration and Turbo against powdery mildew diseases and other plant diseases.
In the past years zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) has been appeared as a new pathogen of cucurbitaceous plants in Hungary. It caused severe disease outbreaks on the fields of pickling cucumber hybrids which are highly tolerant to cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). Preliminary inoculation tests have showed that all of the important pickling cucumb...er hybrids produced in Hungary were susceptible to ZYMV-P. However, a selection of Chinese Long and the breeding line I- KS 10C proved to be highly tolerant. The Fl plants of the crosses between the tolerant lines and the susceptible genotype H I were susceptible to ZYMV-P. F2 populations segregated for susceptible and tolerant individuals at a ratio of 3:1. The results strongly suggest that the resistance to ZYMV in our sources is controlled by a single recessive gene. Inoculations of the ZYMV and CMV susceptible cultivar Budai csemege and the CMV tolerant hybrid Perez Fl with the complex of ZYMV+CMV resulted extremely severe symptoms (strong mosaic and necrotic spotting of the leaves) on both cultivars. On the Chinese Long line, which is tolerant to ZYMV and CMV, respectively, the complex of the two viruses caused mild symptoms. The results show a synergistic pathological effect of ZYMV and CMV on differrent cucumber genotypes. More detailed studies on the interactions among the plant genotypes, viruses and virus strains are needed to develop cucumber hybrids that are highly resistant to the ZYMV+CMV complex.
The experiment was conducted to examine the effect of the foliar application of zinc on yield and crop quality and on fruit mineral composition of cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus cv. Mustang) which were grown in peat in containers under unheated conditions and were not showing visible signs of zinc deficiency.
In the trial the... following 3 treatments were set up in 4 replications: Znl = 0.35 g/litre Zn, as foliar fertilizer; Zn2 = 0.7 g/litre Zn, as foliar fertilizer, control = no foliar fertilization. Foliar fertilization was applied 5 times with 10 day intervals. After their planting out the plants were fertigated daily with water soluble complex fertilisers. Fruits were harvested twice a week, 16 times in all, and were divided into three quality classes (class I, class II and substandard). Shoot length of the plants (plant height) was measured on 3 occasions. Zinc content of the fruits and leaves was analysed at two times.
From the results of the trials it can be concluded that the 0.35 g/litre Zn (0.35 mg/ml) foliar fertilisation had beneficial effect on cucumber both in terms of yield and quality. Under the conditions of the experiment (daily fertigation through drip irrigation) the effect of a more concentrated foliar application of zinc seemed less beneficial.
The zinc content of the fruits showed no evident increase in response to foliar fertilization, while a significant increase was seen in the leaves, particularly with the more concentrated Zn treatment. This indicates that in the case of cucumber zinc, through its assimilation in vegetative parts, has an indirect effect on fruit development.
Cucumber production by soil less culture on rockwool substrate in Hungary is an open system regarding its water and nutrient supply. Environmental and economical reasons require the recycling of nutrients of the system. Experiments have been planned in order to estimate the utilisation of individual nutrient elements applied. All around the veg...etation period, chemical analyses monitored the depletion of the elements initially administered by sampling the solutions at successive phases from the injection to the overflow. The results have been compared with earlier experiences refering to general rules. It has been stated that the intensity of photosynthesis is decisive in determining the composition of the overflow. The less changes are observed during the period of frequent watering.
The absorption of the nutrient elements varied between 25-51% deperiding on the individual elements. The differences are significant. Further examinations are needed in order to clear:
- which are the main elements of technology, which are decisive in utilisation of nutrients
- what are the possibilities of the secondary utilisation of nutrients.
Plants obtained from in vitro culture can show increased susceptibility to environmental stress conditions. In the process of their adaptation to natural conditions it requires monitoring of their physiological state. The methods used to check this phenomenon should estimate quickly and exactly the tolerance to suboptimal environmental... factors. Such requirements are satisfied by the methods of measuring chlorophyll luminescence in vivo, e.g. fluorescence induction and delayed luminescence. The objects of our studies were cucumber plants regenerated from cultures of callus and embryogenic cell suspension, as well as the plants obtained from seeds. The plants derived from in vitro cultures displayed a poor physiological condition at the early phase of adaptation characterised by higher susceptibility both to stress caused by increased density of the light flux and low temperature (4 °C) in comparison with the plants obtained from seeds.
The use of an adequate medium is very much emphasised in growing transplants. Due to their favourable characteristics, peats have long been used in production. With the depletion of peat resources the research of peat substitutes has come in the foreground. In the experiments cucumber transplants were grown using baked, expanded clay granules....Results have indicated that by mixing them to peat in a 50 % rate they could be suitable mineral material as a component for soil mixtures.
The objective of this study was to examine the reaction of 44 Capsicum genotypes to common strain of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV-C/U1), Obuda pepper virus (ObPV), NTN strain of Potato virus Y (PVYNTN) and legume strain of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMVU/246). Reaction (extreme resistance, hype...rsensitive reaction, latent susceptibility, susceptibility) of the tested Capsicum species/hybrids and breeding lines seemed to be greatly depending on hosts and viruses. Out of the breeding materials 4/99 F2 and IX-8 in to CMV-U/246, while 32.Bogyisz. type, VI-57 ii. 57/83 and V-12=19/98 to TMV-C/Ui showed extreme resistance. Two lines (V-25 F1=32/98 F1 and V-27 in F4=35/98 F4) showed hypersensitive reaction to ObPV. Latent susceptibility to PVYNTN was observed in case of all eleven tested Capsicum genotypes and in case of several lines to TMV-C/U1, ObPV and CMV-U/246. Other breeding materials proved susceptible to the mentioned viruses. Pepper genotypes showing extreme resistance and hypersensitivity could be used for resistance breeding to viruses.
The Dutch Households bought in 2010 compared with the year before a little less vegetables and less fruit. However because of a higher price level the supermarket sales of fruits and vegetables increased with 7% to almost €3 billion. A Dutch household bought 72.4 kilo fresh vegetables in 2010. This is 2% less than in 2009. Tomatoes are the mo...st bought vegetable followed by onion and cucumber. Although the Dutch households bought less vegetables, the spending increased with 5%. The average price of vegetables was 7% higher than in 2009. In 2010 a Dutch household bought almost 88 kilo fresh fruit. Compared with 2009 this was 2% less. Apple is far out the most popular, followed by orange and banana. Also the spending on fruit decreased a little, specially on strawberry, kiwi and banana. The sales of vegetables is realized for almost 90% by the supermarket channel. Albert Heijn has a market share of 38%, followed by Superunie and C1000. Also for fruit the supermarket is the most important retail channel. However fruit is also sold for 20% in grocery stores and markets. The total turnover from supermarkets of vegetables was in 2010 over €2 billion, 8% more than in 2009. 85% of this is fresh product (fresh and pre-treated). Canned vegetables become less popular. The turnover was decreasing 2% to just under €200 million. Green beans are the most popular, followed by peas and carrots. However more money was spend on frozen vegetables (+5%) and pickles (+1%). Over 40% of the supermarket turnover of frozen vegetables is spend on spinach. The supermarket turnover of fruit increased in 2010 with 3% to €1,25 billion. From this 93% is fresh unprocessed fruit. The turnover of pre-treated (washed and sliced) is increasing, but still not more than 3%. Although with a modest share, the spending on frozen fruit also increased in 2010 to €5,5 million. The turnover of canned fruit however was decreasing with 6% compared with 2009. The supermarket turnover of pre-treated fruit was €35 million. Albert Heijn is the absolute market leader for pretreated fruit. In 2010 70% of the sales was realized by Albert Heijn. Mixed fresh pre-treated fruit, mainly fruit salads, account for 40% of the total supermarket turnover of processed fruit. Canned pineapple is the most important canned fruit in supermarkets, followed by fruit cocktail and peach. There is a high degree of awareness of consumers regarding the “must” to use enough fruit and vegetables. Despite of this, consumers do not always eat enough healthy products. Reasons for this are the busy life of the modern young people and the perception that vegetables are “not easy” to use. Therefore preparing a meal has to be easy and fast with suitable products Here is an important task for concept and product development.
Virus susceptibility of 11 varieties of vegetatively propagated petunia against 2 virus strains (TMV-C/U1 and PVYNTN) were examined. Neither resistant nor tolerant varieties of petunia were found. The virus infection of the Petunia genus was examined in Hungary. The most common pathogens were the Tobacco mosaic tobamovirus (TM...V) and the Tomato mosaic tobamovirus (ToMV), but the samples also contained Alfalfa mosaic alfamovirus (AMV), Cucumber mosaic ClIC11171014171S (CMV) and Potato Y potyvirus (PVY). Potato X potexvirus (PVX) was isolated in the varieties of trailing petunia for the first time.
The aim of our study was to examine susceptibility or resistance of 18 pepper varieties to four viruses [tobacco mosaic
tobamovirus (TMV), sowbane mosaic sobemovirus (SoMV), NTN strain of potato Y potyvirus (PVYNTN) and cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (CMV). Out of the 18 varieties, 13 were resistant to CMV infection. Thirteen varieti...es were susceptible to TMV, while five ones (Dabora Fl, Brill Fl, Feherozon Synthetic, Ciklon Fl, Cecil Fl) showed only local hypersensitive reaction. All of the tested pepper varieties showed resistance to SoMV. Eight varieties (Tuba, Fehérözön Synthetic, Boni, Alba Regia, Korona, Édesalma, Cecil Fl, Star) were found to be resistant to PVYNTN. Out of the examined varieties five (Boni, Alba Regia, Korona, Édesalma, Star) were resistant to three viruses (SoMV, CMV and PVYNTN). Only one (Cecil F1) displayed complex, extreme resistance to SoMV, PVYNTN, CMV and hypersensitive reaction to TMV, therefore this hybrid is very important in pepper breeding and growing for virus resistance.