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Self-incompatibility alleles in Esatern European and Asian almond (Prunus dulcis) genotypes: a preliminary study
Published July 26, 2012
23-26.

Almond [Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D. A. Webb.] as one of the oldest domesticated plants is thought to have originated in central Asia. Gametophytic self-incompatibility of almond is controlled by the highly polymorphic S-locus. The S-locus encodes for an S-ribonuclease (S-RNase) protein in the pistils, which degrades RNA in self-pollen tubes and he...nce stops their growing. This study was carried out to detect S-RNase allelic variants in Hungarian and Eastern European almond cultivars and Turkish wild growing seedlings, and characterize their S-allele pool. Five new alleles were identifi ed, S31H, S36-S39 in Eastern European local cultivars. The village Bademli and Akdamar island are two distinct places of almond natural occurrence in Turkey. Trees growing wild around Bademli city showed greater genetic diversity than those originated on Akdamar island. Many of the previously described 45 S-RNase alleles have been also detected in these regions. Homology searches revealed that Turkish almonds carried some P. webbii alleles indicating hybridization between the two cultivars and massive introgression events. Our results supply long-awaited information on almond S-allele diversity from regions between the main cultivation centres and the centre of origin of this species; and are discussed from the aspect of methodological developments and evolution of the cultivated almond.

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Field evaluations of 14 sweet cherry cultivars as pollinators for cv. Regina (Prunus avium, L.)
Published September 19, 2007
75-77.

In this study, the pollen of 14 sweet cherry cultivars (‘Anella’, ‘Duroni 3', 'Badacsony', 'Cristalina', 'Ferbolus', 'Ferrovia',

'Georgia', 'Hudson', 'Kordia', 'Sam', 'Schneiders’, ‘Spate’, ‘Knorpelkirsche', 'Skeena', 'Summit', 'Sylvia') was used to fertilize the emasculated flowers of sweet cherry cv. 'Regina'. Fruit set ...was assessed three times during fruit development: 14 May, 30 May and 27 May 2007. We observed full incompatibility among the 14 cultivars for cv. 'Cristalina', which is in the same S-allele group as cv. 'Regina'. After analysis of our data, we have results about fertilization efficiency of the cultivars. Most of the evaluated cultivars are inadequate to fertilize cv. 'Regina' to a sufficient degree. There were two exceptions, cv. 'Sam' and cv. 'Skeena', where percentage of ripened fruits was above 20%. These two cultivars can guarantee such a pollination, which ensures ample quantity of ripened fruits. Results of this study have proved three other cultivars to be quite good pollinators for cv. 'Regina'. In conclusion, ideal pollinators for cv. 'Regina' could be — apart from above-mentioned two cultivars, 'Sam' and 'Skeena' — cvs. 'Sylvia' and 'Bianca', which was suggested by more literature sources.

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92
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DNA-based determination of suitable pollinating cultivars for the pear cultivar 'Carola' (Pyrus communis)
Published March 19, 2007
15-19.

Pollen-limited fruit set has long been suspected in some relatively low-yielding orchards with the Swedish pear cultivar 'Carola'. Fruit was therefore harvested on 23 'Carola' trees in a commercial pear orchard. The seeds were germinated and five seedlings from each tree were sampled to determine which of the surrounding cultivars had been the ...most successful pollinators. Leaves of 'Carola', the 7 putative pollinating cultivars and the 115 seedlings were analysed with 6 RAPD primers. By comparison of the band patterns, paternity could be ascertained for 74 seedlings. The by far most successful pollinator was 'Clara Frijs' which had sired approx. half of the seedlings, followed by 'Herzogin Elsa', `Skanskt Sockerpiiron', 'Alexandre Lucas', 'Coloree de Juillet' and 'Doyenne du Cornice'. The latter is the maternal parent of 'Carola', and these two cultivars must therefore share one S-allele and hence can only be semi-compatible. In addition, 6% of the seedlings were in all likelihood derived from selling_ since they showed no bands that did not occur also in 'Carola'. Maximum distance between 'Carola' trees and suitable pollinators should not exceed 15-20 tn. Longer distances may produce a serious dearth of compatible pol­len as evidenced by the large percentage of seedlings derived either from selling. (25%) or from long-distance (> 40 m) pollen transfer (25%) when 'Carola' trees were surrounded by non-preferred pollinators.

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Genotyping Hungarian apricot cultivars for self-(in)compatibility by isoelectric focusing and PCR analysis
Published March 14, 2005
69-72.

Self-incompatibility (SI) in flowering plants is a widespread genetic system that promotes out-crossing. In Prunus species the SI is a gametophytic trait, which is controlled by a single multiallelic locus, termed S-locus. S-alleles codify stylar glycoproteins with ribonuclease activity (S-RNases). Our objective was to assess the S-genotype of ...some Hungarian apricot varieties by isoelectric focusing of stylar RNases as well as by PCR analysis using cherry consensus primers. Consensus primers amplified one or two bands of various sizes. Primers amplifying the 1st intron gained fragments the size of which ranged from 250 to 500 bp; while those amplifying the 2nd intron resulted in fragments of 800-2000 by length. Our data demonstrated that the first intron of the apricot S-RNase gene is shorter than the second one, which coincides with the structure of cherry S-RNase alleles. `Hargrand' (S1S2) and `Harcoe (S1S4) possessed one common S-RNase isoenzyme. Hungarian 'Orias' apricot cultivars showed different bands compared to the previous cultivars, but they shared completely identical patterns confirming that they possess the same S-genotype. 'Bergeron', `Harmat' and 'Korai zamatos' are characterised by an evidently distinct S-RNase pattern. The self-compatible cultivar (`Bergeron') had one allele, which suggests its correspondence to the Sc. Primers for the 2nd intron was unsuccessful in gaining fragments, which indicates that the 2nd intron in the Sc allele is too long to get any amplification. On the basis of our data, identities and differences were revealed in the S-allele constitution of some economically important Hungarian apricot cultivars at protein and DNA levels.

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Incompatibility studies of Hungarian sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars by traditional test crossings
Published March 16, 2004
43-47.

Cross-incompatibility is a common phenomenon between various sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars. Traditionally, choosing cross-compatible cultivar pairs is based on test crossings in the field.

There is a lack of information about fertility relations of novel Hungarian sweet cherry cultivars and selections. We have studie...d cross-incompatibility in 42 sweet cherry cultivar pairs by test-crossings in the field. Out of those, 3 combinations showed incompatibility and 15 pairs were compatible.

Test-crossing results proved that with the knowledge of S-allele constitution of Hungarian cultivars incompatible cultivar pairs are recognised in practice reliably. However, we assume that in sterility not only the S-gene system, but other factors (e.g. abnormal development of pollen or flower) also occur, therefore, their examination would be needed.

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Determination of (in)compatibility genotypes of Hungarian sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) accessions by PCR based methods
Published October 20, 2003
37-42.

Sweet cherries (Prunus avium L.) are generally self-incompatible and pollinator cultivars are needed in orchards for reliable yield. In Hungary, choosing the appropriate cross-compatible cultivar pairs has so far been based on traditional test-crosses in the field. In recent years PCR-based methods that allow the identification of the ...S-alleles responsible for compatibility have been elaborated. We have determined the S-allele constitution of 24 cultivars and four selections important to Hungarian growers and breeders using PCR-based methods developed at Horticulture Research International, East Malling. The 28 accessions had various pairs of 9 alleles including one new allele, Sr. They could be assigned to 12 of the existing incompatibility groups or to a new group (S4S12) for which the designation 'Group XXVII' is proposed. The cultivars `Krupnoplodnaja' and 'Rita' had novel genotypes, S5S9 and S5Sx, respectively and can be placed into group 0 that holds universal pollen donors. The genotype of the cultivar ‘Hedelfingeni óriás' grown in Hungary was found to be S3S4 and therefore different from the cultivar `Hedelfingen' that is widespread in Western Europe.

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